Liverpool Street station
Liverpool Street station known as London Liverpool Street, is a central London railway terminus and connected London Underground station in the north-eastern corner of the City of London, in the ward of Bishopsgate. It is one of the busiest railway stations in London, serving as the terminus of the West Anglia Main Line to Cambridge, the busier Great Eastern Main Line to Norwich and regional commuter trains serving east London and destinations in the East of England, the Stansted Express service to Stansted Airport; the station opened in 1874 as a replacement for Bishopsgate station as the Great Eastern Railway's main London terminus. By 1895 it had the largest number of platforms on any terminal railway station in London. During the First World War, an air raid on the station in 1917 led to 162 deaths. In the build-up to the Second World War, the station served as the entry point for thousands of child refugees arriving in London as part of the Kindertransport rescue mission; the station was damaged by the 1993 Bishopsgate bombing, during the 7 July 2005 bombing seven passengers were killed when a bomb exploded aboard an Underground train just after it had departed from Liverpool Street.
Liverpool Street was built as a dual-level station with provision for the Underground. A tube station opened in 1875 for the Metropolitan Railway, the station today is served by the Central, Hammersmith & City and Metropolitan lines, is in fare zone 1. Liverpool Street is the third-busiest railway station in the United Kingdom after Waterloo and Victoria, both in London, it served over 63.6 million passenger entries and exits in 2014–15 and is a popular destination for commuters. It is managed directly by Network Rail. Trains depart from Liverpool Street main-line station for destinations across the east of England, including Norwich, Ipswich, Clacton-on-Sea, Chelmsford, Southend Victoria, Harlow Town, Hertford East, many suburban stations in north and east London and Hertfordshire. A few daily express trains to Harwich International provide a connection with the Dutchflyer ferry to Hook of Holland. Stansted Express trains provide a link to Stansted Airport and Southend Victoria-bound services stop at Southend Airport.
Most passenger services on the Great Eastern Main Line are operated by Greater Anglia. Since 2015, the Shenfield "metro" service has been controlled by TfL Rail and the Lea Valley Lines to Enfield Town and Chingford are operated by London Overground. A small number of late-evening and weekend services operated by c2c run via Barking; the station is split into two-halves: the "west" side for the Lea Valley Lines services and the "east" side for services via Stratford. The typical off-peak weekday service pattern from Liverpool Street is: Liverpool Street station was built as the new London terminus of the Great Eastern Railway which served Norwich and King's Lynn; the GER had been formed from the merger of several railway companies, inheriting Bishopsgate as its London terminus. Bishopsgate was inadequate for the company's passenger traffic; the GER planned a more central station. In 1865, plans included a circa 1-mile long line branching from the main line east of the company's existing terminus in Shoreditch, a new station at Liverpool Street as the main terminus, with Bishopsgate station to be used for freight traffic.
The station at Liverpool Street was to be built for the use of the GER and of the East London Railway on two levels, with the underground East London line around 37 ft below this, the GER tracks supported on brick arches. The station was planned to be around 630 by 200 ft in area, with its main façade onto Liverpool Street and an additional entrance on Bishopsgate-Street; the main train shed was to be a two-span wood construction with a central void providing light and ventilation to the lower station, the station buildings were to be in an Italianate style to the designs of the GER's architect. The line and station construction were authorised by the Great Eastern Railway Act 1864; the station was built on a 10 acres site occupied by the Bethlem Royal Hospital, adjacent to Broad Street station, west of Bishopsgate and facing onto Liverpool Street to the south. The development land was compulsorily purchased, displacing around 3,000 residents of the parish of St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate.
Around 7,000 people living in tenements around Shoreditch were evicted to complete the line towards Liverpool Street, while the City of London Theatre and City of London Gasworks were both demolished. To manage the disruption caused by rehousing, the company was required by the 1864 Act to run daily low-cost workmen's trains from the station; the station was built by Lucas Brothers. The overall design was Gothic, built using stock bricks and bath stone dressings; the building incorporated booking offices as well as the company offices of the GER, including chairman's, committee and engineers' rooms. The roof was spanned by four wrought iron spans, two central spans of 109 ft and outer spans of 46 and 44 ft, 730 ft in length over the eastern main lines, 450 ft long over the local platforms.
