New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Lawful permanent residents (United States)
Lawful permanent residents known as legal permanent residents, informally known as green card holders, are immigrants under the Immigration and Nationality Act, with rights and privileges to reside in the United States permanently. There are an estimated 13.2 million green card holders of whom 8.9 million are eligible for citizenship of the United States. 65,000 of them serve in the U. S. Armed Forces. Green card holders are statutorily entitled to U. S. citizenship after showing by a preponderance of the evidence that they, inter alia, have continuously resided in the United States for at least five years and are persons of good moral character. Those who are younger than 18 years old automatically derive U. S. citizenship through at least one of their American parents. Every lawful permanent resident is issued by the U. S. government a "permanent resident card,", known as a "green card" because of its historical greenish color. It was called "alien registration card" or "alien registration receipt card."
The permanent resident card serves as proof that its holder is a legal immigrant having similar constitutional rights as all other Americans. It may be used to obtain a State ID card and/or a driver's license. Absent exceptional circumstances, immigrants who are 18 years of age or older could spend up to 30 days in jail for not carrying their green cards. Green card applications are decided by the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, but in some cases an immigration judge or a member of the Board of Immigration Appeals, acting on behalf of the U. S. Attorney General, may grant permanent residency in the course of removal proceedings. Any authorized federal judge may do the same by issuing an injunction. An LPR could become "removable" from the United States after suffering a criminal conviction if it involved a serious crime or an aggravated felony "for which the term of imprisonment was completed within the previous 15 years." Those who the Attorney General admitted to the United States as refugees and adjusted their status to that of LPRs are statutorily immunized against deportation for lifetime the same way like "nationals but not citizens of the United States."
The INA, enacted by the U. S. Congress in 1952, states that "he term'alien' means any person not a citizen or national of the United States". A longtime LPR "who claims to be a national, but not a citizen, of the United States may apply to the Secretary of State for a certificate of non-citizen national status." The granting of such United States nationality is determined on a case-by-case analysis, which depends on the number of continuous years the LPR has physically spent in the United States. In 1982, the U. S. Supreme Court stated that "once an alien gains admission to our country and begins to develop the ties that go with permanent residence, his constitutional status changes accordingly." That opinion was issued after Congress and the Reagan administration resettled in the United States refugee families from totalitarian states, such as Afghanistan, Laos, etc. Unlike other aliens, these refugee families permanently lost everything, including their former nationalities, became nationals of the United States.
On September 30, 1996, President Clinton signed into law the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act. As of 2014, there are 13.2 million LPRs of whom 8.9 million are "eligible to naturalize." These LPRs can secure many types of jobs just like U. S. citizens can. For example, about 65,000 LPRs are members of the U. S. Armed Forces. LPRs can live anywhere within the United States, they can operate any type of business in the United States. An LPR loses the right to become a U. S. citizen after suffering a conviction for any crime involving moral turpitude. An LPR can get deported from the country after suffering such a conviction an aggravated felony "for which the term of imprisonment was completed within the previous 15 years." It makes no difference if the aggravated felony was committed in Afghanistan, American Samoa, Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, or in any other country or place in the world. After the successful elapse of such "15 years", a long-time LPR automatically becomes entitled to both cancellation of removal and a waiver of inadmissibility.
Such LPR may request these popular immigration benefits depending on whichever is more applicable or easiest to obtain. Those who were admitted as refugees under 8 U. S. C. § 1157 and adjusted to that of LPRs inside the United States are statutorily protected from deportation for lifetime. These are families, including children, who escaped from genocides and have no safe country of permanent residence other than the United States; this legal finding is supported by latest precedents of all the U. S. courts of appeals and the BIA, which are binding on all immigration officials. These refugees have "been lawfully accorded the privilege of residing permanently in the United States" by the Attorney General, but decades the plainly incompetent immigration officers unconstitutionally turned these resettled Americans into refugees again. Unlike other aliens in removal proceedings, the refugees owe permanent allegiance to the government of the United States; this makes them nothing but a distinct class of persecuted Americans.
