A graduate school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate degree with a high grade point average. A distinction is made between graduate schools and professional schools, which offer specialized advanced degrees in professional fields such as medicine, business, speech-language pathology, or law; the distinction between graduate schools and professional schools is not absolute, as various professional schools offer graduate degrees and vice versa. Many universities award graduate degrees. While the term "graduate school" is typical in the United States and used elsewhere, "postgraduate education" is used in English-speaking countries to refer to the spectrum of education beyond a bachelor's degree; those attending graduate schools are called "graduate students", or in British English as "postgraduate students" and, colloquially, "postgraduates" and "postgrads". Degrees awarded to graduate students include master's degrees, doctoral degrees, other postgraduate qualifications such as graduate certificates and professional degrees.
Producing original research is a significant component of graduate studies in the humanities, natural sciences and social sciences. This research leads to the writing and defense of a thesis or dissertation. In graduate programs that are oriented towards professional training, the degrees may consist of coursework, without an original research or thesis component; the term "graduate school" is North American. Additionally, in North America, the term does not refer to medical school, only refers to law school or business school. Graduate students in the humanities and social sciences receive funding from the school and/or a teaching assistant position or other job. Although graduate school programs are distinct from undergraduate degree programs, graduate instruction is offered by some of the same senior academic staff and departments who teach undergraduate courses. Unlike in undergraduate programs, however, it is less common for graduate students to take coursework outside their specific field of study at graduate or graduate entry level.
At the Ph. D. level, though, it is quite common to take courses from a wider range of study, for which some fixed portion of coursework, sometimes known as a residency, is required to be taken from outside the department and college of the degree-seeking candidate, to broaden the research abilities of the student. Some institutions denote other divisions. Graduate degrees in Brazil are called "postgraduate" degrees, can be taken only after an undergraduate education has been concluded". Lato sensu graduate degrees: degrees that represent a specialization in a certain area, take from 1 to 2 years to complete. Sometimes it can be used to describe a specialization level between a master's degree and a MBA. In that sense, the main difference is that the Lato Sensu courses tend to go deeper into the scientific aspects of the study field, while MBA programs tend to be more focused on the practical and professional aspects, being used more to Business and Administration areas. However, since there are no norms to regulate this, both names are used indiscriminately most of the time.
Stricto sensu graduate degrees: degrees for those who wish to pursue an academic career. Masters: 2 years for completion. Serves as additional qualification for those seeking a differential on the job market, or for those who want to pursue a PhD. Most doctoral programs in Brazil require a master's degree, meaning that a Lato Sensu Degree is insufficient to start a doctoral program. Doctors / PhD: 3–4 years for completion. Used as a stepping stone for academic life. In Canada, the Schools and Faculties of Graduate Studies are represented by the Canadian Association of Graduate Studies or Association canadienne pour les études supérieures; the Association brings together 58 Canadian universities with graduate programs, two national graduate student associations, the three federal research-granting agencies and organizations having an interest in graduate studies. Its mandate is to promote and foster excellence in graduate education and university research in Canada. In addition to an annual conference, the association prepares briefs on issues related to graduate studies including supervision and professional development.
Admission to a master's program requires a bachelor's degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades ranging from B+ and higher, recommendations from professors. Some schools require samples of the student's writing as well as a research proposal. At English-speaking universities, applicants from countries where English is not the primary language are requir
Himamaylan the City of Himamaylan, referred to as Himamaylan City, is a 3rd class city in the province of Negros Occidental, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 106,880 people; this component city located is 83 kilometres south of the provincial capital. Due to its coastal location, it is a rich source of different types of seafood fish, oysters and shrimps; the city celebrates the Himaya-an Festival every April 14-25. Himamaylan became a city on March 5, 2001, through a proclamation by President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo under Republic Act No. 9028. It is the only city in the 5th District of Negros Occidental; the term "Himamaylan" is a portmanteau of the two Hiligaynon words babaylan. It is alleged that the settlement's early Malay inhabitants suffered from a foot malady called hima, their employment of witch doctors called babaylan caused the Spanish occupiers to call them Himamaylan. Himamaylan is located at the center-most cove on the coastline of Negros Island.