The Dukes of Hazzard
The Dukes of Hazzard was an American action-comedy television series that aired on CBS from January 26, 1979, to February 8, 1985. The show aired for a total of 147 episodes spanning seven seasons; the series was inspired by the 1975 film Moonrunners, created by Gy Waldron and had many identical or similar character names and concepts. The Dukes of Hazzard had an ensemble cast, which follows the adventures of "The Duke Boys", cousins Bo Duke and Luke Duke, who live on a family farm in fictional Hazzard County, with their attractive female cousin Daisy and their wise old Uncle Jesse; the Duke boys race around in their customized 1969 Dodge Charger stock car, dubbed General Lee, evading crooked and corrupt county commissioner Boss Hogg and his bumbling and corrupt Sheriff Rosco P. Coltrane along with his deputy, always managing to get caught in the middle of the various escapades and incidents that occur in the area. Bo and Luke had been sentenced to probation for illegal transportation of moonshine.
S. Government to refrain from distilling moonshine in Luke's freedom; as a result, Bo and Luke are on 5 years probation and not allowed to carry firearms – instead, they use compound bows, sometimes with arrows tipped with dynamite – or to leave Hazzard County unless they get probation permission from their probation officer, Boss Hogg, although the exact details of their probation terms vary from episode to episode. Sometimes it is implied that they would be jailed for crossing the county line. Several other technicalities of their probation came into play at various times. Corrupt county commissioner Jefferson Davis "Boss" Hogg, who either runs or has fingers in everything in Hazzard County, is forever angry with the Dukes Bo and Luke, for always foiling his crooked schemes, he is always looking for ways to get them out of the picture so that his plots have a chance of succeeding. Many episodes revolve around Hogg trying to engage in an illegal scheme, sometimes with aid of hired criminal help.
Some of these are get-rich-quick schemes, though many others affect the financial security of the Duke farm, which Hogg has long wanted to acquire for various reasons. Other times, Hogg hires criminals from out of town to do his dirty work for him, tries to frame Bo and Luke for various crimes as part of these plots. Bo and Luke always seem to stumble over Hogg's latest scheme, sometimes by curiosity, by sheer luck, put it out of business. Despite the Dukes coming to his rescue, Hogg forever seems to have an irrational dislike of the clan Bo and Luke accusing them of spying on him, robbing or planning to rob him, other nefarious actions, as he believes they are out to get him; the role of Boss Hogg was played by Sorrell Booke, who performed on radio and film prior to his role in The Dukes of Hazzard. Boss Hogg is one of only two characters to appear in every episode of the TV series, the other being Uncle Jesse Duke; the other main characters of the show include local mechanic Cooter Davenport, who in early episodes was portrayed as a wild, unshaven rebel breaking or treading on the edge of the law, before settling down to become the Duke family's best friend and owns the local garage.
In the third and fourth seasons, when Enos leaves for his own show, he is replaced by Deputy Cletus Hogg, Boss's cousin, more wily than Enos but still a somewhat reluctant player in Hogg's plots. Owing to their fundamentally good natures, the Dukes wind up helping Boss Hogg out of trouble, albeit grudgingly. More than once Hogg is targeted by former associates who are either seeking revenge or have double crossed him after a scheme has unraveled in one way or another. Sheriff Coltrane finds himself targeted in some instances. On such occasions, Bo and Luke have to rescue their adversaries as an inevitable precursor to defeating the bad guys; these instances became more frequent as the show progressed, seasons saw a number of stories where the Dukes and Hogg temporarily work together. The series was developed from the 1975 film Moonrunners. Created by Gy Waldron in collaboration with ex-moonshiner Jerry Rushing, this movie shares many identical and similar names and concepts with the subsequent TV series.
