Wels is a city in Upper Austria, on the Traun River near Linz. It is the county seat of Wels-Land, with a population of 60,000, the eighth largest city in Austria. Wels is in the Hausruckviertel at an elevation of 317 m. From north to south, it extends over 9.5 km, from west to east over 9.6 km. 3.4% of the area is covered with forest, 23.5% is used for agriculture. The town comprises the following boroughs: Aichberg, Au, Brandln, Doppelgraben, Eben, Gaßl, Höllwiesen, Hölzl, Laahen, Mitterlaab, Nöham, Oberhaid, Oberlaab, Pernau, Roithen, Schafwiesen, Trausenegg, Waidhausen, Wimpassing, Wispl; the area of Wels has been settled since the Neolithic era, as evidenced by archaeological finds of simple tools from around the banks of the Traun River in what is now the city center. A Bronze Age cemetery was found in the area of the current airport and dated to the time of the Urnfield Culture, it contained 60 graves with such items as bronze food. Swords from the Halstatt Period have been found in the area of Pernau.
During the Iron Age La Tène Culture Celts inhabited the area, leaving behind gold coins, swords and iron brooches. The name "Traun" comes from this time and it is possible the "Wels" is of Celtic origin; the name "Wels" could be Celtic for "Settlement on the bend of the Traun River". Wels gained importance in Roman times because of its central location in the province of Noricum. Around the year 120, Wels received Roman city rights under the name of Municipium Ovilava; the enclosed built-up area by the Traun River was at the present level of Kaiser-Josef-Platz. There were brick houses, a bath, an arena and an irrigation system of pure mountain water brought from beyond the Traun. Around 215, during the reign of Emperor Caracalla, it was renamed Colonia Aurelia Antoniana Ovilabis and given colonia status. At this time, the city had around 18,000 inhabitants. Due to the impending threat of the Alemanni, the city was surrounded by a city wall that enclosed an area of about 90 hectares and a road was built along the Danube to Passau.
It is known that six towers with gates were integrated into the walls, controlling entrances from along the western road, towards the Traun, to the fields beyond the city. As part of his reforms Emperor Diocletian made Ovilava the capital city of the province of Noricum Ripensis, it was governed by two duumviri who served as municipal judges, two aediles, who advocated compliance with the laws and market rights, a quaestor, who managed the city treasury, a 100-member city council. Ovilava administered an area enclosed by the Inn and Danube, from Lauriacum in the east to submitted to Bad Ischl in the west. In this area are included the border fortifications and Passau, as well as numerous settlements in what are now the regions of Upper Austria and Salzburg. During the early migration period, the area around Ovilava was invaded by the Alamanni and other Germanic tribes as well as by Attila's army. During the time of the Emperor Gallienus the province of Noricum was described as “devastated”. By the time of Odoacer, the first Germanic King of Italy, Noricum was described as “vacant”.
From the 4th century onward it is that Wels was again a small and insignificant village for several centuries. Agriculture and regional trade formed the basis for the economy of Ovilava. While most agriculture was subsistence level and horses were produced in large enough numbers to be exported; the oldest granary in the Eastern Alps has been discovered in Wels, which housed diverse grains such as wheat, dwarf wheat, emmer wheat and rye. There was additionally a significant brick and pottery works as well as mines for construction stone. Due to its situation at an important crossing of several Roman roads, both east-to-west and to the south, archeology reveals a large number of objects manufactured in other areas of the empire, such as Terra Sigillata pottery and statuettes from Gaul and Germania Inferior, as well as oyster shells and coins from Italy. Wels served as a minor trading centre during the Middle Ages. In 943, the Hungarians were defeated by the Carantanians at the Battle of Wels. In 1222, during the rule of the Babenberger family, Wels again received city rights.
