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West Indies Federation

The West Indies Federation known as the West Indies, the Federation of the West Indies or the West Indian Federation, was a short-lived political union that existed from 3 January 1958 to 31 May 1962. Various islands in the Caribbean that were colonies of the United Kingdom, including Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados and those on the Leeward and Windward Islands, came together to form the Federation, with its capital in Port of Spain and Tobago; the expressed intention of the Federation was to create a political unit that would become independent from Britain as a single state—possibly similar to the Canadian Confederation, Australian Commonwealth, or Central African Federation. The territories that would have become part of the Federation became the nine contemporary sovereign states of Antigua and Barbuda, Dominica, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago. British Guiana and British Honduras held observer status within the West Indies Federation.

The total population of the West Indies Federation was between 3 and 4 million people, with the majority being of black West African descent. Minorities included Indians from the subcontinent, Europeans and Caribs. There was a large population of mixed descent. In terms of religion, most of the population was Protestant, with significant numbers of Catholics and some Hindus and Muslims; the West Indies Federation consisted of around 24 main inhabited islands and 220–230 minor offshore islands and cays. The largest island was Jamaica, located in the far northwest of the Federation. To the southeast lay the second largest island, followed by Barbados, located at the eastern extremity of the Federation; the Federation spanned all the island groupings in the Caribbean: The Greater Antilles: Jamaica and the Cayman Islands and the Turks and Caicos Islands The Lesser Antilles: Barbados, east of the Windward Islands Leeward Islands: Antigua and Barbuda, Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla, Montserrat Windward Islands: Dominica, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Grenada Trinidad and TobagoAt its widest, from the Cayman Islands to Barbados it spanned some 2,425 kilometres and from the Turks and Caicos Islands in the north, to the Icacos Point, Trinidad in the south it extended 1,700 kilometres.

However, most of the area along either of these distances was taken up by open water. By comparison Great Britain stretches across nearly 10 degrees of latitude and Spain extends across 20 degrees of longitude. Though the West Indies was spread across such a vast area, most of its provinces were contiguous and clustered close together in the Eastern Caribbean, with the obvious exceptions of Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands. Most of the islands have mountainous interiors surrounded by narrow coastal plains; the exceptions were Anguilla, Barbuda, the Cayman Islands, the Turks and Caicos Islands, Trinidad. The narrow coastal plains as well as historical trade is the main reason why all of the major settlements of the Federation were located on the coast. Chief towns included Kingston, Port of Spain, Spanish Town, Montego Bay, Castries, Roseau, St. George's, Kingstown, St. John's, Basseterre; the climate in all the islands is tropical, with hot and humid weather, although inland regions in the larger islands have more temperate climates.

Regions falling within the rain shadows are drier. There are two seasons annually: the dry season for the first six months of the year, the rainy season in the second half of the year. Many of the islands fall within the traditional hurricane belt, with the exception of Trinidad and thus are at risk from potential wind and flood damage. Britain classified the Federation as being part of its "Caribbean and North Atlantic Territories" region, shared alongside other possessions such as Bermuda; the Federation today is geographically considered to be part of the North American continent as all of its islands are in and around the Caribbean though Trinidad is located just offshore from South America and lies on the same continental shelf. See Bicontinental countries. "West Indian" nations The Bahamas, Belize, the British Virgin Islands, Guyana opted not to join because they believed that their future lay with association with North America, Central America, the United States Virgin Islands. Guyana opted not to join at that time due to its ongoing political and internal struggles for independence from the UK, started in the 1950s.

At issue were the newly formed political party with socialist leanings

Kristen Ledlow

Kristen Melissa Ledlow is an American sports anchor. She works for NBA TV as the host of NBA Inside Stuff, she is a courtside reporter for the NBA on TNT. She has served as a sports anchor for HLN and CNN. Ledlow attended Christian Community School North Florida Christian School, playing basketball and volleyball, while running track and cross country, she attended Southeastern University in Lakeland, majoring in broadcasting and communications, while minoring in business, graduated in 2010. She was an All-American volleyball player with the school, after games, she served as lead announcer for the men's basketball games. During her senior year, Ledlow was crowned Miss Capital City USA, finished third in the state pageant. After graduating from college, Ledlow became an anchor at WTXL-TV, hosting the Good News Show, while writing for the Tallahassee Quarterback Club and working on radio for ESPN Tallahassee becoming a sideline reporter for Florida State Seminoles football games. Afterwards, she joined CBS Sports Radio as a cohost of The Opening Drive.

