Swiss Reformed Church
Since 1920, the Swiss Reformed Churches have been organized in 26 member churches of the Federation of Swiss Protestant Churches. According to a 2012 Swiss census,26. 9% of Swiss population were reported as registered members of a Reformed cantonal church, the Swiss Reformed Churches, have approximately 2.4 million members. The Reformation spread primarily in the cities of Switzerland, which was composed of loosely connected cantons. Breakthrough began in the 1520s in Zurich under Zwingli, in Bern in 1528 under Berchtold Haller, after the early death of Zwingli in 1531, the Reformation continued. The French-speaking cities Neuchâtel and Lausanne changed to the Reformation ten years under William Farel, the German Reformed ideological center was Zurich, the French speaking Reformed movement bastion was Geneva. A distinctive feature of the Swiss Reformed churches in the Zwinglian tradition is their historically almost symbiotic link to the state, which is only loosening gradually in the present.
One of these secessionist churches still exists today, the Evangelical Free Church of Geneva, founded in 1849, an important issue to liberal theologians was the Apostles Creed. Until the late 1870s, most cantonal reformed churches stopped prescribing any particular creed, like many European Protestant denominations, several of the Swiss Reformed churches have openly welcomed gay and lesbian members to celebrate their civil unions within a church context. As early as 1999, the Reformed Churches in St. Gallen, since then, the Reformed Church in Aaargau has allowed for prayer services to celebrate same-sex couples. Organizationally, the Reformed Churches in Switzerland remain separate, cantonal units, the German churches are more in the Zwinglian tradition, the French more in the Calvinist tradition. They are governed synodically and their relation to the canton ranges from independent to close collaboration
Free Democratic Party of Switzerland
The Free Democratic Party or Radical Democratic Party was a liberal political party in Switzerland. Formerly one of the parties in Switzerland, on 1 January 2009 it merged with the Liberal Party of Switzerland to form FDP. The Liberals. The FDP remained dominant until the introduction of proportional representation in 1919, from 1945 to 1987, it alternated with the Social Democratic Party to be the largest party. In 1959, the party two seats in the magic formula. The party declined in the 1990s and 2000s, as it was put under pressure by the Swiss Peoples Party, in response, the party formed closer relations with the smaller Liberal Party, leading to their formal merger in 2009. The elements liberal and freisinnig in the name originate from the conflicts during the period of Swiss Restoration between the Catholic-conservative cantons and the liberal cantons. From 1848 until 1891, the Federal Council was composed entirely of Radicals, the radical movement of the restoration was anti-clerical, and stood in opposition to the Catholic Conservative Party.
They were otherwise heterogeneous and classical liberal Liberals, federalist Radicals and it was not until the rise of the Social Democratic Party in the early 20th century that the FDP found itself on the centre-right. The FDP was the dominant party until the 1919 election, when the introduction of proportional representation led to a leap in the representation of the Social Democrats. In 1959, the Free Democrats joined the major parties in agreeing the magic formula to divide up the seats of the Federal Council. After the 2003 elections, lawmakers of FDP and Liberal Party formed a parliamentary group in the Federal Assembly. In June 2005, they strengthened their cooperation by founding the Radical and Liberal Union They merged on 1 January 2009 to form FDP. The Liberals. In 2003, it held 36 mandates in the Swiss National Council,14 in the chamber and 2 out of 7 mandates in the Swiss Federal Council. By 2005, it held 27, 2% of the seats in the Swiss Cantonal governments and 19, at the last legislative elections,22 October 2007, the party won 15. 6% of the popular vote and 31 out of 200 seats.
Liberalism and radicalism in Switzerland fdp. ch in German prd. ch in French plrt. ch in Italian Young Liberals Switzerland official site of the youth branch, called jungfreisinnige schweiz
Cantons of Switzerland
The 26 cantons of Switzerland are the member states of the Swiss Confederation. The nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the form of the first three confederate allies used to be referred to as the Waldstätte, with the Napoleonic period of the Helvetic Republic the term canton/cantone/Kanton was fully established. From 1833, there were 25 cantons, which became 26 after the secession of the canton of Jura from Bern in 1979. The term canton, now used as English term for administrative subdivisions of other countries, originates in French usage in the late 15th century, from a word for edge. After 1490, canton was increasingly used in French and Italian documents to refer to the members of the Swiss Confederacy, English use of canton in reference to the Swiss Confederacy dates to the early 17th century. It was increasingly replaced by Stand after 1550, the French term canton was not adopted into German usage prior to 1648, and after that only in occasional use. The prominent usage of Ort and Stand only gradually disappeared in German-speaking Switzerland with the Helvetic Republic, only with the Act of Mediation of 1803 did German Kanton become an official designation, retained in the Swiss Constitution of 1848.
