National Museum of Cambodia
The National Museum of Cambodia in Phnom Penh is Cambodia's largest museum of cultural history and is the country's leading historical and archaeological museum. The museum houses one of the world's largest collections of Khmer art, including sculptural, Khmer ceramics and ethnographic objects, its collection includes over 14,000 items, from prehistoric times to periods before and after the Khmer Empire, which at its height stretched from Thailand, across present-day Cambodia, to southern Vietnam. The National Museum of Cambodia is located on Street 13 in central Phnom Penh, to the north of the Royal Palace and on the west side of Veal Preah Man square; the visitors' entrance to the compound is at the corner of Streets 13 and 178. The Royal University of Fine Arts is located on the west side of the museum; the museum is under the authority of the Cambodian Ministry of Fine Arts. The museum buildings, inspired by Khmer temple architecture, were constructed between 1917 and 1924, the museum was inaugurated in 1920, it was renovated in 1968.
George Groslier, historian and author was the motivating force behind much of the revival of interest in traditional Cambodian arts and crafts, it was he who designed this building, today ‘traditional Khmer’ architecture. It is better described as a building enlarged from Cambodian temple prototypes seen on ancient bas-reliefs and reinterpreted through colonial eyes to meet the museum-size requirements; the foundation stone for the new museum was laid on 15 August 1917. Some two-and-a-half years the completed museum was inaugurated during Khmer New Year on 13 April 1920 in the presence of H. M King Sisowath, François-Marius Baudoin, Résident-supérieur, M. Groslier, director of Cambodian Arts, Conservator of the museum; the original design of the building was altered in 1924 with extensions that added wings at either end of the eastern façade that made the building more imposing. Control of the National Museum and Arts Administration was ceded by the French to the Cambodians on 9 August 1951 and following Independence in 1953, the Musée National de Phnom Penh was the subject of bilateral accords.
In 1966 Chea Thay Seng was the first Cambodian Director of the Museum and Dean of the newly created Department of Archaeology at the Royal University of Fine Arts. This university that form its foundation as the Ecole des Arts Cambodgiens in 1920 was intimately linked with students and teachers who worked to preserve Cambodian cultural traditions, can still be found to the rear of the museum. During the Khmer Rouge regime, all aspects of Cambodian life including the cultural realm were devastated; the Museum, along with the rest of Phnom Penh, was abandoned. The Museum, closed between 1975 and 1979, was found in disrepair, its roof rotten and home to a vast colony of bats, the garden overgrown, the collection in disarray, many objects damaged or stolen; the Museum was tidied up and reopened to the public on 13 April 1979. However, many of the Museum's employees had lost their lives during the Khmer Rouge regime. Together with the adjacent Royal University of Fine Arts and its Department of Archaeology, the National Museum of Cambodia works to enhance knowledge of and preserve Cambodian cultural traditions and to provide a source of pride and identity to the Cambodian people.
The Museum serves a religious function. A permanent exhibition, Post-Angkorian Buddha, supported by UNESCO and a number of individuals and local businesses, opened in 2000 to extend the religious function of the Museum. Under the auspices of the Cambodian Department of Museums, the Museum not only manages its own collection and premises but supports and oversees all other state-run museums in Cambodia, its activities are further supported by private individuals, foreign governments, numerous philanthropic organizations. The activities of the Museum include the presentation, safekeeping and acquisition of Cambodian cultural material, as well as the repatriation of Cambodian cultural property. Looting and illicit export of Cambodian cultural material are a continuing concern. Outside of Cambodia, the Museum promotes the understanding of Cambodian arts and culture by lending objects from its collection for major international exhibitions; this practice was in place before Cambodia’s recent decades of unrest and was reinstituted in the 1990s, starting with an exhibition held at the National Gallery of Australia in 1992.
