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Western Roman Empire

In historiography, the Western Roman Empire refers to the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court. The terms Western Roman Empire and Eastern Roman Empire were coined in modern times to describe political entities that were de facto independent; the Western Roman Empire collapsed in 476, the Western imperial court was formally dissolved in 480. The Eastern imperial court survived until 1453. Though the Empire had seen periods with more than one Emperor ruling jointly before, the view that it was impossible for a single emperor to govern the entire Empire was institutionalised to reforms to Roman law by emperor Diocletian following the disastrous civil wars and disintegrations of the Crisis of the Third Century, he introduced the system of the tetrarchy in 286, with two separate senior emperors titled Augustus, one in the East and one in the West, each with an appointed Caesar. Though the tetrarchic system would collapse in a matter of years, the East–West administrative division would endure in one form or another over the coming centuries.

As such, the Western Roman Empire would exist intermittently in several periods between the 3rd and 5th centuries. Some emperors, such as Constantine I and Theodosius I, governed as the sole Augustus across the Roman Empire. On the death of Theodosius I in 395, he divided the empire between his two sons, with Honorius as his successor in the West, governing from Mediolanum, Arcadius as his successor in the East, governing from Constantinople. In 476, after the Battle of Ravenna, the Roman Army in the West suffered defeat at the hands of Odoacer and his Germanic foederati. Odoacer became the first King of Italy. In 480, following the assassination of the previous Western emperor Julius Nepos, the Eastern emperor Zeno dissolved the Western court and proclaimed himself the sole emperor of the Roman Empire; the date of 476 was popularized by the 18th century British historian Edward Gibbon as a demarcating event for the end of the Western Empire and is sometimes used to mark the transition from Antiquity to the Middle Ages.

Odoacer's Italy, other barbarian kingdoms, many of them representing former Western Roman allies, granted lands in return for military assistance, would maintain a pretence of Roman continuity through the continued use of the old Roman administrative systems and nominal subservience to the Eastern Roman court. In the 6th century, emperor Justinian I re-imposed direct Imperial rule on large parts of the former Western Roman Empire, including the prosperous regions of North Africa, the ancient Roman heartland of Italy and parts of Hispania. Political instability in the Eastern heartlands, combined with foreign invasions and religious differences, made efforts to retain control of these territories difficult and they were lost for good. Though the Eastern Empire retained territories in the south of Italy until the eleventh century, the influence that the Empire had over Western Europe had diminished significantly; the papal coronation of the Frankish King Charlemagne as Roman Emperor in 800 marked a new imperial line that would evolve into the Holy Roman Empire, which presented a revival of the Imperial title in Western Europe but was in no meaningful sense an extension of Roman traditions or institutions.

The Great Schism of 1054 between the churches of Rome and Constantinople further diminished any authority the Emperor in Constantinople could hope to exert in the west. As the Roman Republic expanded, it reached a point where the central government in Rome could not rule the distant provinces. Communications and transportation were problematic given the vast extent of the Empire. News of invasion, natural disasters, or epidemic outbreak was carried by ship or mounted postal service requiring much time to reach Rome and for Rome's orders to be returned and acted upon. Therefore, provincial governors had de facto autonomy in the name of the Roman Republic. Governors had several duties, including the command of armies, handling the taxes of the province and serving as the province's chief judges. Prior to the establishment of the Empire, the territories of the Roman Republic had been divided in 43 BC among the members of the Second Triumvirate: Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Antony received the provinces in the East: Achaea and Epirus, Bithynia and Asia, Syria and Cyrenaica.

These lands had been conquered by Alexander the Great. The whole region the major cities, had been assimilated into Greek culture, Greek serving as the lingua franca. Octavian obtained the Roman provinces of the West: Italia, Gallia Belgica, Hispania; these lands included Greek and Carthaginian colonies in the coastal areas, though Celtic tribes such as Gauls and Celtiberians were culturally dominant. Lepidus received the minor province of Africa. Octavian soon took Africa from Lepidus, while adding Sic

30th Berlin International Film Festival

The 30th annual Berlin International Film Festival was held from 18–29 February 1980. The Golden Bear was awarded to the American film Heartland directed by Richard Pearce and German film Palermo oder Wolfsburg directed by Werner Schroeter; the retrospective dedicated to American film-maker Billy Wilder was shown at the festival. Moritz de Hadeln became the director of the festival and increased the efforts in expansion of Berlin film market; the following people were announced as being on the jury for the festival: Ingrid Thulin Betsy Blair Mathieu Carrière Alberto Isaac Peter Kern Károly Makk Alexander Mitta Alexandre Trauner Angel Wagenstein The following films were in competition for the Golden Bear award: The following prizes were awarded by the Jury: Golden Bear: Heartland by Richard Pearce Palermo oder Wolfsburg by Werner Schroeter Silver Bear – Special Jury Prize: Chiedo asilo by Marco Ferreri Silver Bear for Best Director: István Szabó for Bizalom Silver Bear for Best Actress: Renate Krößner for Solo Sunny Silver Bear for Best Actor: Andrzej Seweryn for Dyrygent Berlin Bear Anniversary Prize: Marigolds in August by Ross Devenish Honourable Mention: Rude Boy Korpinpolska Düşman FIPRESCI Award Solo Sunny by Konrad Wolf, Wolfgang Kohlhaase 30th Berlin International Film Festival 1980 1980 Berlin International Film Festival Berlin International Film Festival:1980 at Internet Movie Database

