SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Water

Water is an inorganic, tasteless and nearly colorless chemical substance, the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of most living organisms. It is vital for all known forms of life though it provides no calories or organic nutrients, its chemical formula is H2O, meaning that each of its molecules contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms, connected by covalent bonds. Water is the name of the liquid state of H2O at standard ambient pressure, it forms precipitation in the form of rain and aerosols in the form of fog. Clouds are formed from suspended droplets of its solid state; when finely divided, crystalline ice may precipitate in the form of snow. The gaseous state of water is water vapor. Water moves continually through the water cycle of evaporation, condensation and runoff reaching the sea. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface in seas and oceans. Small portions of water occur as groundwater, in the glaciers and the ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, in the air as vapor and precipitation.

Water plays an important role in the world economy. 70% of the freshwater used by humans goes to agriculture. Fishing in salt and fresh water bodies is a major source of food for many parts of the world. Much of long-distance trade of commodities and manufactured products is transported by boats through seas, rivers and canals. Large quantities of water and steam are used for cooling and heating, in industry and homes. Water is organic. Water and snow are central to many sports and other forms of entertainment, such as swimming, pleasure boating, boat racing, sport fishing, ice skating and skiing; the word water comes from Old English wæter, from Proto-Germanic *watar, from Proto-Indo-European *wod-or, suffixed form of root *wed-. Cognate, through the Indo-European root, with Greek ύδωρ, Russian вода́, Irish uisce, Albanian ujë. Water is a polar inorganic compound, at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, nearly colorless with a hint of blue; this simplest hydrogen chalcogenide is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" for its ability to dissolve many substances.

This allows it to be the "solvent of life". It is the only common substance to exist as a solid and gas in normal terrestrial conditions. Water is a liquid at the pressures that are most adequate for life. At a standard pressure of 1 atm, water is a liquid between 0 and 100 °C. Increasing the pressure lowers the melting point, about −5 °C at 600 atm and −22 °C at 2100 atm; this effect is relevant, for example, to ice skating, to the buried lakes of Antarctica, to the movement of glaciers. At pressures higher than 2100 atm the melting point increases again, ice takes several exotic forms that do not exist at lower pressures. Increasing the pressure has a more dramatic effect on the boiling point, about 374 °C at 220 atm; this effect is important in, among other things, deep-sea hydrothermal vents and geysers, pressure cooking, steam engine design. At the top of Mount Everest, where the atmospheric pressure is about 0.34 atm, water boils at 68 °C. At low pressures, water cannot exist in the liquid state and passes directly from solid to gas by sublimation—a phenomenon exploited in the freeze drying of food.

At high pressures, the liquid and gas states are no longer distinguishable, a state called supercritical steam. Water differs from most liquids in that it becomes less dense as it freezes; the maximum density of water in its liquid form is 1,000 kg/m3. The density of ice is 917 kg/m3. Thus, water expands 9% in volume as it freezes, which accounts for the fact that ice floats on liquid water; the details of the exact chemical nature of liquid water are not well understood. Pure water is described as tasteless and odorless, although humans have specific sensors that can feel the presence of water in their mouths, frogs are known to be able to smell it. However, water from ordinary sources has many dissolved substances, that may give it varying tastes and odors. Humans and other animals have developed senses that enable them to evaluate the potability of water by avoiding water, too salty or putrid; the apparent color of natural bodies of water is determined more by dissolved and suspended solids, or by reflection of the sky, than by water itself.

Light in the visible electromagnetic spectrum can traverse a couple meters of pure water without significant absorption, so that it looks transparent and colorless. Thus aquatic plants and other photosynthetic organisms can live in water up to hundreds of meters deep, because sunlight can reach them. Water vapour is invisible as a gas. Through a thickness of 10 meters or more, the intrinsic color of water is visibly turquoise, its absorption spectrum has a sh

N-rule (Icelandic language)

In Icelandic orthography, the n-rules are rules for determining when one letter n or two consecutive n's should be written, a difference that sometimes affects the pronunciation. If an element of a compound word, not the final element ends with one or two n's, the number of n's is the same as in the original word from which that element is derived, of which it is a modified and shortened form. For example: Spergilkál er ekki banvænt. Er svertingi bannorð? Þessi mynd er kynngimögnuð! Skálinn okkar er kyngifenntur, it can be hard to find related words to determine whether two n's should be written. One way is to search for possible origin words with two n's in their stem. If no such words are to be found, the use of one n is plausible; the example with kynngi, with a changed vowel, shows. For example: Elísu vantar krans. Below are rules about the number of n's in function words. Various function words which indicate movement end with –an and never –ann. Examples: Hvaðan, vestan, norðan, utan, ofan, neðan, aftan, undan, héðan, þaðan, meðan, áðan, saman, síðan, jafnharðan, sjaldan.