Subsequent exhibitions have been held in France, the USA, South Korea, Germany. Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum. Jessup, Helen Ibbitson, et al.. Masterpieces of the National Museum of Cambodia. Norfolk, CT: Friends of Khmer Culture. 112 pages. ISBN 978-99950-836-0-1, ISBN 99950-836-0-4 Khun, Samen; the New Guide to the National Museum—Phnom Penh. Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Ariyathoar. 203 pages. ISBN 978-99963-799-2-5 Lenzi, Iola. Museums of Southeast Asia. Singapore: Archipelago Press. P. 200. ISBN 981-4068-96-9. Adapted, with permission, from National Museum of Cambodia Cambodia Travel GuideNational Museum of Cambodia homepage Article: Cambodian National Museum Marks 90th Anniversary Article: Treasures of Khmer Culture — The National Museum of Cambodia Cambodia Cultural Profile
Krol Ko at Angkor, Cambodia, is a Buddhist temple built at the end of the 12th century under the rule of Jayavarman VII. It is north of Neak Pean. Krol Ko - Gallery and Documentation by khmer-heritage.de Krol Ko Temple Krol Ko is a small temple located just to the north of Neak Pean. It may have served as a chapel at a hospital site, as its layout is identical to the four hospital chapels found outside Angkor Thom. Placement of a hospital close to Neak Pean would have made sense as Neak Pean was constructed as a representation of the waters of the mythical lake Anavatapta, which were thought to cure illnesses. More tellingly, seven of the temple pediments at Krol Ko feature Lokeshvara, the boddhisattva of healing, associated with hospitals; the name'Krol Ko' is a modern term meaning'The Park of the Oxen' and has no connection to its historical use. Location The approximate location of the site is 13.468189' N, 103.895401' E
Chau Say Tevoda
Chau Say Tevoda is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia. It is just east of Angkor Thom, directly south of Thommanon across the Victory Way. Built in the mid-12th century, it is a Hindu temple in the Angkor Wat period, it is dedicated to Shiva and Vishnu with unique types of female sculptures of devatas enshrined in it. The Buddha images have been interpreted to have been built during the reign of Dharanindravarman, father of Jayavarman VII, who ruled from Preah Khan of Kompong; the temple was in a dilapidated state with 4,000 of its elements lying scattered on the embankment and in the Siem Reap River. Many of these elements were used in the restoration work carried out by a Chinese team between 2000 and 2009 under a project sponsored by the People's Republic of China; the temple was reopened in late 2009. Chau Say Tevoda is a temple at Angkor, Cambodia just to the northeast of the ancient capital Angkor Thom's east gate, directly south of Thommanon across the Victory Way, it is on a road which has the Thomannon temple on its opposite side, 500 metres from the east gate and 200 metres to a bridge built with carved stones from temple ruins in the vicinity.
The bridge is without a river flowing beneath it in view of the shifting nature of the course of the Siem Reap River. Chau Say Tevoda was built in the mid-12th century under the reign of King Suryavarman II. Further supplementation of structures was done under the reign of Jayavarman VII. Though the temple was built under Hindu kings during the 11th and 12th centuries with predominantly Hindu deities such as Shiva and Vishnu, representation of Buddha images was interpreted to have been built during the reign of Dharanindravarman, father of Jayavarman VII, who ruled from Preah Khan Kompong Svay; the temple was reconstructed on the basis of about 4,000 elements of the temple that were found lying around at the site. This restoration was done by a Chinese team between 2000 and 2009 under a project sponsored by the People's Republic of China; the Tevoda is built to a cruciform plan and linked to an entrance hall, similar to the Hindu temples built in India in Odisha. The temple has four gopuras or towers on the four cardinal signs with an entrance from the east though a raised bridge.
The long hall, which links the gopuras and central chamber of the temple, has elegant flower decorations. The temple consists of a central tower with an attached mandapa, achieved through an antarala chamber of small size, with two libraries on its southern and northern sides, it is enclosed by a compound wall which has four towers. To its east, there is a raised causeway. Many of the sculptures depict Vishnu and are in a good condition. However, the main deity of the temple is Shiva; some of the sculptures are of Buddha but disfigured totally. With time the ceiling has led to further deterioration; the defaced Buddhas, which are deified in a lotus posture, flanked by devotees, are in a mandapa behind a pediment from the entrance door which leads to the antarala. The incomplete eastern Gopura I, oriented in the western direction, has a roof, part of the second "pediment of the lateral southern extension", not restored; the main figure here is of Buddha in a cross legged posture seated on a high platform flanked by disfigured carvings which are interpreted as that of Garuda and the king of Nagas.