Himamaylan has a natural harbor characterized by deep waters favorable to access by marine vessels. Located in the center of the island, the city is conducive to operations reaching all parts of the country and the rest of Southeast Asia from a strategic point. Most portions of the city are plains and have fertile soil, conducive for agriculture; the city's rivers are 12 feet or deeper. Himamaylan City is politically subdivided into 19 barangays. In 1795, Himamaylan became the capital of Negros. At that time, the city served as a garrison for occupying Spanish forces. Today, the old Spanish-built fort constructed as a lookout point for frequent Muslim raids is one of the historical attractions found in the city. In the middle part of 1565, the Spaniards subjugated Himamaylan, they introduced Encomienda System by which a piece of land including its products and other resources, its inhabitants were granted to members of the conquering force as their puppets. The first Spanish priest, constructed a makeshift church and gathered the native which they called “Himaya”, a thanksgiving for driving the “Hima” away.
Himaya was a place for spiritual paradise to the Babaylan. They called “Himaya” as Himamaya-an or Himamaylan, but because of the tongue twisting sound of its syllables which the priest find difficulty in pronouncing, they changed the word to Himamaylan to suit their diction; the name Himamaylan was adopted when the place was founded into a township or pueblo. Thus, the town got its name both from dialectical origin. Himamaylan was founded in the 18th century. Although there was no definite record found, it became the second capital of Negros Island from 1795-1849; the town’s historical landmark, the Spanish Kota was the seat of the Old Spanish Government. It was the place where many natives were cured of their sickness and converted to Christianity. Himamaylan’s historical records showed that in 1565 when the Spaniards came, there spur a quantum jump in the people’s religious life. From a pagan life, fresh arterial blood pumped into the multiplying discipline. In a span of only a few years after Spanish Colonization, embracing the Catholic Faith, the dame dramatic transformation continued to happen that intellectuals of today is mystified in their own findings and misbelief that they were drawn to the faith.
On November 4, 1898, the revolutionary forces in Himamaylan received orders from Gen. Juan Araneta to dislodge the Spanish Soldiers stationed in the town on November 5, the rest of the towns in Negros. Due to lack of weapons they were not able to carry out the order and it was only on 8 November 1898 when the Deputy Commander for Southern Negros in the person of Gen. Rafael Ramos showed the Spanish Corporal a copy of the Act of Capitulation, that the Spanish Soldiers surrendered, making Himamaylan as the last town to have been liberated from the Spanish Government; when the Americans came on December 28, 1898, they capitulated the island of Negros from the Spanish Colonizers, thereby establishing the American Rule in the whole island. In the year 1942, after the fall of Bataan and Corregidor to the Japanese forces, three days after Negros Occidental fall, the Japanese Military Government was established in the whole province; the guerrilla resistance fighters and local soldiers of the Philippine Commonwealth Army military units was encounter siege around the municipality of Himamaylan was attacking Japanese soldiers from 1942 to 1945 until the retreating guerrillas by the Japanese.
On 1945, Filipino and American soldiers aiding recognized guerrillas liberated the municipality of Himamaylan and defeating Japanese forces and ended in World War II. In year 1998 brought good luck and hope to all Himamaylanon as he steer the Municipality into becoming a first City in the 5th district with the approval of the people in a plebiscite held 31 March 2001. On the 5 March 2001 at 10:00 A. M. the Republic Act No. 9028, “An Act Converting the Municipality of Himamaylan, Province of Negros Occidental into a component City of Himamaylan”, was signed in a ceremony at the Heroes Hall of Malacañang Palace. The people in the city speak the Hiligaynon language. Filipino and English are understood; the city's main sources of livelihood include fishery, sugarcane farming and sugar production, rice farming, mango cultivation and ethanol exports. Philippine Standard Geographic Code Philippine Census Information Local Governance Performance Management System
Social science is a category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. Social science as a whole has many branches; these social sciences include, but are not limited to: anthropology, communication studies, history, human geography, linguistics, political science, public health, sociology. The term is sometimes used to refer to the field of sociology, the original "science of society", established in the 19th century. For a more detailed list of sub-disciplines within the social sciences see: Outline of social science. Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, so define science in its stricter modern sense. Interpretivist social scientists, by contrast, may use social critique or symbolic interpretation rather than constructing empirically falsifiable theories, thus treat science in its broader sense. In modern academic practice, researchers are eclectic, using multiple methodologies.
