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Watchmen is an American comic book maxiseries by the British creative team of writer Alan Moore, artist Dave Gibbons and colorist John Higgins. It was published by DC Comics in 1986 and 1987, collected in a single volume edition in 1987. Watchmen originated from a story proposal Moore submitted to DC featuring superhero characters that the company had acquired from Charlton Comics; as Moore's proposed story would have left many of the characters unusable for future stories, managing editor Dick Giordano convinced Moore to create original characters instead. Moore used the story as a means to reflect contemporary anxieties and to deconstruct and satirize the superhero concept. Watchmen depicts an alternate history where superheroes emerged in the 1940s and 1960s and their presence changed history so that the United States won the Vietnam War and the Watergate break-in was never exposed. In 1985, the country is edging toward World War III with the Soviet Union, freelance costumed vigilantes have been outlawed and most former superheroes are in retirement or working for the government.

The story focuses on the personal development and moral struggles of the protagonists as an investigation into the murder of a government-sponsored superhero pulls them out of retirement. Creatively, the focus of Watchmen is on its structure. Gibbons used a nine-panel grid layout throughout the series and added recurring symbols such as a blood-stained smiley face. All but the last issue feature supplemental fictional documents that add to the series' backstory, the narrative is intertwined with that of another story, an in-story pirate comic titled Tales of the Black Freighter, which one of the characters reads. Structured at times as a nonlinear narrative, the story skips through space and plot. In the same manner, entire scenes and dialogue have parallels with others through synchronicity and repeated imagery. A commercial success, Watchmen has received critical acclaim both in the comics and mainstream press. Watchmen was recognized in Time's List of the 100 Best Novels as one of the best English language novels published since 1923.

In a retrospective review, the BBC's Nicholas Barber described it as "the moment comic books grew up". After a number of attempts to adapt the series into a feature film, director Zack Snyder's Watchmen was released in 2009. A video game series, Watchmen: The End Is Nigh, was released in the same year to coincide with the film's release. DC Comics published Before Watchmen, a series of nine prequel miniseries, in 2012, Doomsday Clock, a 12-issue limited series and sequel to the original Watchmen series, from 2017 to 2019 – both without Moore's or Gibbons' involvement; the second series integrated the Watchmen characters within the DC Universe. A television continuation to the original comic ignoring the events of Doomsday Clock, set 34 years after the comic's timeline, was broadcast on HBO from October to December 2019 with Gibbons' involvement. Watchmen, created by writer Alan Moore and artist Dave Gibbons, first appeared in the 1985 issue of DC Spotlight, the 50th anniversary special, it was published as a 12-issue maxiseries from DC Comics, cover-dated September 1986 to October 1987.

It was subsequently collected in 1987 as a DC Comics trade paperback that has had at least 24 printings as of March 2017. In February 1988, DC published a limited-edition, slipcased hardcover volume, produced by Graphitti Design, that contained 48 pages of bonus material, including the original proposal and concept art. In 2005, DC released Absolute Watchmen, an oversized slipcased hardcover edition of the series in DC's Absolute Edition format. Assembled under the supervision of Dave Gibbons, Absolute Watchmen included the Graphitti materials, as well as restored and recolored art by John Higgins; that December DC published a new printing of Watchmen issue #1 at the original 1986 cover price of $1.50 as part of its "Millennium Edition" line. In 2012, DC published Before Watchmen, a series of nine prequel miniseries, with various creative teams producing the characters' early adventures set before the events of the original series. In the 2016 one-shot DC Universe: Rebirth Special, numerous symbols and visual references to Watchmen, such as the blood-splattered smiley face, the dialogue between Doctor Manhattan and Ozymandias in the last issue of Watchmen is shown.

Further Watchmen imagery was added in the DC Universe: Rebirth Special #1 second printing, which featured an update to Gary Frank's cover, better revealing the outstretched hand of Doctor Manhattan in the top right corner. Doctor Manhattan appeared in the 2017 four-part DC miniseries The Button serving as a direct sequel to both DC Universe Rebirth and the 2011 storyline "Flashpoint". Manhattan reappears in the 2017–19 twelve-part sequel series Doomsday Clock. In 1983, DC Comics acquired a line of characters from Charlton Comics. During that period, writer Alan Moore contemplated writing a story that featured an unused line of superheroes that he could revamp, as he had done in his Miracleman series in the early 1980s. Moore reasoned that MLJ Comics' Mighty Crusaders might be available for such a project, so he devised a murder mystery plot which would begin with the discovery of the body of the Shield in a harbour; the writer felt it did not matter which set of characters he used, as long as readers recognized them "so it would have the shock and surprise value when you saw what the reality of these characters was".