The top pediment of this Gopura I with figure of Buddha has an umbrella cover of a Bodhi tree. Carvings depicting episodes from the life of Buddha are seen on the northern door of the eastern Gopura I. A notable bass relief here is of Sita in a seated posture over an altar flanked by rakshasis. Hanuman, in a small monkey form, is carved in sitting posture facing Sita and offering her Rama's ring. A wall built with laterite stones enclosing the temple, which had existed in the past, has disappeared; the temple was in a dilapidated state with 4,000 of its elements lying scattered on the embankment and in the Siem Reap River. Between 2000 and 2009 some of these elements were put together under a restoration project initiated by the People's Republic of China; the temple reopened in late 2009 and is accessible. Arrowood, Janet. Cambodia Travel Adventures. Hunter Publishing, Inc. ISBN 978-1-58843-726-6. Chihara, Daigorō. Hindu-Buddhist Architecture in Southeast Asia. BRILL. ISBN 90-04-10512-3. Degroot, Veronique.
Materializing Southeast Asia's Past: Selected Papers from the 12th International Conference of the European Association of Southeast Asian Archaeologists. NUS Press. ISBN 978-9971-69-655-9. Palmer, Beverley. Cambodia. Rough Guides. ISBN 978-1-85828-837-6. Photographic Documentation and Gallery
Prasat Kravan is a small 10th-century temple consisting of five reddish brick towers on a common terrace, at Angkor, south of the artificial lake called Srah Srang. Its original Sanskrit name is unknown; the modern name in Khmer, "Prasat Kravan", means. The temple was dedicated to Vishnu according to an inscription on doorjambs; the site was cleaned from vegetation in the 1930s by Henri Marchal and Georges Trouvé. Afterwards the towers were restored on Bernard Philippe Groslier's initiative from 1962 to 1966, adding some new bricks which are marked with a "CA"; the temple is oriented to the east and surrounded by a small moat. Its exterior is striking for its classical lines and symmetry; the central and the south tower have superstructures which take advantage of false perspective by simple means of diminishing tiers. The sanctuary's interiors are remarkable for the large bas-relief depictions of Vishnu and Lakshmi that have been carved into the walls of reddish brick, connected by a vegetable compound.
This type of sculptured artwork is rare in known Khmer monuments. The bas-reliefs on the interior walls of the central tower are representations of Vishnu. There are three in all: Four-armed Vishnu sits astride his vehicle Garuda and holding his standard appurtenances: the globe, the conch, the discus, the baton. Four-armed Vishnu, again holding his four standard appurtenances, takes a large step; this image illustrates the story of Vishnu in his incarnation as Vamana the dwarf taking three great steps to reclaim the world from the asura Bali. Eight-armed Vishnu stands stiffly in the position of a statue, he is surmounted by a crocodile or a lizard. Its significance remains unknown; the interior walls of the northernmost tower feature a pair of bas-reliefs of Lakshmi, Vishnu's consort, flanked by devotees: In one of the depictions, the goddess holds the trident of Shiva and the discus of Vishnu marking her as the great goddess who transcends the duality of Saiva and Vaishnava worship. A more traditional depiction of Lakshmi holding lotuses is on the opposite wall.