The term "social research" has acquired a degree of autonomy as practitioners from various disciplines share in its aims and methods. The history of the social sciences begins in the Age of Enlightenment after 1650, which saw a revolution within natural philosophy, changing the basic framework by which individuals understood what was "scientific". Social sciences came forth from the moral philosophy of the time and were influenced by the Age of Revolutions, such as the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution; the social sciences developed from the sciences, or the systematic knowledge-bases or prescriptive practices, relating to the social improvement of a group of interacting entities. The beginnings of the social sciences in the 18th century are reflected in the grand encyclopedia of Diderot, with articles from Jean-Jacques Rousseau and other pioneers; the growth of the social sciences is reflected in other specialized encyclopedias. The modern period saw "social science" first used as a distinct conceptual field.
Social science was influenced by positivism, focusing on knowledge based on actual positive sense experience and avoiding the negative. Auguste Comte used the term "science sociale" to describe the field, taken from the ideas of Charles Fourier. Following this period, there were five paths of development that sprang forth in the social sciences, influenced by Comte on other fields. One route, taken was the rise of social research. Large statistical surveys were undertaken in various parts of the United States and Europe. Another route undertaken was initiated by Émile Durkheim, studying "social facts", Vilfredo Pareto, opening metatheoretical ideas and individual theories. A third means developed, arising from the methodological dichotomy present, in which social phenomena were identified with and understood; the fourth route taken, based in economics, was developed and furthered economic knowledge as a hard science. The last path was the correlation of knowledge and social values. In this route and prescription were non-overlapping formal discussions of a subject.
Around the start of the 20th century, Enlightenment philosophy was challenged in various quarters. After the use of classical theories since the end of the scientific revolution, various fields substituted mathematics studies for experimental studies and examining equations to build a theoretical structure; the development of social science subfields became quantitative in methodology. The interdisciplinary and cross-disciplinary nature of scientific inquiry into human behaviour and environmental factors affecting it, made many of the natural sciences interested in some aspects of social science methodology. Examples of boundary blurring include emerging disciplines like social research of medicine, neuropsychology and the history and sociology of science. Quantitative research and qualitative methods are being integrated in the study of human action and its implications and consequences. In the first half of the 20th century, statistics became a free-standing discipline of applied mathematics.
Statistical methods were used confidently. In the contemporary period, Karl Popper and Talcott Parsons influenced the furtherance of the social sciences. Researchers continue to search for a unified consensus on what methodology might have the power and refinement to connect a proposed "grand theory" with the various midrange theories that, with considerable success, continue to provide usable frameworks for massive, growing data banks; the social sciences will for the foreseeable future be composed of different zones in the research of, sometime distinct in approach toward, the field. The term "social science" may refer either to the specific sciences of society established by thinkers such as Comte, Durkheim and Weber, or more to all disciplines outside of "noble science" and arts. By the late 19th century, the academic social sciences were constituted of five fields: jurisprudence and amendment of the law, health and trade, art. Around the start of the 21st century, the expanding domain of economics in the social sciences has been described as economic imperialism.
The social science disciplines are branches of knowledge taught and researched at the college or university level. Social science disciplines are defined and rec
Agriculture is the science and art of cultivating plants and livestock. Agriculture was the key development in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that enabled people to live in cities; the history of agriculture began thousands of years ago. After gathering wild grains beginning at least 105,000 years ago, nascent farmers began to plant them around 11,500 years ago. Pigs and cattle were domesticated over 10,000 years ago. Plants were independently cultivated in at least 11 regions of the world. Industrial agriculture based on large-scale monoculture in the twentieth century came to dominate agricultural output, though about 2 billion people still depended on subsistence agriculture into the twenty-first. Modern agronomy, plant breeding, agrochemicals such as pesticides and fertilizers, technological developments have increased yields, while causing widespread ecological and environmental damage. Selective breeding and modern practices in animal husbandry have increased the output of meat, but have raised concerns about animal welfare and environmental damage.
