Preble County, Ohio
Preble County is a county located in the U. S. state of Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the population was 42,270, its county seat is Eaton. The county was formed on February 1808 from portions of Butler and Montgomery Counties, it is named for Edward Preble, a naval officer who fought in the American Revolutionary War and against the Barbary Pirates. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 426 square miles, of which 424 square miles is land and 2.3 square miles is water. Darke County Montgomery County Butler County Union County, Indiana Wayne County, Indiana Little Four Mile Creek Harker's Run Seven Mile Creek Twin Creek Price Creek Goose Creek As of the census of 2000, there were 42,337 people, 16,001 households, 12,144 families residing in the county; the population density was 100 people per square mile. There were 17,186 housing units at an average density of 40 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.47% White, 0.32% Black or African American, 0.21% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.11% from other races, 0.60% from two or more races.
0.43% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 16,001 households out of which 34.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.50% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.10% were non-families. 20.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.00% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 28.70% from 25 to 44, 24.40% from 45 to 64, 13.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 99.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.70 males. The median income for a household in the county was $42,093, the median income for a family was $47,547. Males had a median income of $35,313 versus $23,573 for females; the per capita income for the county was $18,444.
About 4.50% of families and 6.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.00% of those under age 18 and 6.10% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 42,270 people, 16,341 households, 11,867 families residing in the county; the population density was 99.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 17,888 housing units at an average density of 42.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.6% white, 0.4% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.2% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.6% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 34.3% were German, 14.6% were Irish, 12.7% were American, 11.5% were English. Of the 16,341 households, 32.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.5% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.4% were non-families, 23.2% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 2.99. The median age was 40.9 years. The median income for a household in the county was $49,780 and the median income for a family was $57,711. Males had a median income of $46,383 versus $30,876 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,290. About 6.3% of families and 9.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.1% of those under age 18 and 6.8% of those age 65 or over. Eaton Community Schools Eaton High School, Eaton National Trail Local School District National Trail High School, New Paris Preble Shawnee Local School District Preble Shawnee High School, Camden Tri-County North Local School District Tri-County North High School, Lewisburg Twin Valley Community Local School District Twin Valley South High School, West Alexandria Union County College Corner Joint School District College Corner Union School is physically located in both Ohio and Indiana and serves students from both College Corner and West College Corner, Indiana.
After finishing fifth grade, Preble County students attend Union County Middle School and Union County High School, both located across the state line in Liberty, Indiana. Sinclair Community College Preble County Learning Center, Eaton Eaton https://web.archive.org/web/20160715023447/http://www.ohiotownships.org/township-websites Lake Lakengren Sherwood Anderson - writer Victor J. Banis - "the godfather of modern popular gay fiction." Benjamin Hanby - wrote the Christmas carol "Up On The House Top" while living in Preble County. Andrew L. Harris - Civil War general and former governor of Ohio. William Stephens - former governor of California. National Register of Historic Places listings in Preble County, Ohio Preble County District Library Preble County Commissioners Eaton-Preble County Chamber of Commerce Preble County District Library Preble County Information Resource
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
Anthony Wayne was a United States Army officer and statesman. He adopted a military career at the outset of the American Revolutionary War, where his military exploits and fiery personality earned him promotion to brigadier general and the nickname Mad Anthony, he led the Legion of the United States. Wayne was born in Chester County, he worked as a tanner and surveyor after attending the College of Philadelphia, he won election to the Pennsylvania General Assembly and helped raise a Pennsylvania militia unit in 1775. During the Revolutionary War, he served in the Invasion of Quebec, the Philadelphia campaign, the Yorktown campaign, his reputation suffered due to his defeat in the Battle of Paoli, but he won wide praise for his leadership in the 1779 Battle of Stony Point. After the war, Wayne settled in Georgia on land, granted to him for his military service, he represented Georgia in the United States House of Representatives returned to the Army to accept command of the Northwest Indian War.
His forces defeated several Indian tribes at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, the subsequent Treaty of Greenville ended the war. Wayne died in 1796 while on active duty. Various places and things have been named after him, including the cities of Fort Wayne, Waynesburg, Waynesboro and Waynesboro, Georgia, as well as Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan. Wayne was one of four children born to Isaac Wayne and Elizabeth Iddings Wayne in Easttown Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, his father was part of a Protestant Anglo-Irish family. Wayne was born on January 1745 on his family's Waynesborough estate, he was educated as a surveyor at his uncle's private academy in Philadelphia as well as at the College of Philadelphia, although he did not earn a degree. In 1765, Benjamin Franklin sent him and some associates to work for a year surveying land granted in Nova Scotia, he assisted with starting a settlement the following year at The Township of Monckton. In 1767, he returned to work in while continuing work as a surveyor.
He became a prominent figure in Chester County and served in the Pennsylvania legislature from 1774 to 1780. He married Mary Penrose in 1766 and they had two children, their daughter Margretta was born in 1770 and their son Isaac Wayne was born in 1772 and became a Representative from Pennsylvania. Wayne raised a militia unit in 1775 and became colonel of the 4th Pennsylvania Regiment in 1776, he and his regiment were part of the Continental Army's unsuccessful invasion of Canada where he was sent to aid Benedict Arnold, during which he commanded a successful rear-guard action at the Battle of Trois-Rivières and led the distressed forces on Lake Champlain at Fort Ticonderoga and Mount Independence. His service resulted in a promotion to brigadier general on February 21, 1777. On September 11, 1777, Wayne commanded the Pennsylvania Line at the Battle of Brandywine where they held off General Wilhelm von Knyphausen to protect the American right flank; the two forces fought for three hours until the American line withdrew and Wayne was ordered to retreat.
He was ordered to harass the British rear in order to slow General Howe's advance towards Pennsylvania. Wayne's camp was attacked on the night of September 20–21 in the Battle of Paoli. General Charles Grey ordered his men to remove their flints and attack with bayonets in order to keep their assault secret; the attack earned General Grey the nickname "No Flint," but the Americans pointed to the tactics and casualties as examples of British brutality. General Wayne's own reputation was tarnished by the American losses, he demanded a formal inquiry in order to clear his name. On October 4, 1777, Wayne again led his forces against the British in the Battle of Germantown, his soldiers pushed ahead of other units, the British "pushed on with their Bayonets—and took Ample Vengeance" as they retreated, according to Wayne's report. Generals Wayne and Sullivan advanced too however, became entrapped when they reached two miles ahead of other American units. General Wayne was again ordered to cover the rear of the retreating body.
After winter quarters at Valley Forge, Wayne led the attack at the 1778 Battle of Monmouth where his forces were abandoned by General Charles Lee and pinned down by a numerically superior British force. Wayne held out; the body of Lt. Colonel Henry Monckton was discovered by the 1st Pennsylvania Regiment, a legend grew that he had died fighting Wayne. In July 1779, Washington named Wayne to command the Corps of Light Infantry, a temporary unit of four regiments of light infantry companies drawn from all the regiments in the Main Army, his successful attack on British positions in the Battle of Stony Point was the highlight of his Revolutionary War service. On July 16, 1779, he replicated the bold attack used against him at Paoli and led a nighttime bayonet attack lasting 30 minutes, his three columns of about 1,500 light infantry stormed and captured British fortifications at Stony Point, a cliff-side redoubt commanding the southern Hudson River. The battle lasted 25 minutes and ended with around 550 prisoners taken, with fewer than 100 casualties for Wayne's forces.
The success of this operation provided a boost to the morale of the army, which had suffered a series of military defeats, the Continental Congress awarded him a medal for the victory. It was after this battle that he earned the name Mad Anthony for what his fellow sold
Hagerstown is a town in Jefferson Township, Wayne County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,787. Hagerstown was laid out and platted in 1832; the town was named after the city of Maryland. The Hagerstown post office has been in operation since 1836; the Whitewater Canal, built in the mid-19th century and extends to Lawrenceburg, has its northern terminus in Hagerstown. This section was funded by the Hagerstown Canal Company; the Hagerstown I. O. O. F. Hall and John and Caroline Stonebraker House are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Hagerstown is located at 39°54′41″N 85°9′38″W; the town lies 61 miles ENE of Indianapolis, Indiana, 17 miles NW of Richmond, 63 miles WNW of Dayton, Ohio in the Midwestern region of the United States. Terrain surrounding Hagerstown consists of flat land at an elevation of 1000 feet above sea level, used for agriculture. According to the 2010 census, Hagerstown has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,787 people, 751 households, 467 families residing in the town.
The population density was 1,333.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 826 housing units at an average density of 616.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 97.7% White, 0.6% African American, 0.2% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.8% of the population. There were 751 households of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 10.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.8% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age in the town was 37.9 years. 25.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the town was 51.6 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,768 people, 787 households, 498 families residing in the town.