Freeman, Michael. Ancient Angkor. River Books. ISBN 974-8225-27-5. Glaize, Maurice. Tremmel, Nils, ed; the Monuments of the Angkor Group. Retrieved 2009-08-01. Photos of details of Prasat Kravan, M. A. Sullivan on Bluffton University website
The history of Cambodian art stretches back centuries to ancient times, but the most famous period is undoubtedly the Khmer art of the Khmer Empire in the area around Angkor and the 12th-century temple-complex of Angkor Wat Hindu and subsequently Buddhist. After the collapse of the empire these and other sites were abandoned and overgrown, allowing much of the era's stone carving and architecture to survive to the present day. Traditional Cambodian arts and crafts include textiles, non-textile weaving, stone carving, ceramics, wat murals, kite-making. Beginning in the mid-20th century, a tradition of modern art began in Cambodia, though in the 20th century both traditional and modern arts declined for several reasons, including the killing of artists by the Khmer Rouge; the country has experienced a recent artistic revival due to increased support from governments, NGOs, foreign tourists. In pre-colonial Cambodia and crafts were produced either by rural non-specialists for practical use or by skilled artists producing works for the Royal Palace.
In modern Cambodia, many artistic traditions entered a period of decline or ceased to be practiced, but the country has experienced a recent artistic revival as the tourist market has increased and governments and NGOs have contributed to the preservation of Cambodian culture. Cambodia's best-known stone carving adorns the temples of Angkor, which are "renowned for the scale and detail of their sculpture". In modern times, the art of stone carving became rare because older sculptures survived undamaged for centuries and because of the use of cement molds for modern temple architecture. By the 1970s and 1980s, the craft of stone carving was nearly lost. During the late 20th century, efforts to restore Angkor resulted in a new demand for skilled stone carvers to replace missing or damaged pieces, a new tradition of stone carving is arising to meet this need. Most modern carving is traditional-style, but some carvers are experimenting with contemporary designs. Interest is renewing for using stone carving in modern wats.
Modern carvings are made from Banteay Meanchey sandstone, though stone from Pursat and Kompong Thom is used. Because of destruction during recent war, few historic wat murals remain in Cambodia. In the 1960s, art historians Guy and Jacqueline Nafilyan photographed 19th-century murals, providing a record of this lost cultural heritage; the best known surviving murals are at the Silver Pagoda in Phnom Penh, Wat Rajabo in Siem Reap province, Wat Kompong Tralach Leu in Kompong Chhnang Province. In the last decade, wat murals have seen a resurgence, but Cambodia's surviving older murals are more refined and detailed. Silk weaving in Cambodia has a long history; the practice dates to as early as the 1st century, textiles were used in trade during Angkorian times. Modern textile production evidences these historic antecedents: motifs found on silk today echo clothing details on ancient stone sculptures. There are two main types of Cambodian weaving; the ikat technique, which produces patterned fabric, is quite complex.
To create patterns, weavers tie-dye portions of weft yarn before weaving begins. Patterns vary by region; the second weaving technique, unique to Cambodia, is called "uneven twill". It yields single or two-color fabrics, which are produced by weaving three threads so that the "color of one thread dominates on one side of the fabric, while the two others determine the colour on the reverse side." Traditionally, Cambodian textiles have employed natural dyes. Red dye comes from lac insect nests, blue dye from indigo and green dye from prohut bark, black dye from ebony bark. Cambodia's modern silk-weaving centers are Takéo, Beanteay Meanchey, Siem Reap and Kampot provinces. Silk-weaving has seen a major revival with production doubling over the past ten years; this has provided employment for many rural women. Cambodian silk is sold domestically, where it is used in sampot and pidan, but interest in international trade is increasing. Cotton textiles have played a significant role in Cambodian culture.
Though today Cambodia imports most of its cotton, traditionally woven cotton remains popular. Rural women weave homemade cotton fabric, used in garments and for household purposes. Krama, the traditional check scarves worn universally by Cambodians, are made of cotton. Many Cambodian farmers weave baskets as a supplemental source of income. Most baskets are made of thinly cut bamboo. Regions known for basketry include Kampong Cham. Mat weaving is a common seasonal occupation, they are most made from reeds, either left a natural tan color or dyed in deep jewel tones. The region of Cambodia best known for mat weaving is the Mekong floodplain around Lvea Em district. Mats are laid out for guests and are important building materials for homes. Wicker and rattan crafts made from dryandra trees are significant. Common wicker and rattan products include walls, mats and other household items; the height of Cambodian traditional lacquerware was between the 16th centuries. Lacquerware was traditionally colored black using burnt wood.