The term Stand remains in usage and is reflected in the name of the upper chamber of the Swiss Parliament. Republic Some cantonal constitutions provide for a formal name of the state. Most of Romandys cantons and Ticino call themselves république/Repubblica officially, at least within their constitutions, for example, the canton of Geneva refers to itself formally as the République et canton de Genève. Though they were part of the Holy Roman Empire, they had become de facto independent when the Swiss defeated Emperor Maximillian in 1499 in Dornach. The old system was abandoned with the formation of the Helvetic Republic following the French invasion of Switzerland in 1798, the cantons of the Helvetic Republic had merely the status of an administrative subdivision with no sovereignty. The Helvetic Republic collapsed within five years, and cantonal sovereignty was restored with the Act of Mediation of 1803, the status of Switzerland as a federation of states was restored, at the time including 19 cantons.
Three additional western cantons, Neuchâtel and Geneva, acceded in 1815, the process of Restoration, completed by 1830, returned most of the former feudal rights to the cantonal patriciates, leading to rebellions among the rural population. The Liberal Radical Party embodied these democratic forces calling for a new federal constitution and this tension, paired with religious issues escalated into armed conflict in the 1840s, with the brief Sonderbund War. The victory of the party resulted in the formation of Switzerland as a federal state in 1848. The cantons retained far-reaching sovereignty, but were no longer allowed to maintain standing armies or international relations. Each canton has its own constitution, legislature and courts, most of the cantons legislatures are unicameral parliaments, their size varying between 58 and 200 seats
Tertiary sector of the economy
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory. The others are the secondary sector, and the primary sector, the basic characteristic of this sector is the production of services instead of end products. Services include attention, access and discussion, the production of information has long been regarded as a service, but some economists now attribute it to a fourth sector, the quaternary sector. The tertiary sector of industry involves the provision of services to businesses as well as final consumers. The goods may be transformed in the process of providing the service, the focus is on people interacting with people and serving the customer rather than transforming physical goods. It is sometimes hard to define whether a company is part of the secondary or tertiary sector. These governmental classification systems have a hierarchy that reflects whether the economic goods are tangible or intangible. Unlike governmental classification systems, the first level of market-based classification systems divides the economy into functionally related markets or industries, the second or third level of these hierarchies reflects whether goods or services are produced.
For the last 100 years, there has been a shift from the primary and secondary sectors to the tertiary sector in industrialised countries. The tertiary sector is now the largest sector of the economy in the Western world and these are not necessarily busboys and live-in maids. Many of them are in the professional category and they are earning as much as manufacturing workers, and often more. The first economy to follow path in the modern world was the United Kingdom. The speed at which other economies have made the transition to service-based economies has increased over time, manufacturing tended to be more open to international trade and competition than services. Service providers face obstacles selling services that goods-sellers rarely face, services are intangible, making it difficult for potential customers to understand what they will receive and what value it will hold for them. Indeed, such as consultants and providers of investment services, since the quality of most services depends largely on the quality of the individuals providing the services, people costs are usually a high fraction of service costs.