Environmental issues include contributions to global warming, depletion of aquifers, antibiotic resistance, growth hormones in industrial meat production. Genetically modified organisms are used, although some are banned in certain countries; the major agricultural products can be broadly grouped into foods, fibers and raw materials. Food classes include cereals, fruits, meat, milk and eggs. Over one-third of the world's workers are employed in agriculture, second only to the service sector, although the number of agricultural workers in developed countries has decreased over the centuries; the word agriculture is a late Middle English adaptation of Latin agricultūra, from ager, "field", which in its turn came from Greek αγρός, cultūra, "cultivation" or "growing". While agriculture refers to human activities, certain species of ant and ambrosia beetle cultivate crops. Agriculture is defined with varying scopes, in its broadest sense using natural resources to "produce commodities which maintain life, including food, forest products, horticultural crops, their related services".
Thus defined, it includes arable farming, animal husbandry and forestry, but horticulture and forestry are in practice excluded. The development of agriculture enabled the human population to grow many times larger than could be sustained by hunting and gathering. Agriculture began independently in different parts of the globe, included a diverse range of taxa, in at least 11 separate centres of origin. Wild grains were eaten from at least 105,000 years ago. From around 11,500 years ago, the eight Neolithic founder crops and einkorn wheat, hulled barley, lentils, bitter vetch, chick peas and flax were cultivated in the Levant. Rice was domesticated in China between 11,500 and 6,200 BC with the earliest known cultivation from 5,700 BC, followed by mung and azuki beans. Sheep were domesticated in Mesopotamia between 11,000 years ago. Cattle were domesticated from the wild aurochs in the areas of modern Turkey and Pakistan some 10,500 years ago. Pig production emerged in Eurasia, including Europe, East Asia and Southwest Asia, where wild boar were first domesticated about 10,500 years ago.
In the Andes of South America, the potato was domesticated between 10,000 and 7,000 years ago, along with beans, llamas and guinea pigs. Sugarcane and some root vegetables were domesticated in New Guinea around 9,000 years ago. Sorghum was domesticated in the Sahel region of Africa by 7,000 years ago. Cotton was domesticated in Peru by 5,600 years ago, was independently domesticated in Eurasia. In Mesoamerica, wild teosinte was bred into maize by 6,000 years ago. Scholars have offered multiple hypotheses to explain the historical origins of agriculture. Studies of the transition from hunter-gatherer to agricultural societies indicate an initial period of intensification and increasing sedentism. Wild stands, harvested started to be planted, came to be domesticated. In Eurasia, the Sumerians started to live in villages from about 8,000 BC, relying on the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and a canal system for irrigation. Ploughs appear in pictographs around 3,000 BC. Farmers grew wheat, vegetables such as lentils and onions, fruits including dates and figs.
Ancient Egyptian agriculture relied on its seasonal flooding. Farming started in the predynastic period at the end of the Paleolithic, after 10,000 BC. Staple food crops were grains such as wheat and barley, alongside industrial crops such as flax and papyrus. In India, wheat and jujube were domesticated by 9,000 BC, soon followed by sheep and goats. Cattle and goats were domesticated in Mehrgarh culture by 8,000–6,000 BC. Cotton was cultivated by the 5th-4th millennium BC. Archeological evidence indicates an animal-drawn plough from 2,500 BC in the Indus Valley Civilisation. In China, from the 5th century BC there was a nationwide granary system and widespread silk farming. Water-powered grain mills were in use followed by irrigation. By the late 2nd century, heavy ploughs had been developed with iron mouldboards; these spread westwards across Eurasia. Asian rice was domesticated 8,200–13,500 years ago – depending on the molecular clock estimate, used – on the Pearl River in southern China with a single genetic origin from the wild rice Oryza rufipogon
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms and evolution. Despite the complexity of the science, there are certain unifying concepts that consolidate it into a single, coherent field. Biology recognizes the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, evolution as the engine that propels the creation and extinction of species. Living organisms are open systems that survive by transforming energy and decreasing their local entropy to maintain a stable and vital condition defined as homeostasis. Sub-disciplines of biology are defined by the research methods employed and the kind of system studied: theoretical biology uses mathematical methods to formulate quantitative models while experimental biology performs empirical experiments to test the validity of proposed theories and understand the mechanisms underlying life and how it appeared and evolved from non-living matter about 4 billion years ago through a gradual increase in the complexity of the system.