Although itself a comedy, this original movie was much cruder and edgier than the family-friendly TV series that would evolve from it. In 1977, Waldron was approached by Warner Bros. with the idea of developing Moonrunners into a television series. Waldron reworked various elements from Moonrunners, from it was devised what would become The Dukes of Hazzard. Production began in October 1978 with the original intention of only nine episodes being produced as mid-season filler; the first five episodes were filmed in Covington and Conyers and surrounding areas, including some location work in nearby Atlanta. After completing production on the fifth episode, "High Octane", the cast and crew broke
Hertfordshire is one of the home counties in the south east of England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, Buckinghamshire to the west. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region. In 2013, the county had a population of 1,140,700 in an area of 634 square miles; the four towns that have between 50,000 and 100,000 residents are Hemel Hempstead, Watford and St Albans. Hertford, once the main market town for the medieval agricultural county, derives its name from a hart and a ford, used as the components of the county's coat of arms and flag. Elevations are high for the region in the west; these reach over 800 feet in the western projection around Tring, in the Chilterns. The county's borders are the watersheds of the Colne and Lea. Hertfordshire's undeveloped land is agricultural and much is protected by green belt; the county's landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the new town of Stevenage built by local inhabitants during the Roman period, to Leavesden Film Studios.
The volume of intact medieval and Tudor buildings surpasses London, in places in well-preserved conservation areas in St Albans which includes some remains of Verulamium, the town where in the 3rd century an early recorded British martyrdom took place. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire is well-served with railways, providing good access to London; the largest sector of the economy of the county is in services. Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder in 913. Hertford is derived from meaning deer crossing; the name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems. There is evidence of humans living in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period, it was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age.
This was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, the aboriginal Catuvellauni submitted and adapted to the Roman life. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire as the yellow field to the stag or Hart representing the county. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire. With the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 6th century the majority of the modern county was part of the East Saxon kingdom; this short lived kingdom collapsed in the 9th century, ceding the territory of Hertfordshire to the control of the West Anglians of Mercia. The region became an English shire in the 10th century, on the merger of the West Saxon and Mercian kingdoms. A century William of Normandy received the surrender of the surviving senior English Lords and Clergy at Berkhamsted, resulting in a new Anglicised title of William the Conqueror before embarking on an uncontested entry into London and his coronation at Westminster.
Hertfordshire was used for some of the new Norman castles at Bishop's Stortford, at King's Langley, a staging post between London and the royal residence of Berkhamsted. The Domesday Book recorded the county as having nine hundreds. Tring and Danais became one—Dacorum—from Danis Corum or Danish rule harking back to a Viking not Saxon past; the other seven were Braughing, Cashio, Hertford and Odsey. The first shooting-down of a zeppelin over Great Britain during WW1 happened in Cuffley; as London grew, Hertfordshire became conveniently close to the English capital. However, the greatest boost to Hertfordshire came during the Industrial Revolution, after which the population rose dramatically. In 1903, Letchworth became the world's first garden city and Stevenage became the first town to redevelop under the New Towns Act 1946. From the 1920s until the late 1980s, the town of Borehamwood was home to one of the major British film studio complexes, including the MGM-British Studios. Many well-known films were made here including the first three Star Wars movies.
The studios used the name of Elstree. American director Stanley Kubrick not only used to shoot in those studios but lived in the area until his death. Big Brother UK and Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? have been filmed there. EastEnders is filmed at Elstree. Hertfordshire has seen development at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden. On 17 October 2000, the Hatfield rail crash killed four people with over 70 injured; the crash exposed the shortcomings of Railtrack, which saw speed restrictions and major track replacement. On 10 May 2002, the second of the Potters Bar rail accidents occurred killing seven people.
Edinburgh Airport is an airport located in the Ingliston area of the City of Edinburgh, United Kingdom. It was the busiest airport in Scotland in 2018, handling over 14.3 million passengers in that year, an increase of 6.5% compared with 2017. It was the sixth-busiest airport in the United Kingdom by total passengers in 2018, it is located 5 NM west of the city centre, just off the M9 motorways. It is owned and operated by Global Infrastructure Partners, who are the majority shareholder and lead the management of Gatwick Airport; the airport has one runway and one passenger terminal, employs about 2,500 people. Turnhouse Aerodrome was the most northerly British air defence base in World War I used by the Royal Flying Corps; the small base opened in 1916 and it was used to house the 603 Squadron from 1925, which consisted of DH 9As, Westland Wapitis, Hawker Harts, Hawker Hind light bombers. All the aircraft used a grass air strip. In 1918 the Royal Air Force was formed and the airfield was named RAF Turnhouse and ownership transferred to the Ministry of Defence.