On one occasion, she turned down an internship with ESPN to work in an athletic ministry. In 2013, Ledlow joined WZGC as a host, working alongside Randy Cross, she left the station on March 4, 2014. In 2015, Ledlow was hired by NBA TV as a host for NBA Inside Stuff alongside former NBA player Grant Hill. Ledlow participated in the 2014 NBA All-Star Weekend Celebrity Game for the East team, scoring twice in the first half. Kristen Ledlow on Twitter Kristen Ledlow on IMDb

Washington Iron Furnace

Washington Iron Furnace is an historic iron furnace, located in Rocky Mount, Franklin County, Virginia. The granite furnace was built around 1770, measures 30 feet on its south face, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. Now one of the best preserved furnaces in Virginia, it was built against the side of a hill so iron ore and limestone could be brought by wagon and dumped into the top of the furnace, although the original cart road and ten-yard-long bridge leading to the top no longer exist. John Donelson and his son-in-law, John Caffery, built the furnace circa 1770 and operated it for about a decade. However, Franklin County would not be created until 1785, from Bedford and Henry County. Therefore, Donaldson served on the first court for Pittsylvania County, as well as represented it in the House of Burgesses, was its militia Colonel and county surveyor; the ironworks simply called "The Bloomery", supplied Patriot forces in the American Revolutionary War. The ironmaster's house became known as The Farm.

In 1773, four white men and six slaves carted the raw materials, stoked the fires and otherwise worked the furnace. In 1779 Donelson moved to Tennessee and sold the Bloomery to fellow former Burgess James Callaway and his father-in-law Jeremiah Early, both of Bedford County, Virginia, they named it "Washington Iron Forge". Calloway owned Oxford furnace in Campbell County, Virginia with Henry Innes, the Chiswell lead mines further southwest. Prominent landowner Jeremiah Early would soon die and bequeath his share to three of his sons, two of whom soon died, so John Early sold his share to Calloway in 1781. In 1820, the three Saunders brothers purchased this and another furnace on Ferrum Creek from Calloway's heirs. A nearby vein of high quality magnetite supplied this furnace, horse-drawn wagons took the refined iron bars and castings down the Carolina Road to North Carolina and Alabama. In 1850, a dam on Furnace Creek uphill of the furnace burst, the resulting water flow cracked the hot furnace, not rebuilt by the Saunders family operating it.

The mine would continue operations until 1880. The last shafts went 75 feet below the surface and soon filled with water. Media related to Washington Iron Works at Wikimedia Commons

Sleeping States

Sleeping States is a musical solo project of British musician Markland Starkie. Started in 2004 in London, Sleeping States falls predominantly in the songwriter genre. Sleeping States has been associated with Lo-Fi, DIY and Queercore, having released a number of 7"s, cassette-only EPs and a CD-R album on several small DIY labels in Britain, including the Queercore label/collective Homocrime. Albums In the Gardens of the North - Album on Bella Union, released August 17 There The Open Spaces - Album on Tome, Misra Records, EtchnSketch Distances Are Great - CD-R Album on Kontra-PunkteEPs Old vs New - 10" / Digital EP on Bella Union, Misra Records, EtchnSketch Sleeping States / Francois - Cassette EP on Undereducated Sleeping States - Cassette EP on Kontra-Punkte A Year In The Life - 3" CD EP on HomocrimeSingles Gardens of the South - Cassette single on Bella Union Call Me - 7" on Single Felt Tip Records I Wonder / Under A Capricorn Sky - 7" Single on Caspian Rivers / London Fields - 7" Single on Tome Official Website Sleeping States Myspace Daytrotter Article

Law enforcement in Kyrgyzstan

Law enforcement in the Kyrgyz Republic is the responsibility of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. The ministry commands the police force known locally as militsiya and thus policemen carry the insignia of the ministry; this structure of law enforcement is similar to many other post-Soviet states. The ministry is subdivided into numerous departments that tackle the different aspects of law enforcement in the Kyrgyz Republic and is supported by other governmental agencies; the police is contactable via the emergency hotline number 102. Before Kyrgyzstan's independence, the main law enforcement agencies in the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic were the KGB's Kirghiz branch and the Committee for State Security of the Kyrgyz Soviet Socialist Republic. Both were however dissolved after the independence of Kyrgyzstan, with the newly formed Ministry of Internal Affairs taking over the responsibilities. Since its independence, the republic has been rocked by several revolutions, terror incidents and international cross border standoffs which has put pressure on the law enforcement agencies in maintaining public security as well as law and order in the absence of proper governance.

In addition institutionalised corruption and traditional practices such as Ala kachuu has further exacerbated the problems and have caused mounting criticisms by the public on the republic's law enforcement agencies, to which years of newly elected government have tried but with limited success in attempting to reform the law enforcement agencies and its institutions. For example, in recent times, the government has been reviewing the changing of the name of the force from militsiya to police, so as to encourage an increase in police interaction with the general public and gain the public's confidence in the force. Nonetheless the republic has with its Soviet predecessor set aside days to celebrate the contributions of law enforcement personnel and present; the first of November is set aside as the professional Day of Police which commemorates the founding of the predecessor of the current Kyrgyz police in 1924. Other dates set aside include the 28 of May for Border Guard Day. There are several agencies like the Main Directorate for Road Traffic Safety, Service for Combating Drug Trafficking and Specialised State Security Service that are departments under the direct command of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.