The ones who are denied U. S. citizenship are statutorily allowed to live in the United States with their Ameri
Volleyball is a popular team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net. Each team tries to score points by grounding a ball on the other team's court under organized rules, it has been a part of the official program of the Summer Olympic Games since Tokyo 1964. The complete rules are extensive, but play proceeds as follows: a player on one of the teams begins a'rally' by serving the ball, from behind the back boundary line of the court, over the net, into the receiving team's court; the receiving team must not let the ball be grounded within their court. The team may touch the ball up to 3 times, but individual players may not touch the ball twice consecutively; the first two touches are used to set up for an attack, an attempt to direct the ball back over the net in such a way that the serving team is unable to prevent it from being grounded in their court. The rally continues, with each team allowed as many as three consecutive touches, until either: a team makes a kill, grounding the ball on the opponent's court and winning the rally.
The team that wins the rally serves the ball to start the next rally. A few of the most common faults include: causing the ball to touch the ground or floor outside the opponents' court or without first passing over the net; the ball is played with the hands or arms, but players can strike or push the ball with any part of the body. A number of consistent techniques have evolved in volleyball, including spiking and blocking as well as passing and specialized player positions and offensive and defensive structures. In the winter of 1895, in Holyoke, William G. Morgan, a YMCA physical education director, created a new game called Mintonette, a name derived from the game of badminton, as a pastime to be played indoors and by any number of players; the game took some of its characteristics from other sports such as handball. Another indoor sport, was catching on in the area, having been invented just ten miles away in the city of Springfield, only four years before. Mintonette was designed to be an indoor sport, less rough than basketball, for older members of the YMCA, while still requiring a bit of athletic effort.
The first rules, written down by William G Morgan, called for a net 6 ft 6 in high, a 25 ft × 50 ft court, any number of players. A match was composed of nine innings with three serves for each team in each inning, no limit to the number of ball contacts for each team before sending the ball to the opponents' court. In case of a serving error, a second try was allowed. Hitting the ball into the net was considered a foul —except in the case of the first-try serve. After an observer, Alfred Halstead, noticed the volleying nature of the game at its first exhibition match in 1896, played at the International YMCA Training School, the game became known as volleyball. Volleyball rules were modified by the International YMCA Training School and the game spread around the country to various YMCAs; the first official ball used in volleyball is disputed. The rules evolved over time: in 1916, in the Philippines, the skill and power of the set and spike had been introduced, four years a "three hits" rule and a rule against hitting from the back row were established.
In 1917, the game was changed from requiring 21 points to win to a smaller 15 points to win. In 1919, about 16,000 volleyballs were distributed by the American Expeditionary Forces to their troops and allies, which sparked the growth of volleyball in new countries; the first country outside the United States to adopt volleyball was Canada in 1900. An international federation, the Fédération Internationale de Volleyball, was founded in 1947, the first World Championships were held in 1949 for men and 1952 for women; the sport is now popular in Brazil, in Europe, in Russia, in other countries including China and the rest of Asia, as well as in the United States. Beach volleyball, a variation of the game played on sand and with only two players per team, became a FIVB-endorsed variation in 1987 and was added to the Olympic program at the 1996 Summer Olympics. Volleyball is a sport at the Paralympics managed by the World Organization Volleyball for Disabled. Nudists were early adopters of the game with regular organized play in clubs as early as the late 1920s.
By the 1960s, a volleyball court had become standard in all nudist/naturist clubs. Volleyball has been part of the Summer Olympics program for both men and women since 1964. A volleyball court is 9 m × 18 m, divided into equal square halves by a net with a width of one meter; the top of the net is 2.43 m above the center of the court for men's competition, 2.24 m for women's competition, varied for veterans a
Tribeca Film Festival
The Tribeca Film Festival is a prominent film festival held in the Tribeca neighborhood of Manhattan, showcasing a diverse selection of independent films. Since its inaugural year in 2002, it has become a recognized outlet for independent filmmakers in all genres to release their work to a broad audience. In 2006 and 2007, the Festival held 1,500 screenings; the Festival's program line-up includes a variety of independent films including documentaries, narrative features and shorts, as well as a program of family-friendly films. The Festival features panel discussions with personalities in the entertainment world and a music lounge produced with ASCAP to showcase artists. One of the more distinctive components of the Festival is its Artists Awards program in which emerging and renowned artists celebrate filmmakers by providing original works of art that are given to the filmmakers' competition winners. Past artists of the Artists Award Program have included Chuck Close, Alex Katz, Julian Schnabel.