When the Second World War broke out, RAF Fighter Command took control over the airfield and a runway of 3,900 ft was paved to handle the Supermarine Spitfire. During the Battle of Britain, 3, 65, 141 Squadrons were present at the airbase; when the war ended the airfield remained under military control, but by the late 1940s the first commercial services were launched. In 1947, British European Airways started a service between Edinburgh and London using Vickers Vikings followed by the Viscount and Vanguard series. In 1952 the runway was extended to 6000 ft to handle the Vampire FB5s operated by the resident 603 Squadron. In 1956 a new passenger terminal was built to provide an improved commercial service. After the disbandment of 603 Squadron in March 1957, the Ministry of Defence transferred ownership to the Ministry of Aviation in 1960 to offer improved commercial service to the airport. Flying was temporarily diverted to East Fortune, which had its runway extended to accommodate the airliners of the period.
The British Airports Authority took over ownership of the airport on 1 April 1971 at a time when the original terminal building was running at about eight times its design capacity. Immediate improvements to the terminal were cosmetic, such as extra seating and TV monitors for flight information, it took two years for plans to be proposed for a new terminal and runway redesign. A public consultation on planning started in November 1971 and ended in February 1972. Initial stages of the redevelopment began in June 1973. Work on the new terminal building, designed by Sir Robert Matthew, started in March 1975, the building was opened by Her Majesty the Queen on 27 May 1977, opening to the public two days later. Although the original main runway 13/31 served the airport well, its alignment had the disadvantage of suffering from severe crosswinds, the other two minor runways were short and could not be extended, so movements were transferred to a new runway in an addition outside the original airfield boundary.
This runway, completed in 1977, is 2,556 m in length, was able to take all modern airliners including Concorde. A new terminal was built alongside the runway to cater for the additional traffic; the old terminal and hangars were converted into a cargo centre. International service from Edinburgh began in 1962 with a direct service to Dublin, but for many years international flights were charter and private only; this started to change during the late 1970s, with direct services to continental Europe. By the mid-1980s direct routes included Paris, Düsseldorf, Brussels and Copenhagen, but direct transatlantic flights were not yet possible as Prestwick was the only "designated gateway" in Scotland under the US-UK Bermuda II Agreement. By the time BAA had been privatised in 1987, Edinburgh Airport handled over 1.8 million passengers each year. RAF Turnhouse was operational near the passenger terminal of the airport for all of the post war period, but was closed in 1997. Since the original terminal upgrade in 1977, there have been major reconstructions, including extensions of the two passenger terminal aprons and a major expansion of car parking facilities, including a multi-storey car park in 2004.
In 2005, a new 57-metre-tall air traffic control tower was completed at a cost of £10m. An extension to the terminal called the South East Pier opened in September 2006; this extension added six gates on a new pier to the south-east of the original building. A further four gates were added to the South East Pier at the end of 2008. On 19 October 2011, BAA Limited announced its intention to sell the airport, following a decision by the UK's Competition Commission requiring BAA to sell either Glasgow Airport or Edinburgh Airport. BAA announced on 23 April 2012 that it had sold Edinburgh Airport to Global Infrastructure Partners for a price of £807.2 million. In 2013, a further extension to the passenger terminal was announced, taking the terminal building up to the Edinburgh Airport tram stop; the opening of the Edinburgh Trams in May 2014 created the first rail connection to Edinburgh Airport. Whilst the number of passengers has increased, the number of flights decreased in 2014 due to plane
Doncaster Sheffield Airport
Doncaster Sheffield Airport named Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield, is an international airport located at the former RAF Finningley station, in the Metropolitan Borough of Doncaster within South Yorkshire, England. The airport lies 3 miles southeast of 19 mi east of Sheffield. Handling 1.22 million passengers in 2018, the airport is the smaller of Yorkshire's two large commercial airports, the other being Leeds Bradford Airport. The airport opened to passengers in 2005, it was operated by Peel Airports, a division of The Peel Group, who at the time owned and managed Liverpool John Lennon Airport and City Airport Manchester, had a 75% stake in Durham Tees Valley Airport. Doncaster Sheffield Airport has a CAA Public Use Aerodrome Licence that allows flights for the public transport of passengers or for flying instruction; the airport owes its origins to military aviation, having been founded as Finningley Airfield in 1915. During the First World War, it was used as a base by the Royal Flying Corps as they intercepted German Zeppelins targeting the industrial cities of the North.