In the adverbs “þanneiginn” and “hinseginn” two n’s are written. One is supposed to write “enn” – meaning "still" – whenever it's possible to use “enn þá” instead without changing the meaning of the sentence. In every other case, “en” is used. “En”, which can mean different things, is used when comparing. “En” can be a conjunction. Examples with two n's: Ég er enn ungur og myndarlegur. - "I'm still beautiful" Ég er enn þá ungur og myndarlegur. Ertu enn skólastjóri? - "Are you still headmaster of the school?" Ertu enn þá skólastýra? Examples with one "n": Stúlkan er hærri en pilturinn. - "The girl is taller than the guy" Er blár fallegri litur en rauður? "Is blue a more beautiful colour than red?" En hvað finnst þér? "And what do you think?" Ég vildi bláan bíl en hún vildi rauðan. "I wanted a blue car, but she wanted a red one." The definite article always uses the same number of n's, therefore it does not matter whether it is added as a suffix to the word or written as a separate word. Example: Separate word: Hin skemmtilega kona.

- "The funny woman" Suffixed: Skemmtilega konan. Example: Separate word: Hinn hávaxni maður. - "The tall man" Suffixed: Hávaxni maðurinn. Two n's are used whenever a possessive pronoun has an "i". One "n" is used whenever a possessive pronoun has an "í"; the number of n's in a possessive pronoun always corresponds to the number of n's in the definite article of the same form: Example: Hesturinn. → Minn hestur. - "The horse" → "My horse" Hestinum. → Mínum hesti. - "To the horse" → "To my horse" Ákvarðananna. → Minna ákvarðana. - "Of the choices" → "Of my choices" Masculine nouns ending in -ann, -inn and -unn in nominative singular, are written with one "n" in all other cases. Examples: Other words which decline this way: Skarphéðinn, Héðinn, Þórarinn, Huginn, jötunn, Kristinn, Þráinn, Muninn, Auðunn, Auðun, Óðinn, Reginn; the words Huginn and Muninn don't change in the accusative and dative case. The word aftann is the only word in modern Icelandic that declines this way, is used in compounds like aftansöngur or aftanbjarmi.

Some names which originated in Irish and end with -an in the nominative case, end with a single "n" in all cases. The names Kiljan, Kjarvan, Kjartan, Natan etc. are examples of such names. The first n-rule for feminine nouns, the so-called Þórunnarregla, states that Icelandic feminine names which come from the name unnur, have two n's in all cases; the second n-rule for feminine nouns, the so-called miskunnarregla, states that the four feminine nouns which come from the noun kunna and kenna have two n's in all cases. The third n-rule for feminine nouns, the so-called verslunarregla, states that feminine nouns ending with -un or -an in the nominative case, come from the infinitive mood of verbs, should be spelled with a single "n" in all cases. Examples: mengun skömmtun sönnun verslun líðan skipan...etc

Ems-Supérieur

Ems-Supérieur was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Germany. It was formed in 1811, its territory was part of the present-day German lands Lower North Rhine-Westphalia. Its capital was Osnabrück; the department was subdivided into the following arrondissements and cantons: Osnabrück, cantons: Bramsche, Bad Essen, Bad Iburg, Melle, Osnabrück, Ostercappeln and Versmold. Minden, cantons: Petershagen, Bünde, Levern, Lübbecke, Quernheim, Rahden and Werther. Quakenbrück, cantons: Ankum, Diepholz, Friesoythe, Löningen, Quakenbrück, Vechta, Vörden and Wildeshausen. Lingen, cantons: Bevergern, Freren, Fürstenau, Haselünne, Ibbenbüren, Meppen, Papenburg and Sögel, its population in 1812 was 415,018. After Napoleon was defeated in 1814, most of the department became part of the Kingdom of Hanover