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Water Margin

Water Margin translated as Outlaws of the Marsh, Tale of the Marshes, All Men Are Brothers, Men of the Marshes or The Marshes of Mount Liang, is a 14th-century Chinese novel attributed to Shi Nai'an. Considered one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature, the novel is written in vernacular Chinese rather than Classical Chinese; the story, set in the Song dynasty, tells of how a group of 108 outlaws gather at Mount Liang to form a sizable army before they are granted amnesty by the government and sent on campaigns to resist foreign invaders and suppress rebel forces. It has introduced to readers many of the best-known characters in Chinese literature, such as Wu Song, Lin Chong and Lu Zhishen. Water Margin was based on the exploits of his 108 companions; the group was active in the Huainan region and surrendered to the Song government in 1121. They were recorded in the historical text History of Song; the name of "Song Jiang" appeared in the biography of Emperor Huizong of Song, which stated: The outlaw Song Jiang of Huainan and others attacked the army at Huaiyang, sent generals to attack and arrest them.

Infringed on the east of the capital and entered the boundaries of Chu and Haizhou. The prefect Zhang Shuye was ordered to pacify them. Zhang Shuye's biography further described Song Jiang and the outlaws' activities and how they were defeated by Zhang. Folk stories of Song Jiang circulated during the Southern Song; the first source to name Song Jiang's 36 companions was Miscellaneous observations from the year of Guixin by Zhou Mi, written in the 13th century. Among the 36 were Lu Junyi, Guan Sheng, Ruan Xiao'er, Ruan Xiaowu, Ruan Xiaoqi, Liu Tang, Hua Rong and Wu Yong; some of the characters who became associated with Song Jiang appeared around this time. They include Yang Zhi, Lin Chong, Lu Zhishen and Wu Song. A palace memorial by Hou Meng is included in the historical record History of Song, which states: "Song Jiang and 36 others cross Qi and Wei at will. Government troops number tens of thousands but no one dare oppose him, his abilities must be extraordinary. Since we face plunders by Fang La and his outlaws from Qingxi, why not grant Song Jiang and his men amnesty and allow them to lead a campaign against Fang La to redeem themselves?"

A direct precursor of Water Margin was the Old incidents in the Xuanhe period of the great Song dynasty, which appeared around the mid 13th century. The text is a written version of storytellers' tales, based on supposed historical events, it is divided into ten chapters covering the history of the Song dynasty from the early 11th century to the establishment of the Southern Song regime in 1127. The fourth chapter covers the adventures of Song Jiang and his 36 companions, their eventual defeat by Zhang Shuye; some of the more well-known stories and characters in Water Margin are visible, including "Yang Zhi sells his precious sabre", "Robbing the convoy of birthday gifts", "Song Jiang kills Yan Poxi", "Fighting Fang La", among others. Song Jiang and his outlaws were said to operate in the Taihang Mountains. Stories about the outlaws became a popular subject for Yuan dynasty drama. During this time, the material on which Water Margin was based evolved into what it is in the present; the number of outlaws increased to 108.

Though they came from different backgrounds, all of them came to occupy Mount Liang. There is a theory that Water Margin became popular during the Yuan era as the common people resented the Mongol rulers; the outlaws' rebellion was deemed "safe" to promote as it was a negative reflection of the fallen Song dynasty. Concurrently, the rebellion was a call for the common people to rise up against corruption in the government; the Chongzhen Emperor of the Ming dynasty, acting on the advice of his ministers, banned the book as a means of preventing revolts. The novel, praised as an early "masterpiece" of vernacular fiction, is renowned for the "mastery and control" of its mood and tone; the work is known for its use of vivid and racy language. However, it has been denounced as "obscene" by various critics since the Ming dynasty. "These seduction cases are the hardest of all. There are five conditions. First, you have to be as handsome as Pan An. Second, you need a tool as big as a donkey's. Third, you must be as rich as Deng Tong.