See branches of biology. The term biology is derived from the Greek word βίος, bios, "life" and the suffix -λογία, -logia, "study of." The Latin-language form of the term first appeared in 1736 when Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus used biologi in his Bibliotheca botanica. It was used again in 1766 in a work entitled Philosophiae naturalis sive physicae: tomus III, continens geologian, phytologian generalis, by Michael Christoph Hanov, a disciple of Christian Wolff; the first German use, was in a 1771 translation of Linnaeus' work. In 1797, Theodor Georg August Roose used the term in the preface of a book, Grundzüge der Lehre van der Lebenskraft. Karl Friedrich Burdach used the term in 1800 in a more restricted sense of the study of human beings from a morphological and psychological perspective; the term came into its modern usage with the six-volume treatise Biologie, oder Philosophie der lebenden Natur by Gottfried Reinhold Treviranus, who announced: The objects of our research will be the different forms and manifestations of life, the conditions and laws under which these phenomena occur, the causes through which they have been effected.
The science that concerns itself with these objects we will indicate by the name biology or the doctrine of life. Although modern biology is a recent development, sciences related to and included within it have been studied since ancient times. Natural philosophy was studied as early as the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia, the Indian subcontinent, China. However, the origins of modern biology and its approach to the study of nature are most traced back to ancient Greece. While the formal study of medicine dates back to Hippocrates, it was Aristotle who contributed most extensively to the development of biology. Important are his History of Animals and other works where he showed naturalist leanings, more empirical works that focused on biological causation and the diversity of life. Aristotle's successor at the Lyceum, wrote a series of books on botany that survived as the most important contribution of antiquity to the plant sciences into the Middle Ages. Scholars of the medieval Islamic world who wrote on biology included al-Jahiz, Al-Dīnawarī, who wrote on botany, Rhazes who wrote on anatomy and physiology.
Medicine was well studied by Islamic scholars working in Greek philosopher traditions, while natural history drew on Aristotelian thought in upholding a fixed hierarchy of life. Biology began to develop and grow with Anton van Leeuwenhoek's dramatic improvement of the microscope, it was that scholars discovered spermatozoa, bacteria and the diversity of microscopic life. Investigations by Jan Swammerdam led to new interest in entomology and helped to develop the basic techniques of microscopic dissection and staining. Advances in microscopy had a profound impact on biological thinking. In the early 19th century, a number of biologists pointed to the central importance of the cell. In 1838, Schleiden and Schwann began promoting the now universal ideas that the basic unit of organisms is the cell and that individual cells have all the characteristics of life, although they opposed the idea that all cells come from the division of other cells. Thanks to the work of Robert Remak and Rudolf Virchow, however, by the 1860s most biologists accepted all three tenets of what came to be known as cell theory.
Meanwhile and classification became the focus of natural historians. Carl Linnaeus published a basic taxonomy for the natural world in 1735, in the 1750s introduced scientific names for all his species. Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, treated species as artificial categories and living forms as malleable—even suggesting the possibility of common descent. Although he was opposed to evolution, Buffon is a key figure in the history of evolutionary thought. Serious evolutionary thinking originated with the works of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, the first to present a coherent theory of evolution, he posited that evolution was the result of environmental stress on properties of animals, meaning that the more and rigorously an organ was used, the more complex and efficient it would become, thus adapting the animal to its environment. Lamarck believed that these acquired traits could be passed on to the animal's offspring, who would
A normal school is the historical term for an institution created to train high school graduates to be teachers by educating them in the norms of pedagogy and curriculum. Most such schools, where they still exist, are now denominated "teacher-training colleges" or "teachers' colleges" and may be organized as part of a comprehensive university. Normal schools in the United States and Canada trained teachers for primary schools, while in continental Europe, the equivalent colleges educated teachers for primary and tertiary schools. In 1685, St. Jean-Baptiste de La Salle, founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools, founded what is considered the first normal school, the École Normale, in Reims, France; the term "normal" herein refers to the goal of these institutions to instill and reinforce particular norms within students. "Norms" included historical behavioral norms of the time, as well as norms that reinforced targeted societal values and dominant narratives in the form of curriculum.