A document dating to 1328 provides evidence for Wels' important role as the location of a market. Its endowment with economic privileges, its advantageous position on several rivers allowed it to gain an important position in the region. Emperor Maximilian I died in Wels on January 12, 1519, after having been denied access to Innsbruck by its citizens. During World War II, a subcamp of Mauthausen concentration camp was located here. On 18 January 1964, Wels became a Statutarstadt of Austria. There are about 36,000 people employed in Wels. Of that, about 63% are in the service sector. Wels is known as an important city for shopping and the location of several gymnasiums and higher vocational schools and of a vocational college. Furthermore, it is famous for the Wels Fair, which takes place every year in spring. Alois Auer, printer Karin Hannak, artist Thomas Steiner, film director Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Nobel Prize 1927 Franz Welser-Möst, conductor Hugo Gerard Ströhl, heraldist Carl Rabl and anatomist Thomas Christian David and performer Werner Kreindl, televi
The general strike over the winter of 1960–61, known popularly in Wallonia as the Strike of the Century, was a major series of strikes in Belgium which began on 14 December 1960 and lasted six weeks. The strike was instigated by the militant trade union, the General Federation of Belgian Labour, against an attempt by the government of Gaston Eyskens to improve the state of Belgium's public finances by introducing a series of austerity measures known as the Loi Unique or Eenheidswet. Although the strike began across Belgium, it soon lost momentum in Flanders where workers returned to work after a few days, leaving those in Wallonia, a region starting to experience deindustrialization, on their own; the strike is considered a key moment for the Walloon Movement and an influence on the formation of Walloon identity. It led to the foundation of a new ideology of Renardism which linked Walloon nationalism with syndicalism; the strike led to the creation of the pro-federalist Mouvement Populaire Wallon in 1961 and an increasing polarization between Flemish and Walloons which culminated, from the late 1960s, in the Linguistic Wars and in Belgium's gradual transformation into a federal state.
The 1983 film Winter 1960 is based on the strike. The strike was the subject of the documentary film Lorsque le bateau de Léon M. descendit la Meuse pour la première fois by the Dardenne brothers. Belgian general strikes Misère au Borinage André Renard Split of the Catholic University of Leuven Neuville, J.. Le Choc de l'Hiver'60-'61: Les Grèves contre la Loi Unique. Brussels. ISBN 9782873110024. Belgian general strike diary of Maurice Brinton at Libcom.org The Belgian General Strike by Tony Cliff at Marxist Internet Archive Grèves de 60: ce passé qui nous divise encore at Le Vif
The 1989 The Citadel Bulldogs football team represented The Citadel, The Military College of South Carolina in the 1989 NCAA Division I-AA football season. Charlie Taaffe served as head coach for the third season; the Bulldogs played as members of the Southern Conference and played home games at Johnson Hagood Stadium. The 1989 season was affected by Hurricane Hugo, which damaged Johnson Hagood Stadium as the eye of the storm passed over Charleston harbor before making its way inland; as a result, The Citadel played two "home" games at Williams-Brice Stadium, on the campus of the University of South Carolina in Columbia, South Carolina. The hurricane struck on September 22, 1989, the Bulldogs did not play a game again in their home stadium until November 4, 1989
Shetland Library is a Scottish public library service, with its main branch based in Lerwick and membership open to both residents of and visitors to the island. The library has a range of digital and physical material and collections that support the literary traditions of the northern isles. Aside from the main branch, the service has two community libraries in Baltasound and Yell, seven school libraries and two mobile libraries; the Shetland Library service is provided by the Shetland Islands Council. Shetland Library was established in 1916, two years before Scottish county libraries were constituted by law in 1918 and was part of a pilot scheme financed by Carnegie United Kingdom Trust to promote wider access to library privileges. Having resided in ‘temporary’ accommodation from 1948 onwards which no longer provided adequate space for their expanding collections, the decision to relocate was taken. On 29 June 1966 the new library and museum building was opened on Lower Hillhead by the Lord Lieutenant R.
H. W. Bruce; the building was shared with Shetland Museum and Archive, was built in 1966 by the Zetland County Council. The library relocated again in 2002 and has since been housed within the former St. Ringan's Church on Lower Hillhead in Lerwick; this United Free Church’s congregation had been dwindling throughout the 1970s and 1980s and there had been considerable thought given to what use the B-listed building could be put to. In fact, in the early 1980s the congregation of St. Ringan’s had proposed selling the building to Shetland Islands Council for the purpose of turning it into a library. Plans were drawn up but the project came to nothing; the building was still sold to the SIC – for the price of £1.00 – and after some renovations which were overseen by Historic Environment Scotland, St. Ringan’s became a library after all; the St. Ringan's United Free Church is a B-listed, Gothic grey sandstone building with a squat crenellated central tower, it was built by R. G. Sykes of Liverpool in 1885-86.