Whereas a manufacturer may use technology and other techniques to lower the cost of goods sold, for example, how does one choose one investment adviser over another, since they are often seen to provide identical services. Charging a premium for services is usually an option only for the most established firms, who charge extra based upon brand recognition
The Limmat Valley is a river valley and a region in the cantons of Zürich and Aargau in Switzerland. The Limmat is a 35 km long river located in the cantons of Zürich and it is the continuation of the Linth, and is known as the Limmat from the point of effluence from Lake Zürich, in the city of Zürich, flowing in northwesterly direction to the Aare. The confluence is located northeast of the town of Brugg, shortly after the mouth of the Reuss. The confluence of the three rivers Aare and Limmat is known as Wasserschloss, standortförderung Limmattal is a society to enhance networking of the region and to realize common projects by the communities in the region Limmatal. Near realization is an additional tramway called Limmattalbahn, between Zürich-Farbhof and Killwangen-Spreitenbach, as continuation of the Zürich tram line 2 and of the Bremgarten-Dietikon-Bahn
Neuenhof is a municipality in the district of Baden in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland, located in the Limmat Valley. Neuenhof is first mentioned in 1393 as ob dem nuiwem Hof, Neuenhof has an area, as of 2006, of 5.4 km2. Of this area,17. 7% is used for agricultural purposes, of the rest of the land,26. 2% is settled and the remainder is non-productive. The municipality is located in the Baden district, between the Heitersberg and the Limmat river and it consists of the village of Neuenhof along the former village stream, and the farming village of Rüsler as well as a new housing development. The municipalities of Baden and Neuenhof sought a merger by 1 January 2012 into a new municipality which would be known as Baden and this was rejected by a referendum in Baden in 2010. The blazon of the coat of arms is Per fess Or. Neuenhof has a population of 8,819, as of 2008,46. 5% of the population was made up of foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has grown at a rate of 6. 1%, most of the population speaks German, with Italian being second most common and Serbo-Croatian being third.
The age distribution, as of 2008, in Neuenhof is,758 children or 9. 5% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 832 teenagers or 10. 4% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population,1,351 people or 16. 9% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 1,270 people or 15. 9% are between 30 and 39,1,128 people or 14. 1% are between 40 and 49, and 1,019 people or 12. 7% are between 50 and 59. As of 2000, there were 606 homes with 1 or 2 persons in the household,2,181 homes with 3 or 4 persons in the household, the average number of people per household was 2.21 individuals. In 2008 there were 417 single family homes out of a total of 3,790 homes, in the 2007 federal election the most popular party was the SVP which received 41. 8% of the vote. The next three most popular parties were the SP, the CVP and the FDP, in Neuenhof about 64. 1% of the population have completed either non-mandatory upper secondary education or additional higher education. Of the school age population, there are 543 students attending primary school, the historical population is given in the following table, As of 2007, Neuenhof had an unemployment rate of 3. 65%.
As of 2005, there were 9 people employed in the economic sector. 513 people are employed in the sector and there are 64 businesses in this sector. 1,194 people are employed in the sector, with 181 businesses in this sector
Christian Democratic People's Party of Switzerland
The Christian Democratic Peoples Party of Switzerland is a Christian democratic political party in Switzerland. It is the fourth-largest party in the National Council, with 28 seats, and it has one seat, that of Doris Leuthard, on the Swiss Federal Council. The party was founded as the Catholic Conservative Party in 1912, the party peaked in the 1950s, having three members of the Federal Council before agreeing to the Magic formula. It adopted its current name in 1970, from 1979 to 2003, the partys vote declined, mostly in the favour of the Swiss Peoples Party, and the party was reduced to one Federal Councillor at the 2003 election. The party sits in the centre to centre-right of the spectrum, advocating Christian democracy, the social market economy. The party is strongest in Catholic rural areas, particularly Central Switzerland, in 1912 the Catholic-Conservative Party of Switzerland was founded. From 1919 on, the party occupied two out of the seven seats in the cabinet, the party had to relinquish the third seat in favor of the Magic formula, which was introduced to the cabinet in 1959.
In 1957 it changed its name to the Conservative-Christian-Social Peoples Party, in the ensuing decades, the Catholic voter base dissolved somewhat. The reduction of the base, in addition to less cohesion among politicians in the party. Beginning in the 1990s, conservative voters from former strongholds of the CVP switched to vote for the right-wing populist Swiss Peoples Party. Due to that voter switch and the resultant 2003 national elections to the national assembly, in its party platform, the CVP describes itself as a centrist party. The CVP fosters a social economy in which a balance is struck between economic liberalism and social justice. There, the electorate is mostly socially conservative, the CVP has three main policies in the political centre, The CVP upholds the social market economy. It supports exporting industries, more spending on education, research and it aims at combating the black market and tax evasion. The CVP calls for equal wages and job opportunities for men and women.