The Khmer script is an abugida script used to write the Khmer language. It is used to write Pali in the Buddhist liturgy of Cambodia and Thailand; the Khmer script was adapted from the Pallava script, which descended from the Brahmi script, used in southern India and South East Asia during the 5th and 6th centuries AD. The oldest dated inscription in Khmer was found at Angkor Borei District in Takéo Province south of Phnom Penh and dates from 611; the modern Khmer script differs somewhat from precedent forms seen on the inscriptions of the ruins of Angkor. The Thai and Lao scripts are descendants of an older form of the Khmer script. Khmer is written from left to right. Words within the same sentence or phrase are run together with no spaces between them. Consonant clusters within a word are "stacked", with the second consonant being written in reduced form under the main consonant. There were 35 consonant characters, but modern Khmer uses only 33; each character represents a consonant sound together with an inherent vowel, either â or ô.
There are some independent vowel characters, but vowel sounds are more represented as dependent vowels, additional marks accompanying a consonant character, indicating what vowel sound is to be pronounced after that consonant. Most dependent vowels have two different pronunciations, depending in most cases on the inherent vowel of the consonant to which they are added. There are a number of diacritics used to indicate further modifications in pronunciation; the script includes its own numerals and punctuation marks. There are 35 Khmer consonant symbols, although modern Khmer only uses 33, two having become obsolete; each consonant has an inherent vowel: â /ɑː/ or ô /ɔː/. A consonant's series determines the pronunciation of the dependent vowel symbols which may be attached to it, in some positions the sound of the inherent vowel is itself pronounced; the two series represented voiceless and voiced consonants respectively. Each consonant, with one exception has a subscript form; these may be called "sub-consonants".
Most subscript consonants resemble the corresponding consonant symbol, but in a smaller and simplified form, although in a few cases there is no obvious resemblance. Most subscript consonants are written directly below other consonants, although subscript r appears to the left, while a few others have ascending elements which appear to the right. Subscripts are used in writing consonant clusters. Clusters in Khmer consist of two consonants, although in the middle of a word there will be three; the first consonant in a cluster is written using the main consonant symbol, with the second attached to it in subscript form. Subscripts were also used to write final consonants; the consonants and their subscript forms are listed in the following table. Usual phonetic values are given using the International Phonetic Alphabet; the sound system is described in detail at Khmer phonology. The spoken name of each consonant letter is its value together with its inherent vowel. Transliterations are given using the UNGEGN system.
The letter bâ appears in somewhat modified form. The letter ញ nhô is written without the lower curve; when it is subscripted to itself, the subscript is a smaller form of the entire letter: ញ្ញ -nhnh-. Note that ដ dâ and ត tâ have the same subscript form. In initial clusters this subscript is always pronounced, but in medial positions it is in some words and in others; the series ដ dâ, ឋ thâ, ឌ dô, ឍ thô, ណ nâ represented retroflex consonants in the Indic parent scripts. The second and fourth of these are rare, occur only for etymological reasons in a few Pali and Sanskrit loanwords; because the sound /n/ is common, grammatically productive, in Mon-Khmer languages, the fifth of this group, ណ, was adapted as an a-series counterpart of ន nô for convenience. The aspirated consonant letters are pronounced with aspiration only before a vowel. There is slight aspiration with k, ch, t and p sounds before certain consonants, but this is regardless of whether they are spelt with a letter that indicates aspiration.