Kata'ib Hezbollah

Kata'ib Hezbollah or Hezbollah Brigades is an Iraqi Shia paramilitary group, part of the Popular Mobilization Forces, supported by Iran. It has been active in the Syrian Civil War. During the Iraq War, the group fought against coalition occupation forces; the group was commanded by Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis until he was killed by a US airstrike in Baghdad on 3 January 2020. Kataib Hezbollah is listed as a terrorist organisation by the governments of Japan, the United Arab Emirates, the United States. Kata'ib Hezbollah was founded in 2003, shortly before the Iraq War that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by the USA and others that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein; the conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged to oppose the occupying forces and the post-invasion Iraqi government. The group was founded by Jamal Jafaar al-Ibrahim, known as Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, an Iraqi-Iranian dual national designated as terrorist in 2009, its first members were from the Badr Organization.

The group's structure is secretive, but al-Muhandis, an adviser to Iran's Quds Force and former Badr Organization member, was known to be a senior figure in the group, its commander. The group receives funding from the Quds Force; the US State department claimed Lebanon-based Hezbollah provided weapons and training for the group. The group came to prominence in 2007 for attacks against American and coalition forces in Iraq, was known for uploading its videos of attacks on American forces on the internet. In mid-2008, US and Iraqi forces launched a crackdown against the group and the "Special Groups", the US military term for Iran-backed militias in Iraq. At least 30 of its members were captured during those months. Many of the group's leaders were captured and US officials claimed that "as result much of the leadership fled to Iran". On 2 July 2009, the group was added to the U. S. State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations; the group was held responsible for numerous IED bombings, rocket and RPG attacks as well as sniper operations, targeting US and Iraqi forces and the Green Zone, including a November 2008 rocket attack that killed two U.

N. workers. In December 2009, the group intercepted the unencrypted video feed of MQ-1 Predator UAVs above Iraq. On 12 February 2010, a firefight with suspected members of the group occurred 265 km southeast of Baghdad in a village near the Iranian border, the U. S. military said. Twelve people were arrested, it said. "The joint security team was fired upon by individuals dispersed in multiple residential buildings... members of the security team returned fire, killing individuals assessed to be enemy combatants," the military said in a statement. The Provincial Iraqi officials said many of the dead were innocent bystanders, demanded compensation, they said. On 13 July 2010, General Ray Odierno named Kata'ib Hezbollah as being behind threats against American bases in Iraq. "In the last couple weeks there's been an increased threat... and so we've increased our security on some of our bases," Odierno told reporters at a briefing in Baghdad. In July 2011, an Iraqi intelligence official estimated the group's size at 1,000 fighters and said the militants were paid between $300 to $500 per month.

In July 2019, Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern affairs, Joan Polaschik, stated "rogue" Iranian-backed militias plan operations that could kill Americans, coalition partners and Iraqis and U. S. diplomatic facilities and continue to conduct indirect fire attacks. This led the U. S. to close its consulate in Basra. At the same hearing, Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for the Middle East Michael Mulroy said that Iran's "cynical interference" undermines Iraqi interests by supporting non-compliant militias, more loyal to Tehran than Baghdad, undermining the Iraqi prime minister's authority, preying on ordinary Iraqis by crime and destabilizing the fragile communities liberated from ISIS; the Al-Qa'im border crossing has seen hastened military activity as the group is expected to play an important military and security role as the crossing with Syria is opened on September 30, 2019. In 2013, Kata'ib Hezbollah and other Iraqi Shia militias acknowledged sending fighters to Syria to fight alongside forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad, against the Sunni rebels seeking to overthrow him in the Syrian Civil War.

Wathiq al-Batat, a former Kata'ib Hezbollah leader, announced the creation of a new Shia militia, the Mukhtar Army, on 4 February 2013, saying its aim is to defend Shiites and help the government combat terrorism. In 2014, the group began taking a role in the fight against ISIL in Iraq. In 2014, they and six other predominantly Shia Iraqi paramilitary groups formed the Popular Mobilization Forces. Since October 2016, Kata'ib Hezbollah along with the Iraqi army and other PMF has taken part in the Battle of Mosul against ISIL, they have been, alongside other PMF, active in fighting around Tal Afar, severing ISIL's link from Mosul and Tal Afar to the rest of their territory. On 29 December 2019, the United States bombed the headquarters of Kata'ib Hezbollah near Al-Qa'im; the airstrikes targeted three Kata'ib Hezbollah locations in Iraq and two in Syria, included weapons depots and command posts, according to Reuters and a US military statement. The attack was in retaliation after a barrage of over 30 rockets were fired towards the K-1 two days earlier and other attacks on bases with US forces in Iraq.

The earlier attack killed a US contractor and wounded several US soldiers. Twenty-five people were killed in the US airstrik