Fourth, you must be as forbearing as a needle plying through cotton wool. Fifth, you've got to spend time, it can be done only if you meet these five requirements." "Frankly, I think. First, while I'm far from a Pan An, I still can get by. Second, I've had a big cock since childhood." The opening episode in the novel is the release of the 108 Spirits, imprisoned under an ancient stele-bearing tortoise. The next chapter describes the rise of one of the primary antagonists of the story. Gao abuses his status as a Grand Marshal by oppressing Wang Jin. Wang Jin flees from the capital with his mother and by chance he meets Shi Jin, who becomes his apprentice; the next few chapters tell the story of Shi Jin's friend Lu Zhishen, followed by the story of Lu's sworn brother Lin Chong. Lin Chong is framed by Gao Qiu for attempting to assassinate him, dies in a fire at a supply d

Sindh Education and Literacy Department

Education and Literacy Department is a department of the Government of Sindh, Pakistan. The primary objective of the department is to look after the educational affairs within the province and co-ordinate with Federal Government and donor agencies regarding promotion of education in the province; the department plays supervisory role of Primary education and manages Secondary education, Technical Education, incentive programs and development schemes. Government of Sindh has bifurcated Education and Literacy Department into two separate departments College Education Department and School Education Department on 6 October 2016. There are 327 public sector Colleges are functioning under the College Education Department of Sindh and 42,900 Primary Schools, 2,429 Elementary Schools and 2,065 High Schools under the department. Reform Support Unit was established to build the institutional capability of the Department of Education; the Education & Literacy Department initiated distribution of stipends to female students in rural area to increase literacy rate, under the Sindh Structural Adjustment Credit a program of World Bank.

Production and publication of textbooks and supplementary reading material relating to textbooks. Bureau of Curriculum & Extension Wing is responsible for curriculum development; the Sindh Education Foundation is an autonomous body to encourage and promote education in the private sector operating on non-profit basis. Provincial institute of Teacher Education was established in 1995 with help of Asian Development Bank, as a teacher education institute. Sindh Teachers Education Development Authority oversee and regulate the teacher training activities and to maintain the standards of the trainings and the training providers. SBEP is a program of the department and USAID under which 120 schools will be constructed by USAID in Sindh's under developed areas; the program is valued around $155 million. Education in Pakistan Education and Literacy Department Bureau of Curriculum Sindh Education Foundation Reform Support Unit

Ranvir Singh

Ranvir Singh is a British television presenter and journalist, best known for her presenting roles on the ITV Breakfast programmes Daybreak and Good Morning Britain. She is the Political Editor of Good Morning Britain. Singh presents the ITV News bulletins, acting as a stand-in presenter and has presented Real Stories with Ranvir Singh and Eat, Save, both primetime factual series for ITV. Singh was born in 1977 in Lancashire into a Sikh family. Educated at Kirkham Grammar School, an independent school in Kirkham, she graduated from the University of Lancaster with a degree in English and Philosophy, she gained a postgraduate qualification in journalism at the School of Journalism and Communication, University of Central Lancashire in Preston. Singh joined BBC Radio Lancashire in 2002 on work experience before being given a six-month contract, she moved to BBC GMR, covering the 2002 Commonwealth Games in Manchester. Singh joined the BBC North West regional news programme North West Tonight in 2005 as a journalist and bulletin presenter.

Her first national presenting role came on Good Friday, 2006 when she co-presented Manchester Passion, a live BBC Three play that retold the last hours of Jesus Christ. On 10 September 2007, Singh joined long-serving presenter Gordon Burns as the main co-presenter on BBC North West Tonight. Former BBC South Today sports editor Roger Johnson became Singh's co-presenter in October 2011 following Burns' departure. While working on North West Tonight, Singh was a regular presenter for late night and weekend breakfast shows on BBC Radio 5 Live. Singh went on maternity leave from North West Tonight on 18 May 2012, it was announced that she would not be returning to the BBC but would be joining the ITV Breakfast programme Daybreak. She made her first appearance on Daybreak on 3 September 2012. In 2012, Singh reviewed the newspapers on This Morning. In May 2014, Singh joined Good Morning Britain as a features correspondent and news presenter with Susanna Reid, Sean Fletcher, Ben Shephard and Charlotte Hawkins.

