Western Michigan University

Western Michigan University is a public research university in Kalamazoo, United States. The university was established in 1903 by Dwight B. Waldo, its enrollment, as of the Fall 2016 semester, was 23,252. WMU's aviation program is ranked as one of the top 5 aviation programs offered in the United States. WMU is the site of the annual International Congress on Medieval Studies; the university's athletic teams compete in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association and are known as the Western Michigan Broncos. They compete in the Mid-American Conference for most sports. WMU is ranked 1176th in the 2018 US World Report global universities ranking. On May 27, 1903, Michigan Governor Aaron T. Bliss signed a bill authorizing the creation of the State's fourth teacher-training facility; the three other normal schools were in Ypsilanti, Mount Pleasant, Marquette. Kalamazoo was chosen as the new school's location on August 28, 1903. Other locations considered included Allegan, Grand Rapids, Three Oaks, Hastings.

The first building known as the Administration Building, now known as East Hall, was constructed in 1904. The University was first known as Western State Normal School, offered a two-year training program; the first principal and president was Dwight B. Waldo, who served from 1904 until 1936; the school was renamed several times throughout its early history, beginning with Western State Teachers College in 1927, Michigan College of Education in 1941, Western Michigan College in 1955. On February 26, 1957, Governor G. Mennen Williams signed a bill into law that made Western Michigan College the state's fourth public university and gave the school its current name of Western Michigan University. Most of the oldest and original WMU buildings and "classrooms" are collectively known as East Campus, directly East from the more central "West Campus". Access to the East Campus site was an issue because of the steep grade elevating it above the city; the Western State Normal Railroad was established in 1907 to carry students and staff up and down the hill via a funicular.

It operated until 1949. WMU's campuses encompass more than 1,200 acres and 150 buildings. Western is divided into five campuses in and near Kalamazoo: West Campus East Campus Oakland Drive Campus Parkview Campus College of Aviation West Campus is the primary and largest WMU campus in Kalamazoo, is referred to as "Main Campus." Most of the university academic and administrative buildings are on West Campus, including the College of Arts and Sciences, Haworth College of Business, College of Education and Human Development, College of Fine Arts, the Lee Honors College and Waldo Library. Many of the residence halls are found scattered throughout West Campus, while other dormitories are adjacent to West Campus in Goldsworth Valley; the Bernhard Center is a centrally-located multi-purpose student union that provides student and community groups with meeting space. Located within the Bernhard Center is the Bronco Mall, a one-stop-shop for students which includes a large 24-hour computer lab, a food court featuring Subway, Biggby Coffee, K-zoo Coney, numerous tables and chairs for eating and socializing, a PNC Bank, one of two school bookstores.

Waldo Library and the attached University Computing Center are on West Campus, as is the Dalton Musical Center. Constructed buildings on West Campus include the Western Heights dormitory and the Chemistry Building, which replaces aging McCracken Hall. West Campus is the site of Miller Auditorium. A large entertainment venue seating nearly 3500 people, it is Michigan's fourth largest auditorium. Miller Auditorium hosts events ranging from popular musicals and concerts to graduation commencements and film screenings; the Gilmore Theater Complex is directly next to Miller Auditorium, features three performance stages and faculty offices. The Richmond Center for Visual Arts was added to the Fine Arts Complex in 2007, followed by South Kohrman Hall being renovated into the Kohrman Hall Studios in 2008. Both buildings house the Gwen Frostic School of Art. East Campus is the original development dating from the university's founding in 1903, it contains many of the university's historical buildings including, East Hall, West Hall, North Hall, Walwood Hall, Spindler Hall, Vandercook Hall, The Little Theater.

Many of these buildings are on a hill overlooking the city of Kalamazoo. Walwood Hall, renovated in 1992, is home to the Graduate College, the Graduate Student Advisory Committee, the Medieval Institute, the WMU Office of Research and several other academic and administrative offices. In December 2012, WMU announced plans to renovate its birthplace, historic East Hall, for use as an alumni center, it announced plans to demolish several of the university's original historic buildings and utilize the hilltop as green space. As of December 2013, both West Hall and the Speech and Hearing building that were on East Campus had been demolished; the original East Hall will remain, but North Hall and the two side wings of East Hall will come down. East Hall reopened in 2015 as the WMU Alumni Center; the Oakland Drive Campus is the university's newest land acquisition. It is home to the WMU Army ROTC program, it is now home to the Western Michigan University Archives and Regional History Collections new location, the Charles C. and Lynn L. Zhang Legacy Collections Center.

