West Sumatra

West Sumatra is a province of Indonesia. Located on the west coast of the island of Sumatra, the province had a 2019 estimated population of 5,479,491 across an area of 42,012.89 km2. The province includes the Mentawai Islands off the coast and borders the provinces of North Sumatra to the north and Jambi to the east, Bengkulu to the southeast. West Sumatra is sub-divided into seven cities, it has more cities than other provinces outside of Java. Padang is largest city. West Sumatra is home to the Minangkabau people, although the traditional Minangkabau region is wider than the province's boundaries, covering up to the southern region of North Sumatra, the western region of Riau, the western region of Jambi, the northern region of Bengkulu, Negeri Sembilan in Malaysia. Another native ethnic group is Mentawai people. Islam is a predominant religion in the province with about 97.4% of the total population. West Sumatra was the centre of Pagaruyung Kingdom, founded by Adityawarman in 1347; the first European to come to the region was a French traveler named Jean Parmentier who arrived around 1523.

The region was colonised by the Dutch Empire and became a residency named Sumatra's WestKust, whose administrative area included the present-day Kampar Regency in Riau and Kerinci Regency in Jambi. Before becoming a province in 1957, West Sumatra was a part of the province of Central Sumatra, alongside Riau and Jambi. West Sumatra is known by the name Bumi Minangkabau, as it is the home and origin of the Minangkabau people; the Minangkabau name comes from two words namely and Kabau. The name is associated with a Minangkabau legend known as Tambo. From the Tambo, it is said that at one time there was a foreign kingdom which came from the sea and would conquer what is now West Sumatra. To prevent fighting in the region, the local people propose a cattle race competition with the foreign forces.. The foreign forces agreed and sent a large and aggressive cattle to the competition, while the local community sent a cattle calf, still breastfeeding to the competition. In the competition, the cattle calf, still breastfeeding thought the large and aggressive cattle was the mother.

So the calf ran towards the large and aggressive cattle to find milk until he tore apart the big cattle's stomach. The victory inspired the local people to use the name Minangkabau, which comes from the phrase "Manang kabau"; the story of the Tambo is found in the Hikayat Raja-raja Pasai which mentions that the victory made the country, named Pariangan changed to the name Minangkabau. Furthermore, the use of the name Minangkabau is used to refer to a nagari, namely the Nagari Minangkabau, located in Sungayang District, Tanah Datar Regency. In the historical record of the Majapahit Empire, Nagarakretagama which dated from 1365 mentioned the name Minangkabwa as one of the Malay countries, conquered by the Majapahit. In the Ming Chronicles from 1405, there was the royal name of Mi-nang-ge-bu of the six kingdoms who sent messengers facing Emperor Yongle in Nanjing. On the other hand, the name Minang itself has been mentioned in the Kedukan Bukit Inscription dated from 682, written in Sanskrit. In the inscription it was stated that the founder of the Srivijaya Empire named Dapunta Hyang departed from a place called Minānga.

Some experts who refer to the source of the inscription suspects that the 4th line words and the 5th line words are incorporated, so that they become mināngatāmvan and are translated as the meeting point of a twin rivers. The twin river is supposed to refer to the meeting of two sources of the Kampar River, namely the Kampar Kiri River and the Kampar Kanan River, but this hyphothesis is denied by the Dutch indologist Johannes Gijsbertus de Casparis, which proves that tāmvan has nothing to do with "meeting point", because these can be found in other Srivijaya relics. From the tambo received from generation to generation, their ancestors were from the descendants of Iskandar Zulkarnain. Though the tambo is not systematically arranged and is more legendary than the facts and tends to a literary work that has become the property of many people. However, this tambo story is more or less comparable to the Malay Annals who tells how the Minangkabau people sent their representatives to ask Sang Sapurba, one of the descendants of Iskandar Zulkarnain, to become their king.