A Khmer word cannot end with more than one consonant sound, so subscript consonants at the end of words are not pronounced, although they may come to be pronounced when the same word begins a compound. In some words, a single medial consonant symbol represents both the final consonant of one syllable and the initial consonant of the next; the letter ប bâ represents only before a vowel. When final or followed by a subscript consonant, it is pronounced (and in the case where it is followed by a subscript consonant, i
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or way of life practised in the Indian subcontinent and parts of Southeast Asia. Hinduism has been called the oldest religion in the world, some practitioners and scholars refer to it as Sanātana Dharma, "the eternal tradition", or the "eternal way", beyond human history. Scholars regard Hinduism as a fusion or synthesis of various Indian cultures and traditions, with diverse roots and no founder; this "Hindu synthesis" started to develop between 500 BCE and 300 CE, after the end of the Vedic period, flourished in the medieval period, with the decline of Buddhism in India. Although Hinduism contains a broad range of philosophies, it is linked by shared concepts, recognisable rituals, shared textual resources, pilgrimage to sacred sites. Hindu texts are classified into Smṛti; these texts discuss theology, mythology, Vedic yajna, agamic rituals, temple building, among other topics. Major scriptures include the Vedas and Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita, the Ramayana, the Āgamas.
Sources of authority and eternal truths in its texts play an important role, but there is a strong Hindu tradition of questioning authority in order to deepen the understanding of these truths and to further develop the tradition. Prominent themes in Hindu beliefs include the four Puruṣārthas, the proper goals or aims of human life, namely Dharma, Artha and Moksha. Hindu practices include rituals such as puja and recitations, meditation, family-oriented rites of passage, annual festivals, occasional pilgrimages; some Hindus leave their social world and material possessions engage in lifelong Sannyasa to achieve Moksha. Hinduism prescribes the eternal duties, such as honesty, refraining from injuring living beings, forbearance, self-restraint, compassion, among others; the four largest denominations of Hinduism are the Vaishnavism, Shaivism and Smartism. Hinduism is the world's third largest religion. Hinduism is the most professed faith in India and Mauritius, it is the predominant religion in Bali, Indonesia.
Significant numbers of Hindu communities are found in the Caribbean, North America, other countries. The word Hindū is derived from Indo-Aryan/Sanskrit root Sindhu; the Proto-Iranian sound change *s > h occurred between 850–600 BCE, according to Asko Parpola. It is believed that Hindu was used as the name for the Indus River in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. According to Gavin Flood, "The actual term Hindu first occurs as a Persian geographical term for the people who lived beyond the river Indus", more in the 6th-century BCE inscription of Darius I; the term Hindu in these ancient records did not refer to a religion. Among the earliest known records of'Hindu' with connotations of religion may be in the 7th-century CE Chinese text Record of the Western Regions by Xuanzang, 14th-century Persian text Futuhu's-salatin by'Abd al-Malik Isami. Thapar states that the word Hindu is found as heptahindu in Avesta – equivalent to Rigvedic sapta sindhu, while hndstn is found in a Sasanian inscription from the 3rd century CE, both of which refer to parts of northwestern South Asia.
The Arabic term al-Hind referred to the people. This Arabic term was itself taken from the pre-Islamic Persian term Hindū, which refers to all Indians. By the 13th century, Hindustan emerged as a popular alternative name of India, meaning the "land of Hindus"; the term Hindu was used in some Sanskrit texts such as the Rajataranginis of Kashmir and some 16th- to 18th-century Bengali Gaudiya Vaishnava texts including Chaitanya Charitamrita and Chaitanya Bhagavata. These texts used it to distinguish Hindus from Muslims who are called Yavanas or Mlecchas, with the 16th-century Chaitanya Charitamrita text and the 17th-century Bhakta Mala text using the phrase "Hindu dharma", it was only towards the end of the 18th century that European merchants and colonists began to refer to the followers of Indian religions collectively as Hindus. The term Hinduism spelled Hindooism, was introduced into the English language in the 18th century to denote the religious and cultural traditions native to India. Hinduism includes a diversity of ideas on spirituality and traditions, but has no ecclesiastical order, no unquestionable religious authorities, no governing body, no prophet nor any binding holy book.
Because of the wide range of traditions and ideas covered by the term Hinduism, arriving at a comprehensive definition is difficult. The religion "defies our desire to define and categorize it". Hinduism has been variously defined as a religion, a religious tradition, a set of religious beliefs, "a way of life". From a Western lexical standpoint, Hinduism like other faiths is appropriately referred to as a religion. In India the term dharma is preferred, broader than the Western term religion; the study of India and its cultures and religions, the definition of "Hinduism", has been shaped by th