The festival now draws an estimated three million people—including often-elusive celebrities from the worlds of art and music—and generates $600 million annually. The Tribeca Film Festival was founded in 2002 by Jane Rosenthal, Robert De Niro and Craig Hatkoff in response to the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and the consequent loss of vitality in the Tribeca neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, although there are reports that its founding was underway prior to the events of 9/11; the inaugural festival launched after 120 days of planning with the help of more than 1,300 volunteers. It was featured several up-and-coming filmmakers; the festival included juried narrative and short film competitions. The 2003 festival brought more than 300,000 people; the festival showcased an expanded group of independent features and short films from around the world, coupled with studio premieres, panel discussions and comedy concerts, a family festival, sports activities, outdoor movie screenings along the Hudson River.
The family festival featured children's movie screenings, family panels and interactive games culminating in a daylong street fair that drew a crowd estimated at 250,000 people. At the end of 2003, De Niro purchased the theater at 54 Varick Street which had housed the closed Screening Room, an art house that had shown independent films nightly, renaming it the Tribeca Cinema, it became one of the venues of the festival. In an effort to serve its mission of bringing independent film to the widest possible audience, in 2006, the Festival expanded its reach in New York City and internationally. In New York City, Tribeca hosted screenings throughout Manhattan as the Festival's 1,000-plus screening schedule outgrew the capacity downtown. Internationally, the Festival brought films to the Rome Film Fest; as part of the celebrations in Rome, Tribeca was awarded the first "Steps and Stars" award, presented on the Spanish Steps. A total of 169 feature films and 99 shorts were selected from 4,100 film submissions, including 1,950 feature submissions—three times the total submissions from the first festival in 2002.
The festival featured 90 world premieres, nine international premieres, 31 North American premieres, 6 U. S. premieres, 28 New York City premieres. In 2009, Hatkoff and De Niro were named number 14 on Barron's list of the world's top 25 philanthropists for their role in regenerating TriBeCa's economy after September 11; as of 2010, the festival is run as a business by Tribeca Enterprises. Andrew Essex has been the CEO of Tribeca Enterprises since January, 2016. In 2011, L. A. Noire became the first video game to be recognized by the Tribeca Film Festival. In 2013, Beyond: Two Souls, featuring Ellen Page and Willem Dafoe, became only the second game to be premiered at the festival. 2018 – Diane and directed by Kent Jones. 2017 – Keep the Change written and directed by Rachel Israel 2016 – Dean, directed by Demetri Martin 2018 – Jeffrey Wright in O. G. 2017 – Alessandro Nivola in One Percent More Humid 2016 – Dominic Rains for Burn Country 2018 – Alia Shawkat in Duck Butter 2017 – Nadia Alexander in Blame 2016 – Mackenzie Davis for Always Shine 2018 – Wyatt Garfield for Diane 2017 – Chris Teague for Love After Love 2016 – Michael Ragen for Kicks 2018 – Diane, written by Kent Jones 2017 – Abundant Acreage Available, written by Angus MacLachlan 2017 – Son of Sofia written and directed by Elina Psykou 2016 – Junction 48, directed by Udi Aloni 2015 – Virgin Mountain, directed by Dagur Kári 2014 – Zero Motivation, directed by Talya Lavie 2013 – The Rocket, directed by Kim Mordaunt 2012 – War Witch, directed by Kim Nguyen 2011 – She Monkeys, directed by Lisa Aschan 2010 – When We Leave, directed by Feo Aladag 2009 – About Elly, directed by Asghar Farhadi 2008 – Let the Right One In, directed by Tomas Alfredson 2007 – My Father My Lord, directed by David Volach 2006 – Iluminados por el fuego, directed by Tristán Bauer 2005 – Stolen Life, directed by Li Shaohong 2004 – Green Hat, directed by Liu Fendou 2003 – Blind Shaft, directed by Li Yang 2002 – Roger Dodger, directed by Dylan Kidd 2017 – Rachel Israel, director of Keep the Change 2015 – Zachary Treitz for Men Go to Battle 2014 – Josef Wladyka for Manos Sucias 2013 – Emanuel Hoss-Desmarais for Whitewash 201
Chinese surnames are used by Han Chinese and Sinicized ethnic groups in Mainland China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Singapore, Philippines and among overseas Chinese communities. In ancient times two types of surnames existed, namely xing or clan names, shi or lineage names. Chinese family names are patrilineal. Women do not change their surnames upon marriage, except in places with more Western influences such as Hong Kong. Traditionally Chinese surnames have been exogamous; the colloquial expressions laobaixing and bǎixìng are used in Chinese to mean "ordinary folks", "the people", or "commoners". Prior to the Warring States period, only the ruling families and the aristocratic elite had surnames. There was a difference between clan names or xing and lineage names or shi. Xing were surnames held by the noble clans, they are composed of a nü radical, taken by some as evidence they originated from matriarchal societies based on maternal lineages. Another hypothesis has been proposed by sinologist Léon Vandermeersch upon observation of the evolution of characters in oracular scripture from the Shang dynasty through the Zhou.
