Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Waste are unwanted or unusable materials. Waste is any substance, discarded after primary use, or is worthless, defective and of no use. A by-product by contrast is a joint product of minor economic value. A waste product may become a by-product, joint product or resource through an invention that raises a waste product's value above zero. Examples include municipal solid waste, hazardous waste, radioactive waste, others. According to the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal of 1989, Art. 2, "'Wastes' are substance or objects, which are disposed of or are intended to be disposed of or are required to be disposed of by the provisions of national law". The UNSD Glossary of Environment Statistics describes waste as "materials that are not prime products for which the generator has no further use in terms of his/her own purposes of production, transformation or consumption, of which he/she wants to dispose. Wastes may be generated during the extraction of raw materials, the processing of raw materials into intermediate and final products, the consumption of final products, other human activities.
Residuals recycled or reused at the place of generation are excluded." Under the Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC, Art. 3, the European Union defines waste as "an object the holder discards, intends to discard or is required to discard." For a more structural description of the Waste Directive, see the European Commission's summary. There are many waste types defined by modern systems of waste management, notably including: Municipal waste includes household waste, commercial waste, demolition waste Hazardous waste includes industrial waste Biomedical waste includes clinical waste Special hazardous waste includes radioactive waste, explosive waste, electronic waste There are many issues that surround reporting waste, it is most measured by size or weight, there is a stark difference between the two. For example, organic waste is much heavier when it is wet, plastic or glass bottles can have different weights but be the same size. On a global scale it is difficult to report waste because countries have different definitions of waste and what falls into waste categories, as well as different ways of reporting.
Based on incomplete reports from its parties, the Basel Convention estimated 338 million tonnes of waste was generated in 2001. For the same year, OECD estimated 4 billion tonnes from its member countries. Despite these inconsistencies, waste reporting is still useful on a small and large scale to determine key causes and locations, to find ways of preventing, recovering and disposing waste. Inappropriately managed waste can attract rodents and insects, which can harbour gastrointestinal parasites, yellow fever, the plague and other conditions for humans, exposure to hazardous wastes when they are burned, can cause various other diseases including cancers. Toxic waste materials can contaminate surface water, groundwater and air which causes more problems for humans, other species, ecosystems. Waste treatment and disposal produces significant green house gas emissions, notably methane, which are contributing to global warming. Waste management is a significant environmental justice issue. Many of the environmental burdens cited above are more borne by marginalized groups, such as racial minorities and residents of developing nations.
NIMBY is the opposition of residents to a proposal for a new development because it is close to them. However, the need for expansion and siting of waste treatment and disposal facilities is increasing worldwide. There is now a growing market in the transboundary movement of waste, although most waste that flows between countries goes between developed nations, a significant amount of waste is moved from developed to developing nations; the economic costs of managing waste are high, are paid for by municipal governments. Environmental policies such as pay as you throw can reduce the cost of management and reduce waste quantities. Waste recovery can curb economic costs because it avoids extracting raw materials and cuts transportation costs. "Economic assessment of municipal waste management systems – case studies using a combination of life-cycle assessment and life-cycle costing". The location of waste treatment and disposal facilities reduces property values due to noise, pollution and negative stigma.
The informal waste sector consists of waste pickers who scavenge for metals, plastic and other materials and trade them for a profit. This sector can alter or reduce waste in a particular system, but other negative economic effects come with the disease, poverty and abuse of its workers. Resource recovery is the retrieval of recyclable waste, intended for disposal, for a specific next use, it is the processing of recyclables to extract or recover materials and resources, or convert to energy. This process is carried out at a resource recovery facility. Resource recovery is not only important to the environment, but it can be cost effective by decreasing the amount of waste sent to the disposal stream, reduce the amount of space needed for landfills, protect limited natural resources. Energy recovery from waste is using non-recyclable waste materials and extra
Biosolids is a term used for several types of treated sewage sludges that can be used as soil conditioner. Treated sewage sludge has long been used in agriculture, but there are concerns about offensive odors and disease risks from pathogens and toxic chemicals; this may reduce public acceptance of such reuse activities. Biosolids may be defined as organic wastewater solids that can be reused after suitable sewage sludge treatment processes leading to sludge stabilization such as anaerobic digestion and composting. Alternatively, the biosolids definition may be restricted by local regulations to wastewater solids only after those solids have completed a specified treatment sequence and/or have concentrations of pathogens and toxic chemicals below specified levels; the United States Environmental Protection Agency defines the two terms – sewage sludge and biosolids – in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 503 as follows: Sewage sludge refers to the solids separated during the treatment of municipal wastewater, while biosolids refers to treated sewage sludge that meets the EPA pollutant and pathogen requirements for land application and surface disposal.