Since May 2014, Singh has been a relief newscaster on various ITV News bulletins. On 25 September 2014, Singh joined the factual ITV programme Tonight as a reporter. Since March 2015, she has guest presented numerous Exposure specials. From 2015 until 2016, Ranvir presented two primetime series for ITV called Real Stories with Ranvir Singh. Since November 2016, Singh has co-presented The Martin Lewis Money Show alongside Martin Lewis; as of 2016, Singh continues as an occasional relief presenter on the ITV Lunchtime News, ITV Evening News and ITV Weekend News. In July & August 2017, Singh presented the four-part factual series, Shop, Save for ITV. In 2017, Singh was presenting Good Morning Britain the day of the 2017 Westminster attack and garnered much praise for her ability to respond and react to the developing story; the Good Morning Britain Team went on to win a prestigious Golden Nymph Award in the ‘Live Breaking News’ category at the 59th Monte-Carlo Television Festival in 2019, beating the likes of CNN and Al Jazeera.

Singh's highlights at Good Morning Britain include travelling around the world onboard the RAF Voyager with The Prime Minister, with visits including China and inside the White House with President Trump, as well as live reporting from the ground as the tragedy of the Grenfell Tower fire unfolded. In November 2010, Singh was awarded “Best On Screen Talent” at the Royal Television Society’s North West Awards. In July 2013, Singh received an Honorary Fellowship from the University of Central Lancashire. In October 2015 she won Media Personality of the Year at the Asian Media Awards. On 20 January 2017 she was inaugurated as Chancellor of the University of Central Lancashire. Singh is of Punjabi Indian origin, she lives in the Chilterns with her two-year-old son Tushaan. TelevisionGuest appearancesIn 2012, Singh took part in the Christmas special of All Star Family Fortunes as part of the Daybreak team with Aled Jones, Gethin Jones, Dr. Hilary Jones and Richard Arnold. In 2013, Singh appeared in a Christmas edition of University Challenge on BBC Two.

She was a part of the Lancaster University team. As one of the four highest-scoring winning sides, they reached the semi-finals, losing 180–145 to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. In 2015, Singh appeared in an episode of All Star Family Fortunes with her family, playing against Fabrice Muamba. In 2015, she appeared in a celebrity edition of The Chase. Good Morning Britain page at


The Panthéon is a monument in the 5th arrondissement of Paris, France. It is located in the area known as the Latin Quarter, standing atop the Montagne Sainte-Geneviève, at the center of the Place du Panthéon, named after it; the edifice was built from 1758 to 1790 over the designs of Jacques-Germain Soufflot at the behest of King Louis XV of France, who meant is as a church dedicated to Saint Genevieve, the city's patron saint, whose relics were to be housed there. Neither Soufflot nor Louis XV however lived to see the church completed. By the time the construction was finished, the French Revolution had started, the National Constituent Assembly voted in 1791 to transform the Church of Saint Genevieve into a mausoleum for the remains of distinguished French citizens, modelled on the Pantheon in Rome, used in this way since the 16th century; the first panthéonisé was Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte de Mirabeau, although his remains were removed from the place a few years later. The building was twice restored to church usage in the course of the 19th century—although Soufflot's remains were transferred inside it in 1829—until the French Third Republic decreed its exclusive use as a mausoleum in 1881.

The successive changes in the building's purpose resulted in modifications of the pediment's decoration, the capping of the dome by a cross or a flag, some of the existing windows were blocked up with masonry in order to give the interior a darker and more funereal atmosphere, which compromised somewhat Soufflot's initial attempt at combining the lightness and brightness of the Gothic cathedral with classical principles. The architecture of the Panthéon is an early example of Neoclassicism, surmounted by a dome that owes some of its character to Bramante's Tempietto; as of 2018 the remains of 78 people have been transferred including five women's. More than half of all the panthéonisations were made under Napoleon's rule during the First French Empire. In 1851, Léon Foucault conducted a demonstration of diurnal motion at the Panthéon by suspending a pendulum from the ceiling, a copy of, still visible today; the site of the Panthéon had great significance in Paris history, was occupied by a series of monuments.