Moore used this premise and crafted a proposal featuring the Charlton characters titled Who Killed the Peacemaker, submitted the unsolicited proposal to DC managing editor Dick Giordano. Giordano was receptive to the proposal, but opposed the idea of using the Charlton chara


Gbongan is a large town in Osun State, Nigeria. It is the headquarters of the Aiyedaade Local Government Area; the town has an official Post Office. Gbongan was founded by Akinfemwa, whose motto was: "Never is a horse gained in legacy by an idle man." Abiodun Adegoriolu the Alaafin of Oyo, who reigned between C1750 - 1789 was the father of Olufi. Olufi migrated from Oyo with a large followers consequent upon the unrest that attended the death of Alaafin Abiodun in 1789. One tradition states that Olufi lost, he had to leave Oyo as tradition demanded. Another associates the migration of Olufi from Oyo with the general unrest that characterised the politics in Oyo after the demise of Alaafin Abiodun; this made Oyo metropolis not safe for peaceful existence, hence many citizens of Oyo followed Olufi as he migrated from Oyo. It is relevant here to stress that Olufi left Oyo after 1789, he took Igbori route. His entourage stayed there for some time, they moved to Soungbe before they settled in Gbongan Ile.

All these places are mentioned in the Oriki Olufi, the important things that happened to Olufi and his entourage are recited in the Oriki. The Olufi carried along from Oyo a beaded crown which made his followers recognise him not only as an Oyo prince but as an Oba in his own right; the unrest that precipitated the fall of Old Oyo empire affected the stability of many towns in the savannah region of the empire. There emerged soldiers of fortune, they had to fight their weak neighbours to establish their own domains, in order to survive dis-establish Oyo towns. They, the soldiers of fortune, made it possible for the Fulani to penetrate and to destroy many Oyo towns; the resultant effect was the drift in population from the savannah region of the old Oyo empire to the forested region of the south, where the horses of the marauders could not penetrate. This was how many Oyo towns were either destroyed or deserted and many moved towards Ife forest. Many settled with the Olufi in others in Origbo; those who settled among the people of Ife founded Modakeke.

The fall of Owu in 1821 made many people from Owu to settle in Gbongan. Some people chose to settle in Gbongan from their Origbo base. Gbongan, started to grow as a result of influx of people from many quarters; the prevailing peace in Gbongan was however not to last long. There was a fresh wave of marauding activities in places. In C1823, after the Fulani defeat of Afonja in Ilorin, Muslim marauders from llorin and Iwo attacked Gbongan Ile, Ikire Ile and Ipetumodu; the towns were deserted and the people sought refuge in Ile-Ife. In about C1825, the people of Gbongan decided to rebuild Gbongan, but the people chose a new site rather than the old site, at the fringe of the savannah. A site, in the heart of the forest was, chosen; this is why at the present location, we have such locations as Owo Ope, Oke Egan, Oke Apo and Oke Apata. There is the network of streams like Oyunlola, Akinjole and Oleyo which serve as sources of water supply to the town; the present Gbongan could, therefore be said to be founded around C1825, at a time when there was a renewed influx of people from the crumbling Oyo empire.

The fact that Gbongan was headed by an Oba attracted many people to settle there, the fact that the town had moved to a forested region made people to feel secure. By the middle of the 19th century, Gbongan had become one of the biggest towns in this region. Ibadan imperial drive to Ekiti countries from 1850s affected Gbongan in a number of ways. Gbongan was not conquered by Ibadan. Gbongan was only invited as a junior ally to help in the prosecution of Ibadan wars; this was how Gbongan was involved, took active parts in Ijesa, Akoko campaigns to the seventeen year of Ekiti Parapo war. Gbongan fought as an ally of Ibadan in the Modakeke war of 1881-86, this was why all Modakeke moved en-masse to settle in Gbongan on March 27, 1909 before Ode Omu was founded in 1910 for those Modakeke who chose to settle in a separate town; the implication of this was that the history of Gbongan during the period of Ibadan imperial drive was tied with that of Ibadan who had a Baale as ruler of Ibadan. In effect, the rulers of those towns which were junior partners of Ibadan were regarded as Baale.

This was not peculiar to Gbongan town. Ikire and Ipetumodu were so treated. Olufi therefore resorted to wearing his crown annually during the Orisa Akire Festival, it needs to be stressed that traditions point to Olufi and Koisetan as the Obas who reigned at Gbongan Ile. Fagbola became the first ruler in the present Gbongan; the following dates relate to the reigning periods of Olufi Obas in present Gbongan. ADETOYESE OYENIYI SOLOMON OYEWOLE BABAYEMI JACOB ADEOYE OYENIYI MAKANJU ASABI AJAGBOGBO SOOKO OLUJIDE FAGBOLA DiTT02016