A similar definition has been used internationally, for example in Australia. Use of the term "biosolids" may be subject to government regulations. However, informal use describes a broad range of semi-solid organic products produced from sewage or sewage sludge; this could include any solids, slime solids or liquid slurry residue generated during the treatment of domestic sewage including scum and solids removed during primary, secondary or advanced treatment processes. Materials that do not conform to the regulatory definition of "biosolids" can be given alternative terms like "wastewater solids". 7.1 million dry tons of biosolids were generated in 2004 at 16,500 municipal wastewater treatment facilities in the United States. In the United States, as of 2013 about 55% of sewage solids are turned into fertilizer. Challenges faced when increasing the use of biosolids include, the capital needed to build anaerobic digesters and the complexity of complying with health regulations. There are new concerns about micro-pollutions in sewage which make the process of producing high quality biosolids complex.
Some municipalities, states or countries have banned the use of biosolids on farmland. Encouraging agricultural use of biosolids is intended to prevent filling landfills with nutrient-rich organic materials from the treatment of domestic sewage that might be recycled and applied as fertilizer to improve and maintain productive soils and stimulate plant growth. Biosolids can be an ideal agricultural conditioner and fertilizer which can help promote crop growth to feed the increasing population. Biosolids may contain macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur with micronutrients copper, calcium, iron, boron and manganese; the United States Environmental Protection Agency and others have shown that biosolids can contain measurable levels of synthetic organic compounds and heavy metals. EPA has set numeric limits for arsenic, copper, mercury, nickel and zinc but has not regulated dioxin levels. Contaminants from pharmaceuticals and personal care products and some steroids and hormones may be present in biosolids.
Substantial levels of persistent and toxic polybrominated diphenyl ethers were detected in biosolids in 2001. The United States Geological Survey analyzed in 2014 nine different consumer products containing biosolids as a main ingredient for 87 organic chemicals found in cleaners, personal care products and other products; these analysis detected 55 of the 87 organic chemicals measured in at least one of the nine biosolid samples, with as many as 45 chemicals found in a single sample. In 2014, the City of Charlotte discovered extreme levels of PCB's in their biosolids after being alerted by SCDHEC that illegal PCB dumping was taking place at regional waste water treatment plants across the state. Biosolids land application was halted after an emergency regulation was enacted by SCDHEC that outlawed any PCB contaminated biosolids from being land applied regardless if Class A or Class B. Soon thereafter, SCDHEC expanded PCB fish consumption adviseries for nearly every waterway bordering biosolids land application fields.
In the United States the EPA mandates certain treatment processes designed to decrease levels of certain so-called indicator organisms, in biosolids. These include, "...operational standards for fecal coliforms, Salmonella sp. bacteria, enteric viruses, viable helminth ova."However, the US-based Water Environment Research Foundation has shown that some pathogens do survive sewage sludge treatment. EPA regulations allow only biosolids with no detectable pathogens to be applied. Anaerobic Digestion: Micro-organisms decompose the sludge in the absence of oxygen either at mesophilic or thermophilic temperatures. Aerobic Digestion: Micro-organisms decompose the sludge in the presence of oxygen either at ambient and mesophilic or auto-thermal temperatures. Composting: A biological process where organic matter decomposes to produce humus after the addition of some dry bulking material such as sawdust, wood chips, or shredded yard waste under controlled aerobic conditions. Alkaline Treatment: The sludge is mixed with alkaline materials such as lime or cement kiln dust, or incinerator fly ash and maintained at pH above 12 for 24 hours or at temperature 70 °C for 30 minutes (f
Electronic waste by country
Electronic waste is a significant part of today's global, post-consumer waste stream. Efforts are being made to reduce this waste; the Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal known as the Basel Convention, is an international treaty, designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries. Of the 172 parties to the Convention, Afghanistan and the United States have signed the Convention but have not yet ratified it; the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development tends to support the repair and recycling trade. Mining to produce the same metals, to meet demand for finished products in the west occurs in the same countries, UNCTAD has recommended that restrictions against recycling exports be balanced against the environmental costs of recovering those materials from mining. Hard rock mining produces 45% of all toxins produced by all industries in the United States.