In the Second World War the airfield was used for training purposes, serving as a finishing school for new crews of the larger aircraft in Bomber Command. The Cold War saw the airfield's importance rise. Training once again became the priority in the 1970s and 1980s before the airport was decommissioned in 1995. Following the ending of scheduled services from Sheffield City Airport, the former RAF Finningley was reopened as Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield in April 2005, after low-cost flights and rising passenger demand made a new commercial airport feasible; the name of the airport was controversial with 11,000 people signing a petition to oppose it. The airport's first commercial flight flew to Palma de Mallorca in Majorca, departing at 0915 on 28 April 2005; the airport was projected to serve at least a million passengers during 2006. The actual figure for its first year was 899,000, making the airport the 23rd largest in the UK. By August 2007 the new airport had handled 2.28 million passengers.
Long haul flights to North America began in summer 2007, with Flyglobespan operating to Hamilton and Thomsonfly to Orlando, Cancún and Puerto Plata. All these routes have since been discontinued. In 2007, over one million passengers used the airport, this had decreased to around 700,000 by 2012, before increasing again to 1.255 million in 2016. In December 2009, EasyJet announced that from April 2010 it would operate flights from Doncaster to Amsterdam, Faro, Palma de Mallorca and Prague; these flights were expected to carry 300,000 passengers in the first year of operation. However, EasyJet withdrew all flights from the airport with effect from 4 January 2011. By 2010 the Peel Group was attempting to secure outside investment for Peel Airports. In June 2010 it was announced that Vantage Airport Group had agreed to buy a 65% stake in Peel Airports, with Peel Group retaining the remaining 35%. However, following a significant decline in passenger numbers, Peel Airports sold Durham Tees Valley Airport back to Peel Group in February 2012.
In the second half of 2012, monthly passenger numbers at Robin Hood fell and in December 2012 it was announced that Robin Hood would be sold back to Peel Group. As a result, by January 2013 only Liverpool John Lennon Airport was still owned by Peel Airports, with Vantage Airport Group owning 65% of this company. At Durham Tees Valley Airport and Robin Hood Airport, Vantage's involvement had ended. Robin Hood Airport was once again wholly owned by the Peel Group, while at Durham Tees Valley Airport, Peel were majority shareholders, with local councils retaining a minority stake. In 2014, Peel took back full ownership of Liverpool John Lennon, bringing all of Peel's airports back into group ownership, with Liverpool retaining its own management structure separate to Doncaster and Durham. In September 2016, the airport signed a deal with Sheffield United Football Club; this resulted in Doncaster Sheffield Airport being the club's official air travel provider. To promote the partnership, a large advertisement has been displayed across one of the stands at Bramall Lane Stadium.
As a method of increasing passenger numbers at the airport, the football club has been giving away free flights to their fans. Since the new airport link road opened, which connects Parrots Corner to the M18's Junction 3, Sheffield is only 30 minutes away by road which supports the partnership between the airport and the football club further. In December 2016, the airport received an new corporate design including a change of name from Robin Hood Airport Doncaster Sheffield to Doncaster Sheffield Airport, with the Robin Hood title being downgraded to a lesser used graphic appendix. In September 2017, the airport entered a sponsorship deal with Sheffield Arena giving it the new name of Fly DSA Arena. In April 2019, Flybe announced they would be closing their base at Doncaster Sheffield Airport, remove all crew and aircraft based there. All based operations will end on the 26th October 2019; the airport has a single runway designated 02/20, with a length of 2,895 by 60 m, making it longer and wider than those at many other airports in Northern England.