It was on Mount Lucotitius, a height on the Left Bank where the forum of the Roman town of Lutetia was located. It was the original burial site of Saint Genevieve, who had led the resistance to the Huns when they threatened Paris in 451. In 508, King of the Franks, constructed a church there, where he and his wife were buried in 511 and 545; the church dedicated to Saints Peter and Paul, was rededicated to Saint Genevieve, who became the patron saint of Paris. It was at the centre of the Abbey of Saint Genevieve, a centre of religious scholarship in the Middle Ages, her relics were kept in the church, were brought out for solemn processions when dangers threatened the city. King Louis XV vowed in 1744 that if he recovered from his illness he would replace the dilapidated church of the Abbey of St Genevieve with a grander building worthy of the patron saint of Paris, he did recover, but ten years passed before the reconstruction and enlargement of the church was begun. In 1755 The Director of the King's public works, Abel-François Poisson, marquis de Marigny, chose Jacques-Germain Soufflot to design the church.

Soufflot had studied classical architecture in Rome over 1731–38. Most of his early work was done in Lyon. Saint Genevieve became his life's work, his first design was completed in 1755, was influenced by the work of Bramante he had studied in Italy. It took form of a Greek cross, with four naves of equal length, monumental dome over the crossing in the centre, a classical portico with Corinthian columns and a peristyle with a triangular pediment on the main facade; the design was modified five times over the following years, with the addition of a narthex, a choir, two towers. The design was not finalised until 1777; the foundations were laid in 1758. In 1780, Soufflot was replaced by his student Jean-Baptiste Rondelet; the re-modelled Abbey of St. Genevieve was completed in 1790, shortly after the beginning of the French Revolution; the building is 110 metres long by 84 metres wide, 83 metres high, with the crypt beneath of the same size. The ceiling was supported by isolated columns, which supported an array of barrel vaults and transverse arches.

The massive dome was supported by pendentives rested upon four massive pillars. Critics of the plan contended. Soufflot strengthened the stone structure with a system of iron rods, a predecessor of modern reinforced buildings; the bars had deteriorated by the 21st century, a major restoration project to replace them is being carried out between 2010 and 2020. The dome is three domes, fitting within each other; the first, lowest dome, has a coffered ceiling with rosettes, is open in the centre. Looking through this dome, the second dome is visible, decorated with the fresco The Apotheosis of Saint Genevieve by Antoine Gros; the outermost dome, visible from the outside, is built of stone bound together with iron cramps and covered with lead sheathing, rather than of carpentry construction, as was the common French practice of the period. Concealed buttresses inside the walls give additional support to the dome; the Church of Saint Genevieve was nearly complete, with only the interior decoration unfinished, when th

Auguste Strobl

Auguste Strobl was a German beauty of the 19th century. The daughter of a royal chief accountant, she appeared in the Gallery of Beauties gathered by Ludwig I of Bavaria, it is unknown how she came to Ludwig's attention, though he wrote poems to her and had her painted by the court painter Joseph Karl Stieler for his Gallery, but Stieler's first version chose a view that over-emphasised her goose-neck and displeased its commissioner. As Ludwig had wanted Strobl's beauty documented naturalistically, he forbade Stieler to amend this first version to correct or reduce the neck. Stieler had to paint her again, but this time in an uncomfortable position, with the neck somewhat hidden by a necklace. Ludwig considered placing both Stieler's versions in his Gallery, but in the end only chose to take the second one; the first one was lost being given back to the artist, until it resurfaced on the art market in 1976 and bought by Munich's Residenzmuseum. A miniaturepainting by Stieler of the second version is in a private collection.

In 1831, with Ludwig's approval, she married the forester Hilber von Ergoldsbach, with whom she had 5 children. Ludwig visited her in 1835 and took this chance to address one last poem to her - he offered her the first version of the painting to her as a present on this occasion, with it being refused. No other details of her life are known. Gerhard Hojer: Die Schönheitsgalerie König Ludwigs I. 2. Neugestaltete Auflage, Schnell & Steiner, München 1983, ISBN 978-3-7954-1103-9