1839 in poetry

Nationality words link to articles with information on the nation's poetry or literature. William Wordsworth granted an honorary Doctor of Civil Law degree by Oxford University. Philip James Bailey, reprinted in numerous editions up to 1889, when the 50th anniversary edition was published Thomas De Quincey, biographical essays on the Lake Poets in the series Recollections of the Lake Poets, in Tait's Edinburgh Magazine: "William Wordsworth," January and April "William Wordsworth and Robert Southey," July "Southey and Coleridge," August "Recollections of Grasmere," September "The Saracen's Head," December Henry Hart Milman, Poetical Works Percy Bysshe Shelley, posthumous works: The Poetical Works of Percy Bysshe Shelley in four volumes is published from January to May, edited by Mary Shelley, with her preface and notes, dedicated to the Shelleys' son, Percy Florence Shelley. Yeats April 18 - Henry Kendall, Australian June 21 - Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis, Brazilian August 3 - Helen Adelia Manville, American poet and litterateur August 4 - Walter Pater, English writer on aesthetics August 25 - Bret Harte, American writer of fiction and poetry December 30 - John Todhunter, Irish poet and playwright Date not known - Velutheri Kesavan Vaidyar, Malayalam-language poet Birth years link to the corresponding " in poetry" article: April 13 - Robert Millhouse, English weaver poet April 22 - Thomas Haynes Bayly, English May 4 - Denis Davydov, Russian soldier-poet of the Napoleonic Wars, inventor of a specific genre, hussar poetry, noted for its hedonism and bravado May 21 - José María Heredia y Heredia, Cuban poet in Mexico July 15 - Winthrop Mackworth Praed, English poet October 11 - Leonor de Almeida Portugal, Portuguese poet 19th century in poetry 19th century in literature List of years in poetry List of years in literature Victorian literature French literature of the 19th century Biedermeier era of German literature Golden Age of Russian Poetry Young Germany a loose group of German writers from about 1830 to 1850 List of poets Poetry List of poetry awards

George Boyle, 6th Earl of Glasgow

George Frederick Boyle, 6th Earl of Glasgow was a Scottish nobleman. He was the son of George Boyle, 4th Earl of Glasgow and Julia Sinclair, daughter of Sir John Sinclair, 1st Baronet. In February 1847, Boyle traveled with Frederick Hamilton-Temple-Blackwood, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava to Skibbereen in County Cork to try and aid victims of the Irish Famine. Lord Dufferin left a memoir of their journey entitled Narrative of a Journey from Oxford to Skibbereen during the Year of the Irish Famine published in 1847, he married Hon. Montague Abercromby, daughter of George Abercromby, 3rd Baron Abercromby and Louisa Penuel Forbes, on 29 April 1856, they had two daughters Lady Gertrude Julia Georgina Boyle. Lady Muriel Louisa Diana Boyle, he succeeded to his half brother's titles on 11 March 1869. He held the offices of Deputy Lieutenant of Renfrewshire, he held the office of Lord Clerk Register of Scotland from 1879 until his death. He died without male issue. On his death, the UK barony of Ross of Hawkhead became extinct.

Boyle was an Episcopalian and was a long time associate of Bishop Alexander Penrose Forbes and a supporter of his views. Correspondence between the two men is held by the University of Dundee's archives. In 1848 the Boyle founded a choir school attached to the Church of Millport, he followed this up in 1849 by founding and endowing the Episcopal College and Collegiate Church of the Holy Spirit, Cumbrae. The College was completed in 1851 to plans by William Butterfield and was affiliated to the University of Durham as Cumbrae Theological College. While the Collegiate Church was elevated to the status of Cathedral of Argyll and the Isles in 1879, the college closed in 1888. Secondary sources Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Earl of Glasgow George Frederick Boyle, 6th Earl of Glasgow

1608 in Scotland

Events in the year 1608 in Scotland. Monarch – James VI Tullibole Castle constructed The Lanark Silver Bell established James Steuart of Coltness, banker, landowner and Covenanter. 26 February – Thomas Craig and poet 15 May – Archibald Napier landowner and official, master of the Scottish mint and seventh Laird of Merchiston 9 November – John Graham, 3rd Earl of Montrose, Chancellor of the University of St Andrews and Lord High Commissioner to the Parliament of Scotland. George Bannatyne, collector of Scottish poems Alexander Campbell of Carco and prelate William Barclay, jurist

Frank E. Wilson

Frank Eugene Wilson was a U. S. Representative from New York. Born in Roxbury, New York, Wilson attended the Poughkeepsie Military Academy, he was graduated from the Jefferson Medical College, Pennsylvania, in 1882. Practiced medicine in Pleasant Valley, New York, until April 1888, he continued the practice of medicine. Senior physician, a director, member of the board of governors of the Bushwick Hospital and visiting physician to the Swedish Hospital, both of Brooklyn. Wilson was elected as a Democrat to the Fifty-sixth, Fifty-seventh, Fifty-eighth Congresses, he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1904 to the Fifty-ninth Congress. He served as delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1900. Wilson was elected to the Sixty-third Congresses, he was not a candidate for renomination in 1914. He resumed the practice of medicine in Brooklyn, New York, until his death there July 12, 1935, his remains were cremated and the ashes deposited in Roxbury Cemetery, New York. This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website

United States Congress. "Frank E. Wilson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress