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Web design

Web design encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of websites. The different areas of web design include web graphic design. Many individuals will work in teams covering different aspects of the design process, although some designers will cover them all; the term "web design" is used to describe the design process relating to the front-end design of a website including writing markup. Web design overlaps web engineering in the broader scope of web development. Web designers are expected to have an awareness of usability and if their role involves creating markup they are expected to be up to date with web accessibility guidelines. Although web design has a recent history, it can be linked to other areas such as graphic design, user experience, multimedia arts, but is more aptly seen from a technological standpoint. It has become a large part of people's everyday lives, it is hard to imagine the Internet without animated graphics, different styles of typography and music.

In 1989, whilst working at CERN Tim Berners-Lee proposed to create a global hypertext project, which became known as the World Wide Web. During 1991 to 1993 the World Wide Web was born. Text-only pages could be viewed using a simple line-mode browser. In 1993 Marc Andreessen and Eric Bina, created the Mosaic browser. At the time there were multiple browsers, however the majority of them were Unix-based and text heavy. There had been no integrated approach to graphic design elements such as sounds; the Mosaic browser broke. The W3C was created in October 1994 to "lead the World Wide Web to its full potential by developing common protocols that promote its evolution and ensure its interoperability." This discouraged any one company from monopolizing a propriety browser and programming language, which could have altered the effect of the World Wide Web as a whole. The W3C continues to set standards, which can today be seen with other languages. In 1994 Andreessen formed Mosaic Communications Corp. that became known as Netscape Communications, the Netscape 0.9 browser.

Netscape created its own HTML tags without regard to the traditional standards process. For example, Netscape 1.1 included tags for changing background colours and formatting text with tables on web pages. Throughout 1996 to 1999 the browser wars began, as Microsoft and Netscape fought for ultimate browser dominance. During this time there were many new technologies in the field, notably Cascading Style Sheets, JavaScript, Dynamic HTML. On the whole, the browser competition did lead to many positive creations and helped web design evolve at a rapid pace. In 1996, Microsoft released its first competitive browser, complete with its own features and HTML tags, it was the first browser to support style sheets, which at the time was seen as an obscure authoring technique and is today an important aspect of web design. The HTML markup for tables was intended for displaying tabular data; however designers realized the potential of using HTML tables for creating the complex, multi-column layouts that were otherwise not possible.

At this time, as design and good aesthetics seemed to take precedence over good mark-up structure, little attention was paid to semantics and web accessibility. HTML sites were limited in their design options more so with earlier versions of HTML. To create complex designs, many web designers had to use complicated table structures or use blank spacer. GIF images to stop empty table cells from collapsing. CSS was introduced in December 1996 by the W3C to support layout; this allowed HTML code to be semantic rather than both semantic and presentational, improved web accessibility, see tableless web design. In 1996, Flash was developed. At the time, the Flash content development tool was simple compared to now, using basic layout and drawing tools, a limited precursor to ActionScript, a timeline, but it enabled web designers to go beyond the point of HTML, animated GIFs and JavaScript. However, because Flash required a plug-in, many web developers avoided using it for fear of limiting their market share due to lack of compatibility.

Instead, designers reverted to JavaScript for widgets. But the benefits of Flash made it popular enough among specific target markets to work its way to the vast majority of browsers, powerful enough to be used to develop entire sites. During 1998 Netscape released Netscape Communicator code under an open source licence, enabling thousands of developers to participate in improving the software. However, they decided to start from the beginning, which guided the development of the open source browser and soon expanded to a complete application platform; the Web Standards Project was formed and promoted browser compliance with HTML and CSS standards by creating Acid1, Acid2, Acid3 tests. 2000 was a big year for Microsoft. Internet Explorer was released for Mac, it was the first browser to support the PNG image format. During this time Netscape was sold to AOL and this was seen as Netscape's official loss to Microsoft in the browser wars. Since the start of the 21st century the web has become more integrated into peoples lives.

As this has happened the technology of the web has moved on. There have been significant change

Hertford County, North Carolina

Hertford County is a county located in the U. S. state of North Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 24,669, its county seat is Winton. It is classified within the region known in the 21st century as the Inner Banks. Hertford County is home of the Meherrin Indian Tribe, descendants of indigenous people who had inhabited the region for many centuries. After decades of encroachment by English colonists, the Tribe moved south from Virginia, where they settled in 1706 on a reservation abandoned by the Chowanoke; this six-square-mile reservation was at Parker's Ferry near the mouth of the Meherrin River. It was confirmed by a treaty of 1726. However, they were not able to keep the reservation lands; the Tribe today has 900 enrolled members, most living within 10–15 miles of the former reservation. The tribe is seeking Federal recognition; the Meherrin have an annual Pow Wow at the end of October. The county was formed in 1759 from parts of Bertie County, Chowan County, Northampton County.

It was named for Francis Seymour-Conway, 1st Earl of Hertford 1st Marquess of Hertford. In 1779 the northeastern part of Hertford County was combined with parts of Chowan County and Perquimans County to form Gates County. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 360 square miles, of which 353 square miles is land and 7.3 square miles is water. Southampton County, Virginia – north Gates County – east Chowan County – southeast Bertie County – south Northampton County – west As of the census of 2010, there were 24,669 people, 8,953 households, 6,240 families residing in the county; the population density was 64 people per square mile. There were 9,724 housing units at an average density of 28 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 60.5% Black or African American, 35.6% White, 1.1% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.8% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. 1.4 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 8,953 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.80% were married couples living together, 19.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.30% were non-families.

26.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.99. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.30% under the age of 18, 7.80% from 18 to 24, 26.30% from 25 to 44, 24.80% from 45 to 64, 15.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 85.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,422, the median income for a family was $32,002. Males had a median income of $26,730 versus $20,144 for females; the per capita income for the county was $15,641. About 15.90% of families and 18.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.30% of those under age 18 and 21.00% of those age 65 or over. Hertford County is a member of the Mid-East Commission regional council of governments. Rivers Correctional Institution, a private prison operated by the GEO Group which operates under contract from the Federal Bureau of Prisons and houses many felons who committed crimes in Washington, DC, is 1 mile from Winton.

Several large employers are located in Hertford County, including a run federal prison, Chowan University, a Nucor steel mill, several Perdue poultry processing facilities, an aluminum extrusion facility in Winton, a lumber-processing facility in Ahoskie. These industries, combined with a typical range of local retail and service businesses, combine to give Hertford County one of the lowest unemployment rates in Northeastern North Carolina; the larger area has lagged behind the rest of the state in terms of economic development. Hertford County Public Schools has seven schools ranging from pre-kindergarten to twelfth grade; these include three high schools, one middle school, three elementary schools. Hertford County is served by the Roanoke-Chowan News-Herald newspaper. There are five radio stations in Hertford County: WDLZ FM 98.3, an Adult Contemporary radio station and WWDR AM 1080, an Adult Urban Contemporary radio station, are located in Murfreesboro. WQDK FM 99.3, a Country Music radio station and WRCS AM 970, an Urban Gospel radio station, are located in Ahoskie.

WBKU FM 91.7, a non-commercial, Contemporary Christian Music radio station which broadcasts programming from the American Family Radio network, is located in Ahoskie. Ahoskie Como Harrellsville Murfreesboro Winton Cofield Ahoskie Harrellsville Maneys Neck Murfreesboro St. John's Winton National Register of Historic Places listings in Hertford County, North Carolina Hertford County government official website Town of Murfreesboro official website Roanoke-Chowan News Herald, regional newspaper

In situ thermal desorption

In situ thermal desorption is an intensive thermally enhanced environmental remediation technology that uses thermal conductive heating elements to directly transfer heat to environmental media. The ISTD/TCH process can be applied at low and higher temperature levels to accomplish the remediation of a wide variety of contaminants, both above and below the water table. ISTD/TCH is the only major in situ thermal remediation technology capable of achieving subsurface target treatment temperatures above the boiling point of water and is effective at any depth in any media. TCH works in tight soils, clay layers, soils with wide heterogeneity in permeability or moisture content that are impacted by a broad range of volatile and semi-volatile organic contaminants. ISTD using TCH was developed by Shell Oil Co. in the late 1980s and grew out of research and development for enhanced oil recovery. During the mid-1990s Shell Oil Company commercialized ISTD with an investment of over $30 million. Thermal conductive heating is the application of heat to subsurface soils through conductive heat transfer.

The source of the heat is applied via electric or gas powered thermal wells. Thermal wells are inserted horizontally, in an array within the soil. Heat flows from the heating elements by conduction; the heating process causes contaminants to be vaporized or destroyed by means of: evaporation steam stripping hydrolysis oxidation pyrolysisVaporized contaminants are collected from vapor extraction wells and containerized for removal or recycling. Soil vapor extraction thermal blanket

Jacobabad

Jacobabad is a city in Sindh, serving as both the capital city of Jacobabad District and the administrative centre of Jacobabad Taluka, an administrative subdivision of the district. The city itself is subdivided into 8 Union Councils. Sitting far away to the provincial boundaries of Sindh and Balochistan, Jacobabad became a city on the site of an existing village, is crossed by the Pakistan Railway and many main roads of the province; the translation of Jacobabad from Urdu to English is known as the City of Jacob, after John Jacob, an East India Company officer and engineer, from the original Khangarh Village of Khan. During British rule, as part of British Raj, the town was the administrative headquarters of the Upper Sind Frontier District of the Bombay Presidency. After the British Raj the city was reigned with Taj Dero Khan Odho; the city became well known for having the highest temperature in South Asia, has a mean summer average of 98 °F. In November 2010, former Prime Minister Yousaf Raza Gillani announced that University of Information Technology would be established in Jacobabad.

Jacobabad has a hot desert climate with hot summers and mild winters. The highest recorded temperature is 52.8 °C, the lowest recorded temperature is −3.9 °C. Rainfall is low, occurs in the monsoon season; the commercial airport at Jacobabad, about 300 miles north of Karachi and 300 miles southeast of Kandahar, is located on the border between Sindh and Balochistan provinces. The Shahbaz Air Base was one of three Pakistani air bases used by U. S. and allied forces to support the Operation Enduring Freedom campaign in Afghanistan and ongoing drone strikes in North Western Pakistan tribal regions

Clinch County, Georgia

Clinch County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 6,798; the county seat is Homerville. The county was created on February 1850, named in honor of Duncan Lamont Clinch. With just 8.5 people per square mile, Clinch has one of the lowest population densities of any county in Georgia. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 824 square miles, of which 800 square miles is land and 24 square miles is water, it third-largest by total area. Eastern and southeastern portions of the county lie within the Okefenokee Swamp and its federally protected areas; the vast majority of Clinch County is located in the Upper Suwannee River sub-basin of the Suwannee River basin, with just a portion of the western and northwestern edge of the county and well northwest of Du Pont, located in the Alapaha River sub-basin of the same Suwannee River basin. Atkinson County Ware County Columbia County, Florida Baker County, Florida Echols County Lanier County Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 6,878 people, 2,512 households, 1,823 families living in the county.

The population density was 8 people per square mile. There were 2,837 housing units at an average density of 4 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.93% White or European American, 29.50% Black or African American, 0.51% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.10% from other races, 0.84% from two or more races. 0.79 % of the population were Latino of any race. As of the census of 2010 there were 6,798 people in Clinch County. 69.7% were White or European American, 27.7% were Black or African American, 0.8% were American Indian or Alaska Native, 0.2% were Asian and 0.1% were Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander. There were 2,512 households out of which 36.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.70% were married couples living together, 16.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.40% were non-families. 24.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.09.

In the county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 29.00% from 25 to 44, 22.70% from 45 to 64, 11.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 98.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.50 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,755, the median income for a family was $31,755. Males had a median income of $26,905 versus $19,347 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,023. About 22.20% of families and 23.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.90% of those under age 18 and 30.90% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 6,798 people, 2,572 households, 1,821 families living in the county; the population density was 8.5 inhabitants per square mile. There were 3,007 housing units at an average density of 3.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 67.4% white, 27.7% black or African American, 0.6% American Indian, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 2.6% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races.

Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.5% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 11.0% were English, 8.0% were Irish, 8.0% were American. Of the 2,572 households, 38.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.5% were married couples living together, 19.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.2% were non-families, 25.7% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.10. The median age was 36.8 years. The median income for a household in the county was $31,963 and the median income for a family was $45,350. Males had a median income of $31,739 versus $25,972 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,709. About 19.1% of families and 25.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 37.7% of those under age 18 and 24.3% of those age 65 or over. Argyle Du Pont Fargo Homerville Clinch County is the birthplace of actors Ossie Davis and Matthew Lintz, politician Iris Faircloth Blitch, Jonathan Smith, Jolene Ammons, politician W. Benjamin Gibbs, politician William Chester Lankford, National Register of Historic Places listings in Clinch County, Georgia The Clinch County News - Local newspaper Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge U.

S. Fish and Wildlife Service Clinch County historical marker Bethany Baptist Church historical marker

Overtures by Hector Berlioz

The French composer Hector Berlioz wrote a number of overtures, many of which have become popular concert items. They include. Les francs-juges, Op. 3. Composed 1826; the overture to Berlioz's first attempt at opera, never staged. The overture was first performed in the concert hall of the Paris Conservatoire as part of an all Berlioz concert on 26 May 1828. In his study on the composer, Jacques Barzun describes the work as "a genuine tour de force for a young dramatic musician working without knowledge of Beethoven." The instrumentation is two flutes doubling piccolo, two oboes, two clarinets in C, two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, two tubas and strings. Waverley: grande ouverture, Op. 1. A concert overture composed in 1828, it was first performed at the Paris Conservatoire on 26 May 1828. Berlioz took his inspiration from Sir Walter Scott's Waverley novels; the instrumentation is two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, four horns in D, three trumpets, three trombones, tuba and strings.

Le roi Lear, Op. 4. Composed in Nice in 1831 during Berlioz's journey back to France after his stay in Italy; the overture is based on Shakespeare's King Lear, a recent discovery for the composer whose love of the dramatist is evident in many other of his works. It was first performed at the Paris Conservatoire on 22 December 1833; the instrumentation is two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets in C, two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets in C, three trombones, ophicleide and strings. In the publication of the overture by Breitkopf and Härtel, the ophicleide is exchanged for a tuba on the basis that French and German orchestras no longer owned ophicleides; this editorial decision is upheld in many modern performances. Intrata di Rob Roy Macgregor. Composed in 1831 and first performed at the Paris Conservatoire on 14 April 1833; the overture was inspired by Sir Walter Scott's novel Rob Roy. Berlioz was never happy with the piece, regarding it as "long and diffuse", withdrew it after the premiere. A plaintive melody for cor anglais would find prominent use for the solo viola in Harold en Italie.

The instrumentation is two flutes, two oboes, English horn, two clarinets in A, two bassoons, four horns, three trumpets, three trombones, timpani and strings. Overture to the opera of the same name, composed in 1838; the instrumentation is two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets in C, two bassoons, four horns, four trumpets, two cornets in A, three trombones, ophicleide and strings. Le carnaval romain, ouverture pour orchestre, Op. 9. Composed in 1844 and first performed at the Salle Herz, Paris, on 3 February 1844. A stand-alone overture intended for concert performance, made up of material and themes from Berlioz's opera Benvenuto Cellini, including some music from the opera's carnival scene – hence the overture's title, it is scored for large orchestra, is in the key of A major, features a prominent and famous solo for the cor anglais. Le corsaire, Op. 21. Composed while Berlioz was on holiday in Nice in August 1844, it was first performed under the title La tour de Nice on 19 January 1845. It was renamed Le corsaire rouge and Le corsaire.

The instrumentation is two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets in C, four horns, two bassoons, two trumpets in C, two cornets in B-flat, three trombones, tuba and strings. Overture to La fuite en Égypte. Together with two choral pieces, L'adieu des bergers and Le repos de la sainte famille, this made up a short work depicting Jesus and his family fleeing to Egypt to escape persecution by King Herod; this was published in 1852 but wound up as the core of another, larger work: the oratorio L'enfance du Christ. Béatrice et Bénédict. Overture to the opera of the same name, composed in 1862. Les Troyens à Carthage: Prologue Berlioz's epic opera Les Troyens was never performed complete during his lifetime. In an attempt to have the opera staged by the Théâtre Lyrique in 1863, he split it into two parts, with acts 1 and 2 becoming La prise de Troie and acts 3–5 Les Troyens à Carthage. Only the latter was accepted and Berlioz wrote an orchestral prologue to introduce this version evoking the tragic fate of Troy.

The individual overtures have been recorded many times. This is a partial list of collections devoted to Berlioz's overtures: Overtures: Les francs-juges, Waverley, Le roi Lear, Le carnaval romain, Béatrice et Bénédict, Le corsaire, Benvenuto Cellini, Rob Roy. London Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Adrian Boult. Recorded 28–29 August 1956: LPs Westminster WST 14008 and WST 14009 reissued on CD, First Hand Remasters FHR07, 2010 Overtures: Les francs-juges, Waverley, Le roi Lear, Le carnaval romain, Béatrice et Bénédict, Le corsaire, Benvenuto Cellini. Staatskapelle Dresden, conducted by Sir Colin Davis. CD, RCA, 1998 Overtures: La damnation de Faust, Op. 24: Part I Scene 3: Hungarian March/Rakoczy March & Part II Scene 7: Ballet des syphes.