Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large Gothic abbey church in the City of Westminster, England, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. It is one of the United Kingdom's most notable religious buildings and the traditional place of coronation and burial site for English and British monarchs; the building itself was a Benedictine monastic church until the monastery was dissolved in 1539. Between 1540 and 1556, the abbey had the status of a cathedral. Since 1560, the building is no longer an abbey or a cathedral, having instead the status of a Church of England "Royal Peculiar"—a church responsible directly to the sovereign. According to a tradition first reported by Sulcard in about 1080, a church was founded at the site in the seventh century, at the time of Mellitus, a Bishop of London. Construction of the present church began in 1245, on the orders of King Henry III. Since the coronation of William the Conqueror in 1066, all coronations of English and British monarchs have been in Westminster Abbey.
There have been 16 royal weddings at the abbey since 1100. As the burial site of more than 3,300 persons of prominence in British history, Westminster Abbey is sometimes described as'Britain's Valhalla', after the iconic burial hall of Norse mythology. A late tradition claims that Aldrich, a young fisherman on the River Thames, had a vision of Saint Peter near the site; this seems to have been quoted as the origin of the salmon that Thames fishermen offered to the abbey in years – a custom still observed annually by the Fishmongers' Company. The recorded origins of the Abbey date to the 960s or early 970s, when Saint Dunstan and King Edgar installed a community of Benedictine monks on the site. Between 1042 and 1052, King Edward the Confessor began rebuilding St Peter's Abbey to provide himself with a royal burial church, it was the first church in England built in the Romanesque style. The building was completed around 1060 and was consecrated on 28 December 1065, only a week before Edward's death on 5 January 1066.
A week he was buried in the church. His successor, Harold II, was crowned in the abbey, although the first documented coronation is that of William the Conqueror the same year; the only extant depiction of Edward's abbey, together with the adjacent Palace of Westminster, is in the Bayeux Tapestry. Some of the lower parts of the monastic dormitory, an extension of the South Transept, survive in the Norman Undercroft of the Great School, including a door said to come from the previous Saxon abbey. Increased endowments supported a community increased from a dozen monks in Dunstan's original foundation, up to a maximum about eighty monks; the abbot and monks, in proximity to the royal Palace of Westminster, the seat of government from the 13th century, became a powerful force in the centuries after the Norman Conquest. The Abbot of Westminster was employed on royal service and in due course took his place in the House of Lords as of right. Released from the burdens of spiritual leadership, which passed to the reformed Cluniac movement after the mid-10th century, occupied with the administration of great landed properties, some of which lay far from Westminster, "the Benedictines achieved a remarkable degree of identification with the secular life of their times, with upper-class life", Barbara Harvey concludes, to the extent that her depiction of daily life provides a wider view of the concerns of the English gentry in the High and Late Middle Ages.
The proximity of the Palace of Westminster did not extend to providing monks or abbots with high royal connections. The abbot remained Lord of the Manor of Westminster as a town of two to three thousand persons grew around it: as a consumer and employer on a grand scale the monastery helped fuel the town economy, relations with the town remained unusually cordial, but no enfranchising charter was issued during the Middle Ages; the abbey became the coronation site of Norman kings. None were buried there until Henry III, intensely devoted to the cult of the Confessor, rebuilt the abbey in Anglo-French Gothic style as a shrine to venerate King Edward the Confessor and as a suitably regal setting for Henry's own tomb, under the highest Gothic nave in England; the Confessor's shrine subsequently played a great part in his canonization. Construction of the present church began in 1245 by Henry III; the first building stage included the entire eastern end, the transepts, the easternmost bay of the nave.
The Lady chapel built from around 1220 at the extreme eastern end was incorporated into the chevet of the new building, but was replaced. This work must have been completed by 1258–60, when the second stage was begun; this carried the nave on an additional five bays. Here construction stopped in about 1269, a consecration ceremony being held on 13 October of that year, because of Henry's death did not resume; the old Romanesque nave remained attached to the new building for over a century, until it was pulled down in the late 14th century and rebuilt from 1376 following the original design. Construction was finished by the architect Henry Yevele in the reign of Richard II. Henry III commissioned the unique Cosmati pavement in front of the High Altar (the pavement has undergone a major cleaning and conserva
Reaching Out is an album by jazz drummer Dave Bailey, released on the Jazztime label in 1961. The album is notable for featuring some of the earliest recorded performances of guitarist Grant Green and was re-released under Green's name as Green Blues in 1973 on the Muse label and under the original title on the Black Lion label with 3 alternate takes in 1989. Allmusic awarded the album 3½ stars with a review stating, "The cool, spacious and unhurried sound of Haynes dominates this recording, as Green comes up for air on solos or the occasional joint melody line. Billy Gardner, better known as an organist, plays beautifully and with feeling on the piano, while bassist Ben Tucker and the great drummer Dave Bailey team up to provide the perfect, steady rhythmic foundation so essential to great mainstream jazz expressionism". "Reaching Out" - 5:23 "Our Miss Brooks" - 6:49 "A Flick of a Trick" - 7:51 "One for Elena" - 6:09 "Baby You Should Know It" - 9:14 "Falling in Love with Love" - 5:26 "Reaching Out" - 6:50 Bonus track on CD reissue "Our Miss Brooks" - 10:14 Bonus track on CD reissue "One for Elena" - 7:52 Bonus track on CD reissue Dave Bailey - drums Frank Haynes - tenor saxophone Billy Gardner - piano Grant Green - guitar Ben Tucker - bass
This article provides details of the lettered avenues in the flat south central portion of the New York City borough of Brooklyn. Improved public transport brought urban sprawl to this area in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, after the hilly areas to its west and north had been developed; the avenues are oriented east to west and unless specified have two traffic lanes, carrying two-way traffic. Route descriptions are given west to east. Much of Brooklyn has only named streets, but in this portion of Brooklyn, lettered avenues east of Dahill Road run east and west, forming a perpendicular grid with numbered streets that have the prefix "East". South of Avenue O, related perpendicular numbered streets west of Dahill Road use the "West" designation; this set of numbered streets ranges from West 37th Street to East 108th Street, the avenues range from A-Z with names substituted for some of them in some neighborhoods, notably Albemarle Road, Beverley Road, Cortelyou Road, Dorchester Road, Ditmas Avenue, Foster Avenue, Farragut Road, Glenwood Road and Quentin Road.