The "female" radical seems to appear at the Zhou period next to Shang sinograms indicating an ethnic group or a tribe. This combination seems to designate a female and could mean "lady of such or such clan"; the structure of the xing sinogram could reflect the fact that in the royal court of Zhou, at least in the beginning, only females were called by their birth clan name, while the men were designated by their title or fief. Prior to the Qin dynasty China was a fengjian society; as fiefdoms were divided and subdivided among descendants, so additional sub-surnames known as shi were created to distinguish between noble lineages according to seniority, though in theory they shared the same ancestor. In this way, a nobleman would hold a xing; the difference between xing and shi was blurring for women since the Spring and Autumn period. After the states of China were unified by Qin Shi Huang in 221 BC, surnames spread to the lower classes. Many shi surnames survive to the present day. According to Kiang Kang-Hu, there are 18 sources from which Chinese surnames may be derived, while others suggested at least 24.
These may be names associated with a ruling dynasty such as the various titles and names of rulers and dynasty, or they may be place names of various territories, towns and specific locations, the title of official posts or occupations, or names of objects, or they may be derived from the names of family members or clans, in a few cases, names of contempt given by a ruler. The following are some of the common sources: Xing: These were reserved for the central lineage of the royal family, with collateral lineages taking their own shi; the traditional description was what were known as the "Eight Great Xings of High Antiquity", namely Jiāng, Jī, Yáo, Yíng, Sì, Yún, Guī and Rèn, though some sources quote Jí as the last one instead of Rèn. Of these xings, only Jiang and Yao have survived in their original form to modern days as occurring surnames. Royal decree by the Emperor, such as Kuang. State name: Many nobles and commoners took the name of their state, either to show their continuing allegiance or as a matter of national and ethnic identity.
These are some of the most common Chinese surnames. Name of a fief or place of origin: Fiefdoms were granted to collateral branches of the aristocracy and it was natural as part of the process of sub-surnaming for their names to be used. An example is Marquis of Ouyangting, whose descendants took the surname Ouyang. There are some two hundred examples of this identified of two-character surnames, but few have survived to the present. Names of an ancestor: Like the previous example, this was a common origin with close to 500 or 600 examples, 200 of which are two-character surnames. An ancestor's courtesy name would be used. For example, Yuan Taotu took the second character of his grandfather's courtesy name Boyuan as his surname. Sometimes titles granted to ancestors could be taken as surnames. Seniority within the family: In ancient usage, the characters of meng, shu and ji were used to denote the first, second and fourth eldest sons in a family; these were sometimes adopted as surnames. Of these, Meng is the best known.
Occupation From official positions, such as Shǐ, Jí, Líng, Cāng, Kù, Jiàn, Shàngguān, Tàishǐ, Zhōngháng, Yuèzhèng, in the case of Shang's "Five Officials", namely Sīmǎ, Sītú, Sīkōng, Sīshì and Sīkòu.
Uber Technologies Inc. is a transportation network company headquartered in San Francisco, California. Uber offers services including peer-to-peer ridesharing, ride service hailing, food delivery, a bicycle-sharing system; the company has operations in 785 metropolitan areas worldwide. Its platforms can be accessed via mobile apps. Uber has been so prominent in the sharing economy that the changes in industries as a result of it have been referred to as uberisation, many startups have described their products as "Uber for X"; the name "Uber" is a reference to the common word uber, meaning "topmost" or "super", having its origins in the German word über, cognate with over, meaning "above". Uber is estimated to have a 67.3 % market share in the United States. Uber is a gold member of the Linux Foundation and has a five star privacy rating from the Electronic Frontier Foundation. Most jurisdictions regulate TNCs such as Uber and TNCs are banned from operating in some jurisdictions. For more information, see Legality of TNCs by jurisdiction.