Joe Alaskey

Joseph Francis Alaskey III was an American stand-up comedian, voice artist, impressionist. Alaskey was one of Mel Blanc's successors at the Warner Bros. Animation studio until his death, he alternated with Jeff Bergman and Greg Burson in voicing Warner Bros. cartoon characters such as Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Tweety, Elmer Fudd, Yosemite Sam, Foghorn Leghorn, Pepé Le Pew, Marvin the Martian, Speedy Gonzales, Wile E. Coyote and Road Runner, Taz, among many others, he voiced Plucky Duck on Tiny Toon Adventures from 1990 to 1995. Alaskey was the second actor to voice Grandpa Lou Pickles on the Nickelodeon cartoon Rugrats, he voiced Lou again in the Rugrats spin-off series All Grown Up!, as well as the Rugrats film trilogy. He voiced Uncle Stinkie in Casper, as well as the film's 1996 animated spin-off The Spooktacular New Adventures of Casper. Alaskey was born in Troy, New York on April 17, 1952. At age 3, he was looking for a pair of sunglasses or people's cigar butts so that he could portray different characters.

Alaskey was interested in archeology at the age of ten. After archeology, he was interested in becoming an English teacher. Alaskey moved to New York City in the 1970s. While in New York City, he worked in insurance while the acting was getting started. Alaskey was seen onscreen impersonating Jackie Gleason, with whom he shared a physical resemblance. In the 1980s, Gleason chose Alaskey to re-record selected dialogue from the "lost episodes" of The Honeymooners found in Gleason's private collection. After Gleason died in 1987, the project was shelved. In 1985, Alaskey provided various voices for the Golden Lance. Alaskey was in several television shows including Night Court, Head of the Class, Back to the Future, Spitting Image: The 1987 Movie Awards, his first major film was. Alaskey provided a vocal Gleason impersonation in the "Mighty's Wedlock Whimsy" episode of Bakshi-Hyde Ventures' Mighty Mouse: The New Adventures in 1988, a Cary Grant impersonation in "The Bride of Mighty Mouse" episode from the same season.

Although best known for his ability to impersonate Looney Tunes characters, Alaskey did voice work for non-Warner Bros. characters as well. He has voiced Grandpa Lou Pickles on Rugrats, he voiced Lou again in the Rugrats spin-off series, All Grown Up!, as well as the Rugrats film trilogy. He created the voice of Thomas Timberwolf for the internet series TimberWolf, created by animation legend Chuck Jones, he was heard as a voice-over announcer for the Toon Disney channel. He was the voice of Curt Connors in the Spider-Man 2 video game and Doctor Octopus in Spider-Man: Friend or Foe. Alaskey was in the independent film The Legend of Sasquatch and voiced Mermaid Man in the video games SpongeBob SquarePants: Lights, Pants! and SpongeBob SquarePants: Creature from the Krusty Krab. He voiced Stinkie in Casper as well as that film's 1996 animated spin-off, The Spooktacular New Adventures of Casper. Alaskey played Beano Froelich in Out of This World but left the show early in its final season, making only infrequent appearances in a few episodes.

In the 1980s, he worked as the original announcer on the short-lived game show Couch Potatoes, hosted by Marc Summers. Alaskey made several onscreen appearances, portraying the show's "next door neighbor". For the show's final weeks, he was replaced by Jim McKrell and the "next door neighbor" concept was dropped. During this time, he was a panelist on The New Hollywood Squares, hosted by John Davidson. In 2008, Alaskey participated in a unique interview conducted by Logan Leistikow and released by He answered questions and told his story went out onto Hollywood Boulevard and talked to people on the street who wanted to hear his famous voices; this was the first time. In 2003, he took over the roles of Bugs Bunny and Daffy Duck in the film Looney Tunes: Back in Action, he at times, provided the voices for Sylvester and other Looney Tunes characters. Alaskey was the primary voice for Plucky Duck on Tiny Toon Adventures. In 2014, Alaskey started narrating the television documentary series Murder Comes to Town, which airs on the Investigation Discovery Network.

Alaskey's only live-action leading role in a film was as lovelorn Ron Douglas in the black comedy Lucky Stiff, directed by Anthony Perkins and co-starring Donna Dixon and Jeff Kober. Alaskey died in Green Island, New York, from cancer on February 3, 2016 at age 63. Joe Alaskey on IMDb Joe Alaskey at Find a Grave Joe Alaskey at