The Minang community is part of the Deutro-Malay community who migrated from the mainland of Southern China to the island of Sumatra around 2,500-2,000 years ago. It is estimated that this community group entered from the east of the island of Sumatra, along the Kampar river to the highlands called darek and became the home of the Minangkabau people; some of these darek areas form a kind of confederation known as luhak, referred to as Luhak Nan Tigo, which consists of Luhak Limo Puluah, Luhak Agam, Luhak Tanah Data. During the era of the Dutch East Indies, the luhak area became a territorial government area called afdeling, headed by a resident who by the Minangkabau community was called the name Tuan Luhak; the Minangkabau people were included as a sub-group of the Malays, but since the 19th century, the mention of the Minangkabau and the Malays began to be distinguished from seeing matrilineal culture that persisted compared to the patrilineal adopted by Malay society in general. According to the Minangkabau

Belle Glade, Florida

Belle Glade is a city in Palm Beach County, United States on the southeastern shore of Lake Okeechobee. According to the 2010 U. S. Census, the city had a population of 17,467. Belle Glade is sometimes referred to as "Muck City" due to the large quantity of muck, in which sugarcane grows, found in the area. Despite being located in the South Florida region of the state, Belle Glade is culturally more associated with the Florida Heartland. For a time during the early to mid 1980s, the city had the highest rate of AIDS infection per capita in the United States. According to the FBI, in 2003, the city had the second highest violent crime rate in the country at 298 per 10,000 residents. In 2010, the Palm Beach County sheriff's office estimated that half of the young men in Belle Glade between the ages of 18 and 25 had felony convictions; some families have resorted to catching rainwater to survive because their utilities have been cut off for nonpayment. Belle Glade is located at 26°41′07″N 80°40′17″W.

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.7 square miles, of which 4.7 square miles are land and 0.21% is water. The existence of Belle Glade is related to the federal project of draining the land around Lake Okeechobee, the acreage to be used for agriculture; the town was built in 1925 and destroyed three years by a hurricane which killed thousands of people. The town was subsequently rebuilt; the area around Lake Okeechobee is fertile and farming has been an important industry. Many migrant farmworkers from Belle Glade appeared in the 1960 television documentary, Harvest of Shame. Men and women still gather around 5 a.m. in the same lot you see at the beginning of Harvest of Shame, waiting for buses to take them to the fields. The "loading ramp," as it's called, is a bleak, empty lot, surrounded by some small buildings with bars on the windows and a boarded up storefront; as of May 2014 the city has plans "to demolish the loading ramp and turn it into a park."The town is known for its football tradition, together with nearby Pahokee has "sent at least 60 players to the National Football League".

The cane sugar mill of the "Sugar Cane Growers Cooperative" is located at Belle Glade. During the crop season the factory employs 550 people; as of Feb. 2013, the official unemployment rate was about 15%. The number of jobs available locally dropped as local agriculture shifted from vegetables to sugarcane, a more mechanized crop; the United States Postal Service operates the Belle Glade Post Office. The Florida Department of Corrections operated the Glades Correctional Institution in an unincorporated area in Palm Beach County near Belle Glade, it was founded in 1932, employed about 350, had a capacity of 918 inmates and was scheduled for closure in December 2011. The Lake Okeechobee Scenic Trail runs through Belle Glade; as of the census of 2010, there were 6,368 households, out of. In 2000, 39.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.9% were married couples living together, 22.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.3% were non-families. 23.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 3.04 and the average family size was 3.62. In 2000, the population was spread out with 33.5% under the age of 18, 10.0% from 18 to 24, 27.1% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 8.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.6 males. In 2000, the median income for a household in the city was $22,715, the median income for a family was $26,756. Males had a median income of $26,232 versus $21,410 for females; the per capita income for the city was $11,159. About 28.5% of families and 32.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 41.1% of those under age 18 and 21.4% of those age 65 or over. As of 2000, speakers of English as a first language accounted for 61.03% of all residents, while Spanish as a mother tongue consisted of 26.87%, Haitian Creole comprised 11.00%, French made up 1.07% of the population. As of 2000, Belle Glade had the tenth highest percentage of Haitian residents in the United States, at 11.50% of the populace.