The Parkview Campus is home to the University's College of Engineering and Applied Sciences and is within the Business Technology and Research Park. "Erected" in 2003, the $72.5 million building Floyd Hall is 3

2010 New York gubernatorial election

The New York gubernatorial election of 2010 was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2010. Incumbent Democratic Governor David Paterson, elected as Lieutenant Governor in 2006 as the running mate of Eliot Spitzer, chose not to run for a full term. Democratic New York Attorney General Andrew Cuomo defeated Republican Carl Paladino to become the next Governor of New York. Incumbent Democratic Governor David Paterson had announced that he was running for election in 2010. Paterson had been elected lieutenant governor of New York in 2006, was sworn in as governor in March 2008 following the resignation of Gov. Eliot Spitzer. On September 18, 2009, advisors to President Barack Obama informed Paterson that the President believed Paterson should withdraw his gubernatorial candidacy and clear a path for "popular Attorney General Andrew Cuomo" to run. Paterson insisted he was still running, reiterated his position on February 9, 2010. On February 26, 2010, Paterson withdrew his bid for a full term as governor of New York "amid crumbling support from his party and an uproar over his administration’s intervention in a domestic violence case involving a close aide".

Democratic New York State Attorney General Andrew Cuomo was rumored to be considering a 2010 gubernatorial bid. Though he had denied any interest, this did not stop rampant speculation that Cuomo would change his mind and enter the race. By December, Cuomo had a massive lead over Paterson in the polls, had higher approval and favorability ratings, decisively beat any Republican challenger in every poll. After over a year of dodging speculation, Cuomo announced his candidacy on May 22, 2010 outside the Tweed Courthouse at New York's City Hall. In anticipation of this announcement, Cuomo had released a video laying out his platform and his plan for revitalizing the state of New York. Cuomo made this announcement only a few days before the state party convention, the deadline for major party candidates to announce their intentions. On May 26, 2010, he announced his choice for Lieutenant Governor, Rochester Mayor Robert Duffy, a former RPD police chief. Dutchess County legislator Joel Tyner ran an unsuccessful petition drive that fell short of the 15,000 signatures necessary to get onto the primary ballot.

Rent Is Too Damn High Party founder Jimmy McMillan filed petitions to appear on the Democratic primary ballot and the Rent Is Too Damn High line. However, he put little effort into the Democratic petitions, the vast majority of the 13,350 signatures bearing his name were collected by Randy Credico, who had partnered with McMillan for a joint Democratic petition. Credico had counted on McMillan to collect 10,000 signatures to put his total at over 20,000, above the 15,000 required to get onto the ballot, but McMillan never followed through, leaving both candidates short of the necessary signatures to force a Democratic primary against Cuomo, thus unopposed. Credico, in response, called McMillan a "jack-off" and a "sorry ass", accusing him of "working against me", "turn in a wagonload of blank pages and Albany in brand new automobiles." McMillan did file the necessary signatures to get onto the "Rent Is 2 Damn High" line. NomineeAndrew Cuomo, Attorney General of New York. WithdrewDavid Paterson, the incumbent Governor of New York, withdrew his candidacy on February 26, 2010.

Failed to qualifyJimmy McMillan, founder of the Rent Is Too Damn High Party, failed to file enough petitions to be placed on the primary ballot. Joel Tyner, a Dutchess County legislator, failed to file enough petitions to be placed on the primary ballot. On September 21, 2009, former Long Island Congressman and 2000 Republican U. S. Senate nominee Rick Lazio declared his 2010 candidacy for governor of New York. Lazio was the frontrunner for the Republican nomination. Other potential 2010 Republican gubernatorial candidates included former New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani and Erie County Executive Chris Collins. In April 2009, a Quinnipiac poll showed Giuliani ahead of incumbent David Paterson. Giuliani stated in June 2009. In December 2009, Giuliani would instead back Lazio. On January 26, 2010, Collins announced. On March 19, 2010, Steve Levy, the county executive of Suffolk County, announced that he would run for Governor as a Republican. Republican Party Chairman Ed Cox threw his support to Levy.