The first public normal school in the United States was founded in Concord, Vermont, by Samuel Read Hall in 1823 to train teachers. In 1839, the first state-supported normal school was established by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts on the northeast corner of the historic Lexington Battle Green; the first modern teacher training school in China was established by Qing educator Sheng Xuanghuai in 1895 as the normal school of the Nanyang Public School in Shanghai, China. Many comprehensive public or state-supported universities, such as the University of California, Los Angeles in the United States and Beijing Normal University in China, were established and operated as normal schools before expanding their faculties and organizing as research universities; some of these universities in Asia, retain the word "Normal" in their name to recognize their historical purpose. In Canada, most normal schools were assimilated into a university as its faculty of education, offering a one or two-year Bachelor of Education degree.
Such a degree requires at least three, but four, years of prior undergraduate study. The term "normal school" originated in the early 16th century from the French école normale; the French concept of an "école normale" was to provide a model school with model classrooms to teach model teaching practices to its student teachers. The children being taught, their teachers, the teachers of the teachers were together in the same building. Although a laboratory school, it was the official school for the children -- secondary. Educating teachers was of great importance in the newly industrialized European economies and their need for a reliable and uniform work force; the process of instating such norms within students depended upon the creation of the first uniform, formalized national educational curriculum. Thus, normal schools, as the teacher training schools, were tasked with both developing this new curriculum and developing the techniques through which teachers would instill these ideas and values in the minds of their students.
In Germany schools of education only exist in the state of Baden-Württemberg. These schools prepare teachers for Grundschule and secondary schools like Hauptschule and Realschule. Teachers for the Gymnasium are educated on universities. In Finland, normal schools are under national university administration, whereas most schools are administered by the local municipality. Teacher aspirants do most of their compulsory trainee period in normal schools and teach while being supervised by a senior teacher. In France, a two-tier system developed since the Revolution: primary school teachers were educated at départemental écoles normales, high school teachers at the Écoles normales supérieures. Nowadays all teachers are educated in École supérieure du professorat et de l'éducation; the Écoles Normales Supérieures in France and the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa in Italy no longer specialize in teacher training. In the United Kingdom, teacher training colleges were once separate institutions, many such colleges adopted the title "College of Higher Education".
A restructuring of higher education in the UK during the 1980s resulted in many of these adopting the status of "university". The University of Chester traces its roots back to 1839 as the earliest training college in the United Kingdom. Others were established by religious institutions and were single-sex until World War II. Since they have either become multi-discipline universities in their own right or merged with another university to become its faculty of education. Following the recommendation in the 1963 Robbins Report into higher education, teacher training colleges were renamed colleges of education. For information about academic divisions devoted to this field outside of the United States and Canada, see Postgraduate Training in Education. In Wales, there were two colleges which included the word'Normal' in their name: the first being'The Normal College, Swansea' where the eminent mathematician John Viriamu Jones was educated and the second was The Normal College, which survived until 1996, when it became part of University of Wales Bangor.