The CVP calls for flexible working times and affordable housing, the CVP aims at ensuring social security. The CVP calls for reforms of the security system, by raising taxes on demerit goods to generate more revenues for the pension funds. The retirement age of 65 should be upheld, the public health care system shall be streamlined by a reduction of waiting times of medical procedures, in order to ensure equitable services
The Limmat is a river in Switzerland. The river commences at the outfall of Lake Zurich, in the part of the city of Zurich. From Zurich it flows in a direction, after 35 km reaching the river Aare. The confluence is located north of the town of Brugg. The main towns along the Limmat Valley downstream of Zurich are Dietikon and its main tributaries are the Linth, via Lake Zurich, the Sihl, in Zurich, and the Reppisch, in Dietikon. The hydronym is first attested in the 8th century, as Lindimacus and it is of Gaulish origin, from *lindo- lake and *magos plain, and was thus presumably in origin the name of the plain formed by the Linth. Like many Swiss rivers, the Limmat is intensively used for production of power, along its course of 35 km. These include, the Limmat was an important navigation route, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, voyages from Zurich to Koblenz are recorded. In 1447, the Emperor Frederick III granted the privilege of free navigation on the Limmat, because of the current, navigation was typically downstream only, with the barges being sold on arrival.
Today, the Limmat is navigable for much of its length by small craft only, the traditional boat type used on the river is the weidling, a flat-bottomed vessel that is usually 10 metres long. The uppermost stretch of the river through the centre of Zurich is navigable by larger vessels. On this stretch of the river the Zürichsee-Schifffahrtsgesellschaft operates its Limmat boat service, from the Landesmuseum to Lake Zurich, zürich–Enge Alpenquai is located on Zürichsee lakeshore in Enge, a locality of the municipality of Zürich. Media related to Limmat at Wikimedia Commons Media related to Limmat in Zürich at Wikimedia Commons Limmat in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
A Cistercian is a member of the Cistercian Order (/sɪˈstɜːrʃən/, abbreviated as OCist or SOCist, a religious order of monks and nuns. They are variously called the Bernardines, after the highly influential St, the original emphasis of Cistercian life was on manual labour and self-sufficiency, and many abbeys have traditionally supported themselves through activities such as agriculture and brewing ales. Over the centuries, however and academic pursuits came to dominate the life of their monasteries, after that the followers of the older pattern of life became known as the Cistercians of the Original Observance. The term Cistercian, derives from Cistercium, the Latin name for the village of Cîteaux and it was in this village that a group of Benedictine monks from the monastery of Molesme founded Cîteaux Abbey in 1098, with the goal of following more closely the Rule of Saint Benedict. The best known of them were Robert of Molesme, Alberic of Cîteaux and the English monk Stephen Harding, Bernard of Clairvaux entered the monastery in the early 1110s with 30 companions and helped the rapid proliferation of the order.
By the end of the 12th century, the order had spread throughout France and into England, Scotland, Spain, Italy, the keynote of Cistercian life was a return to literal observance of the Rule of St Benedict. The most striking feature in the reform was the return to manual labour, especially field-work, Cistercian architecture is considered one of the most beautiful styles of medieval architecture. Additionally, in relation to such as agriculture, hydraulic engineering and metallurgy. The monastery church of Cluny Abbey, the largest in Europe, had become wealthy from rents, feudal rights and pilgrims who passed through Cluniac houses on the Way of St. James. On March 21,1098, Roberts small group acquired a plot of marshland just south of Dijon called Cîteaux, during the first year, the monks set about constructing lodging areas and farming the lands of Cîteaux, making use of a nearby chapel for Mass. In Roberts absence from Molesme, the abbey had gone into decline, and Pope Urban II, the remaining monks of Cîteaux elected Alberic as their abbot, under whose leadership the abbey would find its grounding.
Robert had been the idealist of the order, and Alberic was their builder, upon assuming the role of abbot, Alberic moved the site of the fledgling community near a brook a short distance away from the original site. Alberic discontinued the use of Benedictine black garments in the abbey and he returned the community to the original Benedictine ideal of manual work and prayer, dedicated to the ideal of charity and self sustenance. Alberic forged an alliance with the Dukes of Burgundy, working out a deal with Duke Odo of Burgundy concerning the donation of a vineyard as well as stones with which they built their church. The church was consecrated and dedicated to the Virgin Mary on November 16,1106, on January 26,1108, Alberic died and was soon succeeded by Stephen Harding, the man responsible for carrying the order into its crucial phase. The order was fortunate that Stephen was an abbot of extraordinary gifts, and he framed the original version of the Cistercian Constitution or regulations, the Carta caritatis.
Although this was revised on several occasions to meet needs, from the outset it emphasised a simple life of work, prayer. Cistercian abbeys refused to admit children, allowing adults to choose their religious vocation for themselves – a practice emulated by many of the older Benedictine houses