Whilst other agencies work separately but alongside the internal ministry, are known as State Committees or Public Service Departments. Several of these agencies are: State Committee State Committee for National Security, responsible for intelligence on counter terrorism and organised crimePublic Service Departments State Border Guard Service, responsible for border security and immigration State Customs Service, responsible for customs and excise State Forensic Experts Service, responsible for forensics State Penitentiary Service, responsible for the upkeep of prisons State Service for Combating Economic Crimes, responsible for tackling economic crimes The Ministry of Internal Affairs has forged relationships with several international policing organisations, these include Interpol and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime; these organisations have assisted and received assistance from the republic in tackling international crimes related to drug trafficking and organised crime. Several international agencies have been invited by the Kyrgyz Republic in helping to reform and improve the efficiency of the police, although they do not have the right to exercise law enforcement powers.

An example would be the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe which has developed the Community Security Initiative programme. Police reform in Kyrgyzstan Ministry of Internal Affairs State Committee for National Security Ministry of Emergency Situations

Chick Chandler

Fehmer Christy "Chick" Chandler was an American film character actor who appeared in more than 130 films from 1925 through the mid-1950s. Chandler was known for his starring role as Toubo Smith in the Universal-produced 1955 syndicated television series Soldiers of Fortune. Born Fehmer Christy Chandler, in Kingston, New York to Colonel George F. Chandler and the former Martha Schultze, by the age of 12, he was appearing as a dancer and entertainer in local stage shows, his father, an army surgeon and organizer of the New York State Police, enrolled him in a military academy, The Manlius School, which he attended for three years, serving with distinction and rising to the school rank of corporal. At 16, though he was being groomed by his family for a military career, he dropped out to work on a tramp steamer and to pursue work in vaudeville and to study dance at the school of famed choreographer Ned Wayburn. Chandler maintained a successful career throughout the 1920s as a dancer and comedian in vaudeville and burlesque, at times teamed with Naomi Morton, granddaughter of vaudeville and Broadway star Sam Morton.

In 1930, still billed as Fehmer Chandler, joined the cast of the Liberty Bell Filling Station radio show starring Chic Sale, as Rodney Gordon, the assistant to Wheel Wilkins, proprietor of the titular gas station. Two years he landed a role in the Ben Hecht-Gene Fowler Broadway play The Great Magoo. Spotting him there, film producer David O. Selznick signed Chandler, now billed under his boyhood nickname Chick, to a film contract at RKO, telling the press that Chandler was "a cross between Lee Tracy and James Cagney." Chandler, who had done behind-the-camera work for director Charles Brabin in 1923 and had appeared in at least one silent film as an actor, turned full-time to movie acting with his first films under contract and Melody Cruise, in 1933. He appeared in supporting roles comic, in nearly 120 films over the next 36 years. In the late 1930s he was a fixture at Twentieth Century-Fox, playing wiseguy sidekicks in the studio's series films. Chick Chandler starred in only two films: the 1933 short subject A Preferred List and the 1944 feature film Seven Doors to Death.

Under the pseudonym Guy Fehmer, Chandler wrote. There is no evidence the film was produced. In 1955, Chandler was cast in the starring role of Toubo Smith in the adventure series Soldiers of Fortune alongside John Russell as Tim Kelly. In the show and Kelly traveled the world engaging in treasure hunts and exploration adventures, it brought Chandler his greatest fame. During the off-seasons, he toured the country in stock and musical theatrical productions such as Harvey and Annie Get Your Gun, he was a regular on the short-lived 1961 NBC comedy series One Happy Family. In the 1959 debut episode of NBC's Johnny Staccato, he played a police detective, friends with John Cassavetes' title character, he portrayed photographer "Billy Hackett" in the I Love Lucy episode "Ethel's Hometown". In 1965 he played the old fisherman Andy McGrew in the Lassie episode "Trouble at Paradise Lake". In 1966 he played Riff Lawler in the Perry Mason "The Case of the Avenging Angel", he retired in 1971 following a sixth guest appearance on Bonanza.

Chandler was the nephew of artist Howard Chandler Christy. Chandler was engaged to Ziegfeld Follies performer and Christy model Dorothy Knapp, whom he had met while visiting his brother at West Point Military Academy in 1925. Knapp broke off the engagement to pursue her career further, Chandler became partnered and professionally, with 17-year-old Sallie Sharon, whom he met at West Point; the pair formed a vaudeville team, but never married. On April 4, 1931, Chandler married Eugenia "Jean" Frontai, a former contract performer with David Belasco's theatrical company, they were married 57 years, until Chandler's death from a heart attack on September 30, 1988. The couple had no children. Chandler had been an avid amateur auto racer, until his wife filed for a restraining order to make him stop as he had promised to do upon their marriage. Chick Chandler on IMDb Chick Chandler at Find a Grave