Greenpeace contends that residue problems are so significant that the exports of all used electronics should be banned. The e-Waste Association of South Africa was established in 2008 to manage the establishment of a sustainable environmentally sound e-waste management system for the country. Since the non-profit organization has been working with manufacturers and distributors of electronic and electrical goods and e-waste handlers to manage e-waste effectively. Many Asian countries will do so, for electronic waste recycling. South Korea and Taiwan ensure manufacturer responsibility by demanding that they recycle 75% of their annual production. Chinese laws are concerned with eliminating the import of e-waste. China has ratified the Basel Convention as well as the Basel Ban Amendment banning the import of e-waste. In October 2008, The Chinese State Council approved a "draft regulation on the management of electronic waste." This regulation is intended to promote the continued use of resources through recycling and to monitor the end-of-life treatment of electronics.
Under the new regulations, recycling of electronics by the consumer is mandated. It requires the recycling of unnecessary materials discarded in the manufacturing process. India has emerged as fifth largest e-waste producer in world. Telecom equipments account for 12% of e-waste; some European countries implemented laws prohibiting the disposal of electronic waste in landfills in the 1990s. "This created an e-waste processing industry in Europe." In Switzerland, the first electronic waste recycling system was implemented in 1991, beginning with collection of old refrigerators. Over the years, all other electric and electronic devices were included in the system. Legislation followed in 1998, since January 2005 it has been possible to return all electronic waste to the sales points and other collection points free of charge. There are two established producer responsibility organizations: SWICO handling information and organization technology, SENS, responsible for electrical appliances; the total amount of recycled electronic waste exceeds 10 kg per capita per year.
Additionally, the European Union has implemented several directives and regulations that place the responsibility for "recovery and recycling" on the manufacturer. The Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive, as it is referred to, has now been transposed in national laws in all member countries of the European Union, it was designed to make equipment manufacturers financially or physically responsible for their equipment at the end of its life, under a policy known as Extended producer responsibility. "Users of electrical and electronic equipment from private households should have the possibility of returning WEEE at least free of charge", manufacturers must dispose of it in an environmentally friendly manner, by ecological disposal, reuse, or refurbishment. EPR is seen as a useful policy as it internalizes the end-of-life costs and provided a competitive incentive for companies to design equipment with fewer costs and liabilities when it reached its end of life. However, the application of the WEEE Directive has been criticized for implementing the EPR concept in a collective manner, thereby losing the competitive incentive of individual manufacturers to be rewarded for their green design.
Since August 13, 2005, electronics manufacturers have become financially responsible for compliance to the WEEE Directive. Under the directive, each country recycles at least 4 kg of electronic waste per capita per year. Furthermore, the Directive should "decrease e-waste and e-waste exports.". In December 2008 a draft revision to the Directive proposed a market-based goal of 65%, 22 kg per capita in the case of the United Kingdom. A decision on the proposed revisions could result in a new WEEE Directive by 2012; the Directive on the Restriction of the Use of Certain Hazardous Substances in Electrical and Electronic Equipment referred to as the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive, was adopted in February 2003 by the European Union. The RoHS Directive took effect on July 1, 2006, is required to be enforced and become law in each member state; this directive restricts the use of six hazardous materials in the manufacture of various types of electronic and electrical equipment. The Battery Directive enacted in 2006 regulates the manufacture and trade of batteries in the European Union.
In February 2004, a fee similar to the one in California was added to the cost of purchasing
A landfill site is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial. It is the oldest form of waste treatment. Landfills have been the most common method of organized waste disposal and remain so in many places around the world; some landfills are used for waste management purposes, such as the temporary storage and transfer, or processing of waste material. Unless they are stabilized, these areas may experience severe shaking or soil liquefaction of the ground during a large earthquake. Operators of well-run landfills for non-hazardous waste meet predefined specifications by applying techniques to: confine waste to as small an area as possible compact waste to reduce volumeThey can cover waste with layers of soil or other types of material such as woodchips and fine particles. During landfill operations, a scale or weighbridge may weigh waste collection vehicles on arrival and personnel may inspect loads for wastes that do not accord with the landfill's waste-acceptance criteria. Afterward, the waste collection vehicles use the existing road network on their way to the tipping face or working front, where they unload their contents.
