Water crane

A Water Crane is a device used for delivering a large volume of water into the tank or tender of a steam locomotive. The device is called a Water Column in the United States and Australia; as a steam locomotive consumes large quantities of water, water cranes were a vital part of railway station equipment situated at the end of a platform, so that water could be refilled during a stop at the station. Water cranes consist of an upright steel pipe about 8 to 12 inches in diameter with a horizontal, pivoting pipe connected to its upper end so as to form a swinging arm; the swinging arm is designed to rest parallel to the rails when not in use. Water cranes may be able to deliver up to ten cubic metres of water per minute. In hilly country, natural streams can be dammed and water fed by gravity to the water crane. In flatter country this arrangement is not always possible, so water may be supplied by a tank next to the crane. Water tanks may vary in volume from 190 kilolitres to greater than 757 kilolitres.

In some cases a well may be used to supply the water to the tank. Depending on the quality of the water under supply, it may need to be treated chemically to eliminate hardness which induces scale buildup on the inside of the locomotive boiler; the scale which builds up on heat transfer surfaces forms a layer of insulation between the metal and the boiler water. This causes metal to overheat or corrode and fail. Water stop Track pan

Olivier Kamanda

Olivier Kamanda is the Director of Learning and Impact Strategy at the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, he is a former Presidential Innovation Fellow and served as speechwriter and senior advisor to Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. He obtained a bachelor of science degree from Princeton University in 2003 and his Juris Doctor from the University of Pennsylvania Law School in 2009, it was during his third year at Penn Law. While in law school, he was executive editor of the school's Journal of International Law and a columnist for The Huffington Post, he is the founding editor-in-chief of Foreign Policy Digest. Kamanda is a former Trustee of Princeton University and a fellow with the Truman National Security Project. Kamanda was president of the Montgomery County Young Democrats from 2004 to 2006. Since 2010, he has been an associate lawyer at White & Case in Washington, D. C. In 2011, Kamanda was named one of Washington, D. C.'s "Most Influential Leaders" by Washington Life Magazine. Olivier Kamanda's blog on the Huffington Post Foreign Policy Digest website Penn Current Student Spotlight White & Case bio

Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus

The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus is a Roman Catholic dynastic order of knighthood bestowed by the House of Savoy, founded in 1572 by Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, through amalgamation approved by Pope Gregory XIII of the Order of Saint Maurice, founded in 1434, with the medieval Order of Saint Lazarus, founded circa 1119, considered its sole legitimate successor. The Grand Master is Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, since 1983; the order was awarded by the Kingdom of Italy with the heads of the House of Savoy as the Kings of Italy. A chivalric order of noble nature, it was restricted to subjects of noble families with proofs of at least eight noble great-grandparents; the order's military and noble nature is still combined with a Roman Catholic character. After the abolition of the monarchy and the foundation of the Italian Republic in 1946, the legacy of the order is maintained by the pretenders of the House of Savoy and the Italian throne in exile; the order is estimated to include about 2,000 members around the world.

The undisputed continuation of the Order of St. Lazarus is in the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, which continues under the pretenders to the Italian Crown. Both crosses from its two forerunners still exist in the insignia of their subsequent successor, today's Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus, founded by amalgation in 1572; the Order of Saint Lazarus, founded c. 1119, can be traced to the establishment around 1100, of a hospital for leprosy in Jerusalem, Kingdom of Jerusalem, by a group of crusaders who called themselves "Brothers of Saint Lazarus". From its inception, the order was concerned with the relief of leprosy, many of its members were lepers, knights in other orders, it became rich, its practices dubious, its funds abused. With the fall of Acre in 1291, the Knights of Saint Lazarus emigrated from the Holy Land and Egypt and settled in France and, in 1311, in Naples. In the 16th century, the order declined in wealth. With papal support, the Duke of Savoy became Grand Master in 1572.

Before its transfer to the House of Savoy, the Order of Saint Lazarus maintained a number of leper hospitals, including an institution in the Italian city of Capua. The Order of Saint Maurice was established in 1434 by Amedeo VIII of Savoy, during his stay in the Ripaglia hermitage near Thonon, named after Saint Maurice of the Theban Legion. From its beginning, it was a military order; the order declined, but in 1572 was reestablished by Pope Pius V at the instigation of the then-Duke of Savoy. In 1572, Pope Gregory XIII united the Order of Saint Lazarus in perpetuity with the Crown of Savoy. Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, merged it with the Savoyan Order of Saint Maurice, thenceforth the title of Grand Master of the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus was hereditary in that house; the pope gave him authority over the vacant commanderies everywhere, except in the states of the King of Spain, which included the greater part of Italy. In England and Germany, these commanderies were suppressed by the Protestant reformation.

The new organisation was charged to defend the Holy See as well as continue to assist lepers. The war galleys of the order fought against the Barbary pirates; when leprosy again broke out, the order founded a hospital in Aosta in 1773. With the Italian unification, the order became a de facto Italian state order for military and civilian merits, consisting of five classes: Knight Grand Cross, Knight Grand Officer, Knight Commander, Knight Officer and Knight; the related Maurician medal for Military Merit of fifty years, established in 1839, was one of the few medals not suppressed by the Italian republic, becoming the Maurician medal of Merit for 50 years military career in 1954. Brought back in favour by King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy, the order was sparingly conferred for distinguished service in military and civilian affairs as an exclusive award compared with the more common Order of the Crown of Italy. After Italy became a republic in 1946, the order was replaced by the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic.

Since 1951 it has not been recognised by the Italian state. The House of Savoy in exile continues to bestow the order on recipients eminent in the public service, art, letters and charitable works. While the continued use of those decorations conferred prior to 1951 is permitted in Italy, the crowns on the ribbons issued before 1946 must be substituted for as many five pointed stars on military uniforms, it became a requirement for a person to have received the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus before receiving the Supreme Order of the Most Holy Annunciation. The accepted Grand Master of the order is Vittorio Emanuele, Prince of Naples, the current head of the House of Savoy. However, some of Vittorio Emanule's policies as Grand Master have generated controversy. In 2006, Vittorio Emanuele's third cousin, Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, declared himself head of the Savoy dynasty and thus Sovereign de jure. For this reason, the grand magistry is now contested. Knight Grand Cordon, Special Class, For the Grand Master of the Order.