The population density was 1,276.0 people per square mile. There were 832 housing units at an average density of 600.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 99.26% White, 0.28% African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.06% from other races, 0.23% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.34% of the population. There were 787 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.5% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.6% were non-families. 34.6% of all households were made up of individuals living alone and 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.86. The population has 24.0% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 28.1% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 17.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 85.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.1 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $36,691, the median income for a family was $48,864. Males had a median income of $35,536 versus $25,913 for females; the per capita income for the town was $20,901. About 0.8% of families and 1.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 0.9% of those age 65 or over. Hartley Hills Country Club Abbott's Candy - Candy factory Nettle Creek Valley Museum Hagerstown Park - Playground, hiking trails, sport fields, picnic areas Hagerstown Nature Preserve Near Hagerstown and Millville, Indiana is the Wilbur Wright Birthplace and Museum. Tedco Toys, an education and science toy manufacturer; the company is the world's largest maker of the toy. The American Communications Network/Brian Bex Report operates in Hagerstown. Hagerstown Elementary and Hagerstown Jr./Sr. High School provide education for smaller communities nearby. Hagerstown Jr./Sr. High School occupies a large campus which includes sporting facilities.
The town has the Hagerstown-Jefferson Township Public Library. Charles H. Black, automobile pioneer Omer Madison Kem, American politician. Ralph Teetor, inventor of cruise control and president of the Perfect Circle Corporation. WBSH: Repeater for National Public Radio affiliated station owned by Ball State University. Hagerstown is situated on State Road 38, which passes through the town and intersects with State Road 1. Directly south of the town is Interstate 70, enabling travel and commuting to larger cities such as Indianapolis or Richmond. By air, Hagerstown is served by the Hagerstown Airport; this utilizes a grass runway. The nearest commercial airport is Dayton International Airport in Ohio; the nearest rail link is the Amtrak station located in Indiana. Hagerstown, Maryland, U. S. Town of Hagerstown, Indiana website Hagerstown on waynet.org Hagerstown City Data w/ Photos Story of Perfect Circle Airplane Museums in Indiana Current Hagerstown Weather Whitewater Canal
Randolph County, Indiana
Randolph County is a county located in the U. S. state of Indiana. As of 2010, the population was 26,171; the county seat is Winchester. The Indiana General Assembly authorized the formation of Randolph County from Wayne County in January 1818 to take effect in August 1818; the county was certainly named for Randolph County, North Carolina, where the area's first settlers came from. That county was named for Peyton Randolph, the first President of the Continental Congress under the Articles of Confederation. Between 1820 and 1824, the county's territory extended to the Michigan boundary. Randolph County's population grew in the early years of the nineteenth century, it was known as a progressive community. As a home to a large number of members of the Society of Friends and abolitionism became important movements; the county was home to three famous settlements of free African-Americans. The most famous, the Greenville Settlement, in Greensfork Township, was the site of Union Literary Institute, one of the first racially integrated schools in the United States.
Randolph County has been a Republican-stronghold since the 1850s. As such, the county produced two Governors, one Congressman, one U. S. Senator, three Indiana Secretaries of State, one State Superintendent of Public Instruction between 1858 and 1931; the county's population growth slowed after 1880. Randolph County answered the problem of rural decline in the early twentieth century by embracing much of the "Country Life Movement." The major act was the movement to consolidate the county's rural schools. This was done under the leadership of Lee L. Driver, a county native who became the nation's leading expert on rural school consolidation. Randolph County became the exemplar of the movement and was the subject of many publications and visits from officials from as far away as Canada and China. In recent years, residents in Winchester, Union City, Farmland have sought to revitalize the county through a renewed focus on historic preservation and the arts. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 453.31 square miles, of which 452.38 square miles is land and 0.94 square miles is water.