It had the sixtieth highest percentage of Cuban residents nationally, at 5.98% of the population. School District of Palm Beach County operates public schools. Gove Elementary Belle Glade Elementary Glade View Elementary Pioneer Park Elementary Sellew Belle Glade Excel Charter School Lake Shore Middle School Glades Central High School Glades Day School Lakeside Academy Palm Beach State College - Belle Glade Campus Reidel Anthony, former NFL wide receiver, Tampa Bay Buccaneers Brad Banks, CFL quarterback, Winnipeg Blue Bombers. Travis Benjamin, NFL wide receiver and punt returner Rashaad Duncan, Former NFL Defensive Tackle for Tampa Bay, Buffalo Bills, Washington Redskins. Jessie Hester, former NFL wide receiver, Los Angeles Raiders, Atlanta Falcons, Indianapolis Colts and Los Angeles/St. Louis Rams Santonio Holmes, NFL wide receiver, Pittsburgh Steelers, New York Jets, Chicago Bears.

Battle of Tarbat

The Battle of Tarbat was a Scottish clan battle fought in the 1480s on the Tarbat peninsula, in Easter Ross. The Clan Ross cornered a raiding party of Clan Mackay near the village of Portmahomack and put many of them to the sword; the survivors sought sanctuary in the nearby church but the Rosses set fire to it, killing all inside. The Mackays took revenge for this outrage in the subsequent Battle of Aldy Charrish, it should not be confused with the Battle of Tarbat Ness in the 11th century, when Thorfinn the Mighty defeated "Karl Hundason" a Viking name for Macbeth. The second half of the 15th century had seen a series of raids by the Mackays of Strathnaver on the Rosses of Balnagown. According to the Blackcastle MS the Rosses had made "a predatory incursion" into the territory of the Mackays. Sir Robert Gordon however says that the Mackays "often molested with incursions and invasions" the lands of the Rosses. According to historian Angus Mackay the evidence is ample that the Mackays managed to recover some of the lands in Ross-shire that had belonged to their relatives and enemies, Neil Neilson Mackay, his brother Morgan Neilson Mackay and Neil and Morgan's father-in-law Murray of Cubin, all three of whom had been defeated and killed by the Mackays of Strathnaver at the Battle of Drumnacoub in 1433.

The evidence is ample that the Rosses managed to secure some of these lands lying in the parishes of Edderton and Kincardine in Ross-shire. So it appears that the feud between the Mackays and the Rosses arose out of a scramble for disputed lands; the Rosses gathered their forces to attack the invaders who were led by Angus Roy Mackay of Strathnaver, son of Neil "Bass" Mackay. The exact date of the battle is uncertain, other than it happened before the Battle of Aldy Charrish, which documentary evidence dates to either July 1487 or June 1486; the date most cited for events at Tarbat is 1486, but all that can be said is that it was some time in the 1480s. The Rosses appear to have encountered the Mackay raiding party on the Tarbat peninsula, where they were "fiercely attacked", it appears. More were killed before the church was set on fire. Angus Roy MacKay was among those killed; as a poem put it: Archaeology supports this story. Archaeologists have been investigating the Tarbat Old Church at Portmahomack for evidence of a major monastery destroyed around 800AD.

While the target of this presumed Viking raid has attracted most attention, a new church was built on the site in the 13th century. This "Church 4" suffered a major fire during the Middle Ages. Fire has scorched the sandstone of the internal walling to a bright orange in the crypt, charcoal from possible roof timbers or thatch was found in the nave near the crypt entrance. John Riabhach Mackay avenged his father's death by invading the Ross lands in 1487; this raid culminated in the Battle of Aldy Charrish at the head of the Kyle of Sutherland which saw Alexander Ross of Balnagowan and many of his kinsmen slaughtered. The Clan Ross never recovered from this defeat