This stems from the airport's history as a former long-range nuclear bomber base, makes the airport suitable for wide-bodied, long-haul or cargo-carrying aircraft. The runway is long enough that the airport was designated a Space Shuttle emergency landing
Dublin is the capital and largest city of Ireland. It is on the east coast of Ireland, in the province of Leinster, at the mouth of the River Liffey, is bordered on the south by the Wicklow Mountains, it has an urban area population of 1,173,179, while the population of the Dublin Region, as of 2016, was 1,347,359, the population of the Greater Dublin area was 1,904,806. There is archaeological debate regarding where Dublin was established by the Gaels in or before the 7th century AD. Expanded as a Viking settlement, the Kingdom of Dublin, the city became Ireland's principal settlement following the Norman invasion; the city expanded from the 17th century and was the second largest city in the British Empire before the Acts of Union in 1800. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State renamed Ireland. Dublin is a historical and contemporary centre for education, the arts and industry; as of 2018 the city was listed by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network as a global city, with a ranking of "Alpha −", which places it amongst the top thirty cities in the world.
The name Dublin comes from the Irish word Dubhlinn, early Classical Irish Dubhlind/Duibhlind, from dubh meaning "black, dark", lind "pool", referring to a dark tidal pool. This tidal pool was located where the River Poddle entered the Liffey, on the site of the castle gardens at the rear of Dublin Castle. In Modern Irish the name is Duibhlinn, Irish rhymes from County Dublin show that in Dublin Leinster Irish it was pronounced Duílinn; the original pronunciation is preserved in the names for the city in other languages such as Old English Difelin, Old Norse Dyflin, modern Icelandic Dyflinn and modern Manx Divlyn as well as Welsh Dulyn. Other localities in Ireland bear the name Duibhlinn, variously anglicized as Devlin and Difflin. Scribes using the Gaelic script wrote bh with a dot over the b, rendering Duḃlinn or Duiḃlinn; those without knowledge of Irish omitted the dot. Variations on the name are found in traditionally Gaelic-speaking areas of Scotland, such as An Linne Dhubh, part of Loch Linnhe.
It is now thought that the Viking settlement was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements; the Viking settlement of about 841, a Gaelic settlement, Áth Cliath further up river, at the present day Father Mathew Bridge, at the bottom of Church Street. Baile Átha Cliath, meaning "town of the hurdled ford", is the common name for the city in modern Irish. Áth Cliath is a place name referring to a fording point of the River Liffey near Father Mathew Bridge. Baile Átha Cliath was an early Christian monastery, believed to have been in the area of Aungier Street occupied by Whitefriar Street Carmelite Church. There are other towns of the same name, such as Àth Cliath in East Ayrshire, Anglicised as Hurlford; the area of Dublin Bay has been inhabited by humans since prehistoric times, but the writings of Ptolemy in about AD 140 provide the earliest reference to a settlement there.
He called it Eblana polis. Dublin celebrated its'official' millennium in 1988, meaning the Irish government recognised 988 as the year in which the city was settled and that this first settlement would become the city of Dublin, it is now thought the Viking settlement of about 841 was preceded by a Christian ecclesiastical settlement known as Duibhlinn, from which Dyflin took its name. Beginning in the 9th and 10th century, there were two settlements which became the modern Dublin; the subsequent Scandinavian settlement centred on the River Poddle, a tributary of the Liffey in an area now known as Wood Quay. The Dubhlinn was a pool on the lowest stretch of the Poddle, used to moor ships; this pool was fully infilled during the early 18th century, as the city grew. The Dubhlinn lay where the Castle Garden is now located, opposite the Chester Beatty Library within Dublin Castle. Táin Bó Cuailgne refers to Dublind rissa ratter Áth Cliath, meaning "Dublin, called Ath Cliath". Dublin was established as a Viking settlement in the 10th century and, despite a number of attacks by the native Irish, it remained under Viking control until the Norman invasion of Ireland was launched from Wales in 1169.