The latter was one of the last institutions in the UK to retain the word "Normal" in its name. In Lithuania, Lithuanian University of Educational Sciences, former Vilnius Pedagogical University is the main teachers' training institution, established in 1935. In Mainland China, the "normal school" term
A nursing school is a type of educational institution, or part thereof, providing education and training to become a qualified nurse. The nature of nursing education and nursing qualifications varies across the world. Since the mid 20th century nursing education in many countries has undergone many enhancements. Florence Nightingale was one of the pioneers in establishing the idea of nursing schools from her base at St Thomas' Hospital, London in 1860 when she opened the'Nightingale Training School for Nurses', now part of King's College London, her intention was to train nurses to a qualified and specialized level, with the key aim of learning to develop observation skills and sensitivity to patient needs allow them to work in hospital posts across the United Kingdom and abroad. Her influence flourished and nursing is now a course taught at a number of British universities. Apart from the nursing school of King's College London, the direct descendant of Nightingale's school, the University of Manchester was one of the first English institutions to offer the course at degree level.
A new building for the Manchester Medical School was opened in the early 1970s and degree courses in nursing were established about the same time. Nursing education at the university expanded in 1996 when a new School of Nursing and Midwifery was created by transferring the Manchester College of Midwifery and Nursing into the university's Faculty of Medicine and Nursing. Entry level courses, sought by most universities, are five Standard Grades/GCSEs, including English, maths and a science, two Highers/A-Levels. Mature students, over the age of twenty-one, have the option of entering upon completion of a college access course, experience in jobs such as being a health/nursing assistant are worthy for consideration into the course. Nursing is a three-year course in the UK, with students choosing the branch they want to study from day One e.g. adult, mental health, learning disability, or combinations of two. The course consists of a balance between course work in classes and practical placements in a health care setting.
The first year is foundation, where students learn basic health care. Newly qualified nurses have to register with the Nursing and Midwifery Council in order to apply for jobs and practice; the history of nursing education had a long and varied role in the United States. Before the late 1800s little formal education was available to train nursing students. Education was based on an apprenticeship with a senior nurse who taught bedside care within a hospital or clinic setting. Over time this model changed dramatically. A short chronology of Schools of Nursing in the United States is: In 1873, the Bellevue Hospital School of Nursing, of New York City, was founded, it was the first school of nursing in the United States to be founded on the principles of nursing established by Florence Nightingale. The School operated at Bellevue Hospital until its closure in 1969. 1883: The Medical University of South Carolina College of Nursing has been traced to its beginning in 1883 when the South Carolina Training School for Nurses was established at the request of Roper Hospital in Charleston, SC.
Due to an earthquake in 1886 which destroyed the City Hospital, the effort only lasted a few years. However, once the new hospital was built the nursing program was reestablished in 1895 as the Charleston Training School. In 1916, the Board of Commissioners of the Roper Hospital proposed the transfer of the training school to the Medical College of the State of South Carolina, whose school of medicine had been established in Charleston in 1824 and whose faculty was providing most of the nursing instruction; the proposal was accepted by both the hospital and the Medical College, in 1919 the Roper Hospital Training School for Nurses became the School of Nursing of the Medical College of the State of South Carolina. In 1969 when the Medical College was designated the Medical University of South Carolina, the School of Nursing became the College of Nursing. 1889: The Johns Hopkins School of Nursing was founded in conjunction with the creation of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. As one of the earliest hospital-based nursing schools in the United States school leaders consulted with Florence Nightingale on the program of education.
These same nurse leaders established what would be become the National League for Nursing Education and helped in establishing the American Nurses Association. In 1909, the University of Minnesota offered the first university based nursing program, it offered the first Bachelor of Science in Nursing degree and graduated the first bachelor's degree educated nurse. By 1916 13 universities and 3 colleges had developed bachelor's nursing degree programs. In 1923, the Yale School of Nursing was founded, it became the first School of Nursing to adopt the educational standards from the 1923 Goldmark Report, requested by the Rockefeller Foundation. The curriculum was based on an educational plan rather than on hospital service needs. In 1956, the Columbia University School of Nursing became the first in the United States to grant a master's degree in a clinical nursing specialty. Pre-requisites include math and other basic level courses. Basic courses in biology and physiology are required. Depending on the nursing school, credits can be taken elsewhere, transferred in, although limitations on time span between taking pre-requisites and applying to nursing programs exist around 5 years, although some schools set no parameters.
Core coursework includes anatomy, physiology and pharmacology. Additionally, a strong emphasis is placed on