After Collins passed on the race, activist Rus Thompson persuaded developer Carl Paladino to consider running for Governor. In March 2010, Paladino was considering a run and was said to be willing to spend $10,000,000 of his own money on a campaign, he advised state Republican Party chairman Edward F. Cox of his intentions. Paladino announced his candidacy on April 5, 2010. At the June 2010 Republican Convention, Lazio won the support of 59% of the delegates and was designated the Party’s candidate for Governor. Levy "received 28 percent on the first ballot, squeaking above the 25 percent threshold needed to force a second vote on his authorization. While he signed a Republican registration form, Levy an enrolled Democrat; as such, a separate vote authorizing his appearance in a primary was held: Levy garnered the support of 42.66 percent of the delegates, short of the 50 percent required". Paladino received eight percent of the vote, real estate consultant Myers Mermel received four percent. On July 15, 2010, Paladino mo

First Battle of Dragoon Springs

The First Battle of Dragoon Springs was a minor skirmish between a small troop of Confederate dragoons of Governor John R. Baylor's Arizona Rangers, a band of Apache warriors during the American Civil War, it was fought on May 1862, near the present-day town of Benson, Arizona, in Confederate Arizona. Creation of a separate Arizona Territory distinct from the New Mexico Territory in the late 1850s was thwarted over disagreement in Congress on the new territory's boundary: Northern representatives argued for a north-south division along the present Arizona-New Mexico boundary, whereas Southern representatives pushed for an east-west division along the 34th parallel. With the coming of the Civil War, the new Confederate government was free to establish the boundary as it saw fit. Shortly after the arrival of Confederate forces from Texas, secessionists met at Mesilla to adopt an Ordinance of Secession, on March 16, 1861; this aim became a reality following the Confederate victory at the First Battle of Mesilla on July 25, 1861.

On August 1, 1861, Lt. Col. John R. Baylor, commanding the victorious Confederate troops at Mesilla, issued a proclamation declaring the creation of a provisional Confederate Territory of Arizona, to include all of the former United States Territory of New Mexico south of the 34th parallel north. Baylor named himself governor and set up a territorial government that would continue in operation until the Confederates were forced out of New Mexico in July 1862; this Territory of Arizona was declared by Confederate President Jefferson Davis on February 14, 1862, shortly thereafter Confederate forces were deployed on the ambitious New Mexico Campaign to gain control of the Southwest. In order to make good the Confederacy's claim to the western portion of their new Arizona Territory, Confederate soldiers, commanded by Capt. Sherod Hunter, were ordered to occupy Tucson, arriving there on February 28, 1862, they occupied the town until May 14, 1862, it was a detachment of these troops, involved in the fight at Dragoon Springs on May 5.

On May 5, 1862, a small band of mounted Confederates escorting Union prisoners to Texas was encamped at an abandoned Butterfield Overland Mail stagecoach station and spring in the Dragoon Mountains, about 16 miles from the present-day town of Benson and near Dragoon, Arizona. A force of about 100 Chiricahua Apache warriors, commanded by the war chiefs Cochise and Francisco, ambushed the party. Three Confederate soldiers and a young Mexican stock herder were killed; the Apaches succeeded in capturing a large number of livestock and horses. This minor skirmish is noted for causing the Confederacy's westernmost battle deaths, is the only known engagement in which Confederate soldiers were killed within the modern confines of Arizona, it is included as a part of the Apache Wars fought between Apaches and Americans between 1851-1900. A few days on May 9, after hearing of the attack, Capt. Sherod Hunter ordered his men to take back the captured herd of cattle and horses, as well as to avenge the deaths of their fellow soldiers.

The Confederates succeeded, recapturing the stolen animals and killing five Apaches with no loss of their own. The four casualties were buried near the Dragoon Springs stage station, where they remain today near its well-preserved remains. List of battles won by Indigenous peoples of the Americas New Mexico Territory in the American Civil War American Indian Wars Finch, L. Boyd. Confederate Pathway to the Pacific: Major Sherod Hunter and the Arizona Territory, C. S. A. Tucson, Arizona: Arizona Historical Society Press, 1996. Horn, Calvin P. and William S. Wallace, Editors. Confederate Victories in the Southwest: Prelude to Defeat. Albuquerque, New Mexico: Horn and Wallace, 1961. Kerby, Robert Lee; the Confederate Invasion of New Mexico and Arizona, 1861–1862. Tucson, Arizona: Westernlore Press, 1958. Masich, Andrew E; the Civil War in Arizona. Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 2006. Rodgers, Robert L. "The Confederate States Organized Arizona in 1862." Southern Historical Society Papers, Volume 28. Sonnichsen, Charles Leland.

Tucson: The Life and Times of an American City. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1982. Sweeney, Edwin R. Cochise: Chiricahua Apache Chief. Norman, Oklahoma: University of Oklahoma Press, 1995. Walker, Charles S. "Confederate Government in Dona Ana County As Shown in the Records of the Probate Court, 1861–1862, New Mexico Historical Review, Vol. VI, pp. 253–302. MyCivilWar: The Battle of Dragoon Springs Dragoon Springs Cemetery at Find a Grave