After loads are deposited, compactors or bulldozers can spread and compact the waste on the working face. Before leaving the landfill boundaries, the waste collection vehicles may pass through a wheel-cleaning facility. If necessary, they return to the weighbridge for re-weighing without their load; the weighing process can assemble statistics on the daily incoming waste tonnage, which databases can retain for record keeping. In addition to trucks, some landfills may have equipment to handle railroad containers; the use of "rail-haul" permits landfills to be located at more remote sites, without the problems associated with many truck trips. In the working face, the compacted waste is covered with soil or alternative materials daily. Alternative waste-cover materials include chipped wood or other "green waste", several sprayed-on foam products, chemically "fixed" bio-solids, temporary blankets. Blankets can be lifted into place at night and removed the following day prior to waste placement; the space, occupied daily by the compacted waste and the cover material is called a daily cell.
Waste compaction is critical to extending the life of the landfill. Factors such as waste compressibility, waste-layer thickness and the number of passes of the compactor over the waste affect the waste densities; the term landfill is shorthand for a municipal landfill or sanitary landfill. These facilities were first introduced early in the 20th century, but gained wide use in the 1960s and'70s, in an effort to eliminate open dumps and other "unsanitary" waste disposal practices; the sanitary landfill is an engineered facility that confines waste. But, not all it does, it is a biological reactor in which microbes break down complex organic waste into simpler, less toxic compounds over time. These reactors must be operated according to regulatory standards and guidelines. Aerobic decomposition is the first stage by which wastes are broken down in a landfill; these are followed by four stages of anaerobic degradation. Solid organic material in solid phase decays as larger organic molecules degrade into smaller molecules.
These smaller organic molecules begin to dissolve and move to the liquid phase, followed by hydrolysis of these organic molecules, the hydrolyzed compounds undergo transformation and volatilization as carbon dioxide and methane, with rest of the waste remaining in solid and liquid phases. During the early phases, little material volume reaches the leachate, as the biodegradable organic matter of the waste undergoes a rapid decrease in volume. Meanwhile, the leachate's chemical oxygen demand increases with increasing concentrations of the more recalcitrant compounds compared to the more reactive compounds in the leachate. Successful conversion and stabilization of the waste depends on how well microbial populations function in syntrophy, i.e. an interaction of different populations to provide each other's nutritional needs.: The life cycle of a municipal landfill undergoes five distinct phases: Phase I - Initial adjustment: As the waste is placed in the landfill, the void spaces contain high volumes of molecular oxygen.
With added and compacted wastes, the O2 content of the landfill bioreactor strata decreases. Microbial populations grow, density increases. Aerobic biodegradation dominates, i.e. the primary electron acceptor is O2. Phase II - Transition: The O2 is degraded by the existing microbial populations; the decreasing O2 leads to more anaerobic conditions in the layers. The primary electron acceptors during transition are nitrates and sulphates, since O2 is displaced by CO2 in the effluent gas. Phase III - Acid formation: Hydrolysis of the biodegradable fraction of the solid waste begins in the acid formation phase, which leads to rapid accumulation of volatile fatty acids in the leachate; the increased organic acid content decreases the leachate pH from 7.5 to 5.6. During this phase, the decomposition intermediate compounds like the VFAs contribute much COD. Long-chain volatile organic acids are converted to acetic acid, CO2, hydrogen gas. High concentrations of VFAs increase both the biochemical oxygen demand and VOA concentrations, which initiates H2 production by fermentative ba
A waste collector, sanitation worker, dustman or binman is a person employed by a public or private enterprise to collect and remove waste and recyclables from residential, industrial or other collection site for further processing and waste disposal. Specialised waste collection vehicles featuring an array of automated functions are deployed to assist waste collectors in reducing collection and transport time and for protection from exposure. Waste and recycling pickup work is physically demanding and exposes workers to an occupational hazard. Statistics show that waste collection is one of the most dangerous jobs, at times more dangerous than police work, but less dangerous than commercial fishing and ranch and farm work. On-the-job hazards include broken glass, medical waste such as syringes, caustic chemicals, falling objects from overloaded containers, diseases that may accompany solid waste, dog attacks and pests, inhaling dust and chemical fumes, inclement weather, traffic accidents, unpleasant odors that they can make someone physically sick.
In many developing countries, the first people to tackle the waste collection are pickers working in the informal economy, i.e. they may be self-financing through recycling and reselling. Examples include the bottley-wallah, recycler of many sorts of materials in India, castes such as the Zabbaleen in Egypt, or tip scavenger groups in Brazil such as documented in the film Hauling. In India people performing manual labour as sanitation workers are called manual scavengers. Many varieties of English have a range of names for waste collectors, from formal job titles for municipal employees, to colloquial and regional terms. Eugène Poubelle, French official, who ordered in 1884 that all Paris landlords supply their tenants with covered garbage containers, his name became the standard French term for a garbage can Andy Abraham - X-Factor contestant Mike Batt - wombles singer and Lieutenant of the Royal Victorian Order Larry Bird - hall of fame basketball player - after dropping out of Indiana University and before enrolling at Indiana State University.