At the time of the 2002 move, the church was renovated to include a mezzanine floor and rolling library shelving. Since the 2002 move, the old library building on Lower Hillhead has been used as a library store as well as housing services such as adult learning and social services. Fifty years after the original opening of this building, in 2005 plans were approved to renovate this building and bring it back into more active use. Members of the public were invited to open days in 2016 to offer their opinions on what could be done to make the building useful to the community. Due to rising projected costs, this renovation plan has stalled; the Shetland Library houses adult, young adult and children's fiction and non-fiction, eAudio, eBooks, eMagazines, online reference resources, large print material, reference material, DVDs and videos, talking books and music and their Shetland Collection. In aid of promoting local literary traditions Shetland Library seeks to collect as many books published in or about Shetland as possible.
The library supplements this by publishing material on Shetland themselves, from local history to poetry. The Shetland Collection includes Shetland periodicals and maps and microfilm of The Shetland Times and The Shetland News among other newspapers which go back into the 19th century. Shetland Library takes part in the Scottish Government’s book gifting programme for under fives, Bookbug; the main branch in Lerwick runs book groups and there is a regular series of events including author talks and book launches as well as behind the scenes ‘Basement Browsing’ and practical ICT help. In 2016, the library received a 3D printer due to a Scottish Library and Information Council initiative, funded by the Scottish Government; the Shetland Library hosts a local writers' showcase. It works with Shetland ForWirds, an organisation which promotes the use of the Shetland dialect and, aside from having a range of material on the dialect for both adults and children, it offers a dialect writing prize in its annual Young Writer competition.
Mobile and housebound services are provided by two vans, which travel around Shetland and the islands of Yell, Fetlar and Out Skerries. Shetland Library enjoys a well-publicised Twitter feud with Orkney Library. Shetland ForWirds Shetland Library Twitter account Shetland Library Facebook page
Dumb Luck is a studio album by American electronic music artist Dntel. It was released through Sub Pop on April 24, 2007. Recorded between 2002 and 2006, it includes vocal contributions from Ed Droste, Valerie Trebeljahr and Markus Acher, Jenny Lewis, Grant Olsen and Sonya Westcott, Mia Doi Todd, Andrew Broder, Conor Oberst, Christopher and Jennifer Gunst. At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted average score out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics, Dumb Luck received an average score of 60% based on 22 reviews, indicating "mixed or average reviews". Jimmy Newlin of Slant Magazine gave the album 2 stars out of 5 and called it "a work, genuinely, though only sporadically, but no less dull." Jason Crock of Pitchfork gave the album a 6.8 out of 10 and commented that "While some of the album's songs are terrifically cloying, I can't call it a disappointment. Dumb Luck at Discogs
Events pertaining to world affairs in 2019, national politics, public policy, world economics, international business, that took place in various nations, organizations, around the world in 2019. Events pertaining to politics, public policy, international affairs, that took place in various nations, organizations, around the world in 2018. 12 July 2018. 2018 Brussels summit of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization held in Brussels, Belgium, on 11 and 12 July 2018. NATO announces that a new Cyber Operations Command will be established to coordinate efforts to protect cyber-security. 25 October 2018 After the monthly meeting of the ECB Governing Council, the ECB announces that it will not change benchmark interest rates. It states that it plans to end quantitative easing by the end of 2018. 15 November 2018 United Kingdom Brexit Secretary Dominic Raab resigns, as does Work and Pensions Secretary Esther McVey and several other ministers because of disagreement with terms of a draft Brexit deal announced on November 14, 2018.
6 November 2018 United States midterm elections, 2018 12 July 2018. 2018 Brussels summit of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization held in Brussels, Belgium, on 11 and 12 July 2018. NATO announces that a new Cyber Operations Command will be established to coordinate efforts to protect cyber-security. 15 November 2018 United Kingdom Brexit Secretary Dominic Raab resigns, as does Work and Pensions Secretary Esther McVey and several other ministers because of disagreement with terms of a draft Brexit deal announced on November 14, 2018. 6 November 2018 United States midterm elections, 2018 25 October 2018 After the monthly meeting of the ECB Governing Council, the ECB announces that it will not change benchmark interest rates. It states that it plans to end quantitative easing by the end of 2018