The Uber app gives riders a quote for the fare. Uber uses a dynamic pricing model. At the end of the ride, payment is made based on the rider's pre-selected preferences, which could be a credit card on file, Google Pay, Apple Pay, cash, or, in India, Airtel mobile wallet or Unified Payments Interface. After the ride is over, the rider is given the option to provide a gratuity to the driver, billed to the rider's payment method. In some locations, if the driver has to wait more than a few minutes after arriving to the pickup location, riders are charged a wait time fee. UberX, the basic level of service, provides a private ride in a standard car with driver for up to four passengers. Rider service levels, many of which are only available in certain cities, include: UberASSIST provides additional assistance to senior citizens and passengers with a physical disability, but cannot transport a non-folding wheelchair. UberAUTO, available in India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan, provides transportation by auto rickshaw.
UberBike is a dockless bicycle-sharing system that allows users to rent electric bicycles via Uber subsidiary Jump Bikes in 9 metropolitan areas in the United States including San Francisco and Washington, D. C. Uber users are able to rent Lime scooters in 46 cities via the Uber mobile app. UberBLACK provides a black luxury vehicle. UberBOAT, a water-taxi service, provides speedboats in the summer to/from points on the coast of Croatia. UberBOAT has offered transport across Biscayne Bay during Miami Art Week and across the Bosporus strait in Istanbul in the summer. UberChapchap, available in Nairobi, Kenya is a low-cost service offering transport via a Suzuki Alto, a kei car. "Chapchap" means "faster" in the Swahili language. UberESPAÑOL is a version of UberX that allows Spanish-speaking riders to request Spanish-speaking drivers. UberFLASH, available in Singapore, is a service that combines both private cars and ComfortDelGro taxis. UberGO, available in India and Sri Lanka, provides for a ride in a hatchback.
UberHealth is a HIPAA-compliant method for health professionals to arrange rides for patients to-and-from their appointments. Patients without smartphones can receive pickup information via Text messaging or via the health professional's office. UberKIDS provides a car with a child safety seat for an additional charge. UberMOTO, available in India, Indonesia and the Dominican Republic, provides transportation by motorcycle. UberPETS includes pet transport for an additional charge. Must be accompanied by pet's handler. Persons with a service animal may use any type of Uber service. UberPOOL, available for up to two people per party, provides a ride, shared with other riders going in the same general direction. Unless the rider pays an additional fee for door-to-door service, the rider are required to walk a short distance at both ends of the ride to save time for the driver and other riders; the pickup/drop-off locations are indicated via a map in the mobile app. UberPOP provides a subcompact car.
Uber Rent, powered by Getaround, is a peer-to-peer carsharing service available in San Francisco. UberSELECT provides a car with a leather interior. UberSUV provides a sport utility vehicle. UberTAXI allows users to summon a taxi using the Uber software application. Users can leave a gratuity through the app; the service was implemented to appease taxi drivers who protested the increased competition from Uber. UberX provides a private ride in a standard car for up to 4 passengers. UberXL provides a ride in a large vehicle. UberWAV provides a wheelchair accessible vehicle. UberAIR / UberElevate will provide short flights using VTOL aircraft. Demonstration flights are projected to start in 2020 in Los Angeles. Commercial operations are projected to begin in 2023. Although technically feasible, the program is expected to encounter safety and regulatory obstacles. Uber has operated promotional limited services, such as rides of up to 15 minutes each on September 6–8, 2013 in San Francisco in the DeLorean, featured in the Back to the Future film franchise.