These are less than a mile long, in northern Canarsie. In 1897, at the request of developers, the City of Brooklyn renamed several streets in what is now known as Prospect Park South. Among these are Avenues A and B, five numbered streets which cross them. Avenue A was renamed Albemarle Road, a portion of Avenue B between Coney Island Avenue and Flatbush Avenue was renamed Beverley Road. After Brooklyn was annexed into the City of New York, three more segments of Avenue B, namely between Church Avenue and Coney Island Avenue, between Flatbush Avenue and Brooklyn Avenue, between Schenectady Avenue and Ralph Avenue, were renamed with an Americanized spelling: Beverly Road; this explains the spelling discrepancy between the two subway stations along what was once known as Avenue B: the Beverley Road station on the BMT Brighton Line, the Beverly Road station on the IRT Nostrand Avenue line. The portion of Avenue B east of Ralph Avenue was not given the name in order to complement an Avenue A, distinct from what is now known as Albemarle Road.
Avenue C is less than a mile long. Cortelyou Road, one block south, can be confused with Avenue C, since Cortelyou starts with the letter "C". Over a mile in length, Avenue D is located in East Flatbush. Ditmas Avenue and Dorchester Road are sometimes associated with Avenue D, since Ditmas and Dorchester start with the letter "D". However, Cortelyou Road is the successor to a portion of Avenue D between Dahill Road and Coney Island Avenue. Ditmas Avenue does intersect the western terminus of Avenue D and Flatbush Avenue, at a 135-degree angle. There is some evidence that the current Avenue D was named Ditmas Avenue, renamed to fit the letter grid. There is no longer any Avenue E. Late 19th and early 20th century maps depict an Avenue E, renamed Ditmas Avenue and Foster Avenue. Located in the southern part of Kensington, Avenue F is less than a mile long, it is associated with nearby Foster Avenue and Farragut Road, since Foster and Farragut begin with the letter "F". However, Foster Avenue predates Avenue F and is the successor to Avenue E.
Although Avenue F terminates west of Ocean Parkway, it continued a few blocks further east, until East 8th Street at 18th Avenue. Farragut Road is in close alignment with the remnant Avenue F, may have been called Avenue F. There is no longer any Avenue G, it was renamed Glenwood Road in the early 20th century. The Bay Ridge Branch lies between these avenues for most of their length. Avenue H is interrupted by the campus of Brooklyn College. Avenue J travels through the neighborhoods of Flatlands, it runs to Ralph Avenue in Georgetown, just short of Paerdegat Basin. It runs from East 80th Street to East 108th Street; the house numbers increase from west to east. The road carries 2 lanes of traffic and has a commercial strip between Coney Island Avenue and East 16th Street; the avenue carries the B6 bus in some places. It is notoriously home for the famous street gang, The J Boys, which existed from 1979-1988. Avenue K starts off at Ocean Parkway in Midwood, it gets interrupted with a brief concurrency along Flatbush Avenue.
It runs to Bergen Avenue in Bergen Beach, where it is interrupted by Paerdegat Basin. It runs from East 80th Street to East 108th Street; the house numbers increase from west to east. Avenue L starts off at its western terminus at East 4th Street in Midwood and continues to Flatbush Avenue in Flatlands, it resumes at East 41st Street and Troy Avenue and continues as a one-way street going from west to east to Ralph Avenue, where it becomes a two-way street again until its eastern terminus at Bergen Avenue in Bergen Beach. Across the Paerdegat Basin, it resumes at East 80th Street in Canarsie and runs to its terminus at East 108th Street; the house numbers increase from west to east. Avenue M starts at Dahill Road in Mapleton, it gets interrupted at Flatlands Avenue, resumes at Flatbush Avenue and is juxtaposed to the south at Ralph Avenue, from which it runs as a two-way street to Bergen Avenue along Paedergat Basin. Across the water, it resumes at East 80th Street in Canarsie and runs to its terminus at East 108th Street.