Randolph County is the point of origin for the White Whitewater River. Jay County Darke County, Ohio Wayne County Henry County Delaware County U. S. Route 36 U. S. Route 35 U. S. Route 27 Indiana State Road 1 Indiana State Road 28 Indiana State Road 32 Indiana State Road 227 Farmland Losantville Lynn Modoc Parker City Ridgeville Saratoga Union City Winchester Franklin Green Greensfork Jackson Monroe Stoney Creek Union Ward Washington Wayne White RiverNettle Creek and West River Townships were combined to form Union Township. Winchester Speedway is located 2 miles west of Winchester on State Road 32 Mrs. Wicks Pie Factory and Restaurant in Winchester Silvertowne is located in Winchester Wilson Wines McVey Memorial Forest Farmers market during the summer on the Winchester Square Mom and Apple Pie Festival Labor Day Marathon Softball Tournament Madi Gras held annually each fall in Winchester during October Heritage Days held annually in the fall in Union City. Randolph County Airport In recent years, average temperatures in Winchester have ranged from a low of 16 °F in January to a high of 83 °F in July, although a record low of −26 °F was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 102 °F was recorded in September 1953.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 1.63 inches in February to 4.34 inches in June. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending; the council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes, service taxes. Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners; the commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president; the commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, managing the day-to-day functions of the county government.
Court: The county maintains a small claims court that can handle some civil cases. The judge on the court is elected to a term of four years and must be a member of the Indiana Bar Association; the judge is assisted by a constable, elected to a four-year term. In some cases, court decisions can be appealed to the state level circuit court. County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, auditor, treasurer
Richmond is a city in east central Indiana, United States, bordering on Ohio. It is the county seat of Wayne County, in the 2010 census had a population of 36,812. Situated within Wayne Township, its area includes a non-contiguous portion in nearby Boston Township, where the Richmond Municipal Airport is located. Richmond is sometimes called the "cradle of recorded jazz" because the earliest jazz recordings, records were made at the studio of Gennett Records, a division of the Starr Piano Company. Gennett Records was the first to record such artists as Bix Beiderbecke. Jelly Roll Morton, Hoagy Carmichael, Lawrence Welk, Gene Autry, among others; the city has twice received the All-America City Award, most in 2009. Richmond is located at 39°49′49″N 84°53′26″W. According to the 2010 census, Richmond has a total area of 24.067 square miles, of which 23.91 square miles is land and 0.157 square miles is water. Richmond is located about 12 miles S of the highest point in Indiana; as of the census of 2010, there were 36,812 people, 15,098 households, 8,909 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,539.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 17,649 housing units at an average density of 737.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 83.9% White, 8.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 1.1% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.9% from other races, 4.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.1% of the population. There were 15,098 households of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 16.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.0% were non-families. 34.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.91. The median age in the city was 38.4 years. 22.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.9% male and 52.1% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 39,124 people, 16,287 households, 9,918 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,685.3 people per square mile. There were 17,647 housing units at an average density of 760.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.78% White, 8.87% African American, 0.27% Native American, 0.80% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.09% from other races, 2.14% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.03% of the population. There were 16,287 households out of which 27.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.1% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.89. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 21.6% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.7 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 84.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,210, the median income for a family was $38,346. Males had a median income of $30,849 versus $21,164 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,096. About 12.1% of families and 15.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.8% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. In 1806 the first European Americans in the area, Quaker families from North Carolina, settled along the East Fork of the Whitewater River; this was part of a general westward migration in the early decades after the American Revolution. John Smith was one of the earliest settlers. Richmond is still home to several Quaker institutions, including Friends United Meeting, Earlham College and the Earlham School of Religion; the first post office in Richmond was established in 1818 with Robert Morrison as the first postmaster. The town was not incorporated until 1840 with John Sailor being elected as the first mayor.
Early cinema and television pioneer Charles Francis Jenkins grew up on a farm north of Richmond, where he began inventing useful gadgets. As the Richmond Telegram reported, on June 6, 1894, Jenkins gathered his family and newsmen at Jenkins' cousin's jewelry store in downtown Richmond and projected a filmed motion picture for the first time in front of an audience; the motion picture was of a vaudeville entertainer performing a butterfly dance, which Jenkins had filmed himself. Jenkins filed for a patent for the Phantoscope projector in November 1894 and it was issued in March 1895. A modified version of the Phantoscope was sold to Thomas Edison who named it Edison's Vitascope and began projecting motion pictures in New York City vaudeville theaters, raising the curtain on American cinema. Richmond is believed to have been the smallest community in the United States to have supported a professional opera company and symphony orchestra; the Whitewater Opera has since closed but the Richmond Symphony Orchestra has continued.
In 1899 Will Earhart formed the first complete high school orchestra in the nation. A high school orchestra director, Joseph E. Maddy, went on to found what is now known as the Interlochen Center for the Arts in Michigan. In the 1920s during the national revival of the Ku K
Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may