Most Uber drivers use their own cars although drivers can lease a car to drive with Uber. Uber offers car rental or leasing via Getaround and Fair and Uber and BYD Auto have a partnership to provide leasing of electric cars to Uber drivers in Chicago and New York City. Drivers must meet requirements for age, car age and type, have
Chinese art is visual art that, whether ancient or modern, originated in or is practiced in China or by Chinese artists. The Chinese art in the Republic of China and that of overseas Chinese can be considered part of Chinese art where it is based in or draws on Chinese heritage and Chinese culture. Early "stone age art" dates back to 10,000 BC consisting of simple pottery and sculptures. After this early period Chinese art, like Chinese history, is classified by the succession of ruling dynasties of Chinese emperors, most of which lasted several hundred years. Chinese art has arguably the oldest continuous tradition in the world, is marked by an unusual degree of continuity within, consciousness of, that tradition, lacking an equivalent to the Western collapse and gradual recovery of classical styles; the media that have been classified in the West since the Renaissance as the decorative arts are important in Chinese art, much of the finest work was produced in large workshops or factories by unknown artists in Chinese ceramics.
Much of the best work in ceramics, carved lacquer, other techniques was produced over a long period by the various Imperial factories or workshops, which as well as being used by the court was distributed internally and abroad on a huge scale to demonstrate the wealth and power of the Emperors. In contrast, the tradition of ink wash painting, practiced by scholar-officials and court painters of landscapes and birds, developed aesthetic values depending on the individual imagination of and objective observation by the artist that are similar to those of the West, but long pre-dated their development there. After contacts with Western art became important from the 19th century onwards, in recent decades China has participated with increasing success in worldwide contemporary art. Traditional Chinese painting involves the same techniques as Chinese calligraphy and is done with a brush dipped in black or colored ink; as with calligraphy, the most popular materials on which paintings are made of silk.
The finished work can be mounted on scrolls, such as hanging handscrolls. Traditional painting can be done on album sheets, lacquerware, folding screens, other media; the two main techniques in Chinese painting are: Gong-bi, meaning "meticulous", uses detailed brushstrokes that delimits details precisely. It is highly coloured and depicts figural or narrative subjects, it is practised by artists working for the royal court or in independent workshops. Bird-and-flower paintings were in this style. Ink and wash painting, in Chinese Shui-mo or loosely termed watercolour or brush painting, known as "literati painting", as it was one of the "Four Arts" of the Chinese Scholar-official class. In theory this was an art practised by gentlemen, a distinction that begins to be made in writings on art from the Song dynasty, though in fact the careers of leading exponents could benefit considerably; this style is referred to as "xie yi" or freehand style. Artists from the Han to the Tang dynasties painted the human figure.
Much of what is known of early Chinese figure painting comes from burial sites, where paintings were preserved on silk banners, lacquered objects, tomb walls. Many early tomb paintings were meant to help their souls get to paradise. Others illustrated the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius, or showed scenes of daily life. Most Chinese portraits showed a formal full-length frontal view, were used in the family in ancestor veneration. Imperial portraits were more flexible, but were not seen outside the court, portraiture formed no part of Imperial propaganda, as in other cultures. Many critics consider landscape to be the highest form of Chinese painting; the time from the Five Dynasties period to the Northern Song period is known as the "Great age of Chinese landscape". In the north, artists such as Jing Hao, Li Cheng, Fan Kuan, Guo Xi painted pictures of towering mountains, using strong black lines, ink wash, sharp, dotted brushstrokes to suggest rough rocks. In the south, Dong Yuan and other artists painted the rolling hills and rivers of their native countryside in peaceful scenes done with softer, rubbed brushwork.
These two kinds of scenes and techniques became the classical styles of Chinese landscape painting. Chinese ritual bronzes from the Shang and Western Zhou dynasties come from a period of over a thousand years from c. 1500, have exerted a continuing influence over Chinese art. They are cast with complex patterned and zoomorphic decoration, but avoid the human figure, unlike the huge figures only discovered at Sanxingdui; the spectacular Terracotta Army was assembled for the tomb of Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of a unified China from 221–210 BC, as a grand imperial version of the figures long placed in tombs to enable the deceased to enjoy the same lifestyle in the afterlife as when alive, replacing actual sacrifices of early periods. Smaller figures in pottery or wood were placed in tombs for many centuries afterwards, reaching a peak of quality in the Tang dynasty. Native Chinese religions do not use cult images of deities, or represent them, large religious sculpture is nearly all Buddhist, dating from the 4th to the 14th century, using Greco-Buddhist models arriving via the Silk Road.
Buddhism is the context of all large portrait sculpture. Imperial tombs have spectacular avenues of appro