It was upon the death of Muirchertach Mac Lochlainn in early 1166 that Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, King of Connacht, proceeded to Dublin and was inaugurated King of Ireland without opposition. According to some historians, part of the city's early economic growth is attributed to a trade in slaves. Slavery in Ireland and Dublin reached its pinnacle in the 10th centuries. Prisoners from slave raids and kidnappings, which captured men and children, brought revenue to the Gaelic Irish Sea raiders, as well as to the Vikings who had initiated the practice; the victims came from Wales, England and beyond. The King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada, after his exile by Ruaidhrí, enlisted the help of Strongbow, the Earl of Pembroke, to conquer Dublin. Following Mac Murrough's death, Strongbow declared himself King of Leinster after gaining control of the city. In response to Strongbow's successful invasion, King Henry II of England affirmed his ultimate sovereignty by mou
Motorway service area
Motorway service areas in the United Kingdom known as'service stations' or'services', are places where drivers can leave a motorway to refuel/recharge, rest and drink, shop or stay in an on-site overnight hotel. The vast majority of motorway services in the UK are owned by one of three companies: Moto, Welcome Break and Roadchef. Smaller operators include Extra and EuroGarages; the first service area in the UK was at Watford Gap on the M1, which opened with the motorway on 2 November 1959. As more service stations opened, the number of operating companies increased, such as Blue Boar, Kenning Motor Group, Take a Break and Esso. Through acquisitions and mergers there are now only four major operators, which has led to concerns about these companies having an oligopoly. In an attempt to break this monopoly, the government proposed allowing "mobile fast food vans" to operate at the areas, though this idea has not come about. In 2007 an AA survey concluded that service areas had improved in the previous three years, but cleanliness and pricing were still major issues.
Opposition towards service areas has grown, with some planning applications being refused: some notable examples are Catherine-de-Barnes on the M42 and Kirby Hill on the A1, both of which have had applications refused. Despite concerns of local residents, Beaconsfield on the M40 opened on 17 March 2009, Cobham services opened in September 2012. Service areas were located between junctions, having their own entry and exit slip roads, with a separate site for each direction of travel, though a recent trend has been to locate service areas instead at junction sites: the two most recent openings and Beaconsfield, are examples: they are located at A1 junction 46, M40 junction 2 respectively. In 1992, the system was changed so that the developer became responsible for choosing the site of a motorway service area, junction sites became the preferred option as they are cheaper to construct, as well as being accessible to traffic travelling in several directions. Following a public consultation in 2007/8, the Department for Transport/Highways Agency announced that new services should be located at on-line sites, unless a junction site is the only possibility.
The siting of motorway service areas can be contentious, leading to protracted public inquiries, vociferous local campaigns against proposed schemes. The operating company must pay the full cost of constructing the entry and exit slip roads and all other features required for safe access to motorway services, as well as the motorway services facility itself. In other countries, the authority responsible for the highway tends to subsidise these costs on the grounds that these areas are a public service to drivers; the leases provide that motorway services must operate 24 hours a day, the costs of providing utilities and services are high. With few customers in the early morning, they need to earn the money in other ways. Under the terms of the leases, motorway services must provide free short-term parking, free 24-hour toilet facilities, adequate provision for the sale of food and fuel 24 hours a day. Ireland has four motorway service areas – the National Roads Authority opposed them on the grounds that it preferred to see traffic using existing businesses in bypassed towns, that the motorway network was not large enough for them anyway.
However, in 2006 it changed its mind, the Roads Act 2007 makes provision for a Motorway Service Area Scheme to be made for proposed motorway service areas. The NRA held a competition to determine an operator for the first round of service areas to be opened. Superstop, a consortium consisting of Petrogas and Tedcastles Oil Products, won the contract; the first service area, Lusk services, opened on the M1 on 8 September 2010. Castlebellingham services opened on 29 September 2010, with Enfield services on the M4 opening shortly after in late 2010; the fourth service area, Wicklow services station opened on 29 May 2014. While other locations for service areas were planned by the NRA, they are unlikely to proceed in the short term due to the economic recession. "No services on motorway" signs have been erected on the M7, M8, M9. The NRA has stated. Motorway Services Online Motorway Services Trivia Moto Welcome Break RoadChef Motorway Services Guide