Jim Bowen - English stand-up comedian and TV personality schoolteacher Michael Carroll - UK National Lottery winner Barry Horne - animal rights activist Steve Hutchins - politician Richard Leiterman - cinematographer Nathan Rees - politician, former Premier of New South Wales Neville Southall - international footballer Georges St-Pierre - mixed martial artist and UFC Welterweight Champion, Benjamin Pell - a quasi-private investigator known in the British press as "Benji The Binman" Martin Phillips - Welsh darts player who has made multiple appearances in the BDO World Professional Darts Championship Peter Steele - late vocalist/bassist of Type O Negative drove garbage trucks and other vehicles for the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation Malcolm Webster - convicted murderer in England Nicodemus "Noddy" Boffin, aka the Golden Dustman, in Charles Dickens' Our Mutual Friend based on Henry Dodd, a ploughboy who made his fortune removing London's rubbish. Alfred P. Doolittle, a common dustman, My Fair Lady from the stage play, Broadway, 1956.
Duke "The Dumpster" Droese, character created by professional wrestler Mike Droese Muckman - From Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles Wreck-Gar - From Transformers Animated Roc Emerson, from the Fox television series Roc Roger Wilco - From the Space Quest computer game series by Sierra Entertainment The films Blood Feast, Scanners III: The Takeover and Child's Play 3 all feature minor characters being murdered with refuse trucks. Oliver Frensky - From the TV series Arthur Jonathan Thomas Meriweather - A sanitation engineer mistaken for an engineer in Spellsinger by Alan Dean Foster, saving the world with magic Shigeru, from the 1991 film A Scene at the Sea by Takeshi Kitano Mr. Persepolis, father of Angeline Persepolis in Someday Angeline by Louis Sachar 2009 Leeds refuse workers strike Beach cleaner Curbside collection Litter Memphis sanitation strike, USA, 1968 Waste management Labor Market Information Division. "California Occupational Guide Number 460: Mechanical - Skilled Occupations: Refuse Collectors".
State of California, Employment Development Department. Retrieved 2008-05-28. Re-uploaded by www.hardrawgathering.co.uk
A waste container is a container for temporarily storing waste, is made out of metal or plastic. Some common terms are dustbin, garbage can, trash can; the words "rubbish", "basket" and "bin" are more common in British English usage. "Garbage" may refer to food waste or to municipal solid waste in general. In 1875, the first household rubbish bins were introduced in Britain to create a regulated system of collection. In many cities and towns, there is a public waste collection service which collects household waste from outside buildings etc; this will be loaded into a garbage truck and driven to a landfill, incinerator or crush facility to be disposed of. Household waste containers are either: trash cans, receptacles made of metal or plastic wheelie bins, mobile plastic binsIn some areas, each household has multiple bins for different categories of rubbish depending on its suitability for recycling. Commercial roadside waste containers are larger dumpsters or skips. Public areas, such as parks have litter bins placed to improve the social environment by encouraging people not to litter.
Such bins in outdoor locations or other busy public areas are mounted to the ground or wall to discourage theft, reduce vandalism, to improve their appearance are sometimes deliberately artistic or cute. In dense urban areas, trash is stored underground below the receptacle; some trash cans have plastic bags to help contain liquids. The term "garbage can" is used for a model of decision making, the "Garbage Can Model" of decision making, it is concerned with cases of decision making in great aggregate uncertainty which can cause decisions to arise that from a distant point of view might seem irrational. A "trash can" metaphor is used in computer operating system desktop environments as a place files can be moved for deletion. In a workplace setting, a bin may be euphemistically called "the circular file", "the round file" or "the janitor's file". Whereas useful documents are filed in a filing cabinet, rectangular, junk mail and other worthless items are "filed" in the bin, round; the term "waste basket" is used in taxonomy to refer to groupings that are based on some non-genetic criterion, the Nilo-Saharan language family is sometimes called "Greenberg's wastebasket", as it was a grouping made by him to fit the languages of Africa that did not fall into the other groups, Niger–Congo, Khoisan.
American Public Transportation Association. "Recommended Practice for Trash/Recycling Container Placement to Mitigate the Effects of an Explosive Event". Retrieved 2014-09-15. Media related to Trash container at Wikimedia Commons