Garden city movement
The garden city movement is a method of urban planning in which self-contained communities are surrounded by "greenbelts", containing proportionate areas of residences and agriculture. The idea was initiated in 1898 by Sir Ebenezer Howard in the United Kingdom and aims to capture the primary benefits of a countryside environment and a city environment while avoiding the disadvantages presented by both. Inspired by the utopian novel Looking Backward and Henry George's work Progress and Poverty, Howard published the book To-morrow: a Peaceful Path to Real Reform in 1898, his idealised garden city would house 32,000 people on a site of 6,000 acres, planned on a concentric pattern with open spaces, public parks and six radial boulevards, 120 ft wide, extending from the centre. The garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached full population, another garden city would be developed nearby. Howard envisaged a cluster of several garden cities as satellites of a central city of 58,000 people, linked by road and rail.
Howard’s To-morrow: A Peaceful Path to Real Reform sold enough copies to result in a second edition, Garden Cities of To-morrow. This success provided him the support necessary to pursue the chance to bring his vision into reality. Howard believed that all people agreed the overcrowding and deterioration of cities was one of the troubling issues of their time, he quotes a number of their disdain of cities. Howard’s garden city concept combined the town and country in order to provide the working class an alternative to working on farms or in ‘crowded, unhealthy cities’. To build a garden city, Howard needed money to buy land, he decided to get funding from "gentlemen of responsible position and undoubted probity and honour". He founded the Garden City Association, which created First Garden City, Ltd. in 1899 to create the garden city of Letchworth. However, these donors would collect interest on their investment if the garden city generated profits through rents or, as Fishman calls the process, ‘philanthropic land speculation’.
Howard tried to include working class cooperative organisations, which included over two million members, but could not win their financial support. Because he had to rely only on the wealthy investors of First Garden City, Howard had to make concessions to his plan, such as eliminating the cooperative ownership scheme with no landlords, short-term rent increases, hiring architects who did not agree with his rigid design plans. In 1904, Raymond Unwin, a noted architect and town planner, his partner Barry Parker, won the competition run by First Garden City Ltd. to plan Letchworth, an area 34 miles outside London. Unwin and Parker planned the town in the centre of the Letchworth estate with Howard’s large agricultural greenbelt surrounding the town, they shared Howard’s notion that the working class deserved better and more affordable housing. However, the architects ignored Howard’s symmetric design, instead replacing it with a more ‘organic’ design. Letchworth attracted more residents because it brought in manufacturers through low taxes, low rents and more space.
Despite Howard’s best efforts, the home prices in this garden city could not remain affordable for blue-collar workers to live in. The populations comprised skilled middle class workers. After a decade, the First Garden City became profitable and started paying dividends to its investors. Although many viewed Letchworth as a success, it did not inspire government investment into the next line of garden cities. In reference to the lack of government support for garden cities, Frederic James Osborn, a colleague of Howard and his eventual successor at the Garden City Association, recalled him saying, "The only way to get anything done is to do it yourself." In frustration, Howard bought land at Welwyn to house the second garden city in 1919. The purchase was at auction, with money Howard and borrowed from friends; the Welwyn Garden City Corporation was formed to oversee the construction. But Welwyn did not become self-sustaining; until the end of the 1930s, Letchworth and Welwyn remained as the only existing garden cities in the United Kingdom.
However, the movement did succeed in emphasizing the need for urban planning policies that led to the New Town movement. Howard organised the Garden City Association in 1899. Two garden cities were built using Howard's ideas: Letchworth Garden City and Welwyn Garden City, both in the county of Hertfordshire, United Kingdom. Howard's successor as chairman of the Garden City Association was Sir Frederic Osborn, who extended the movement to regional planning; the concept was adopted again in the UK after World War II, when the New Towns Act spurred the development of many new communities based on Howard's egalitarian ideas. The idea of the garden city was influential including the United States. Examples include Residence Park in New York.
Star Ferry Pier, Tsim Sha Tsui
Star Ferry Pier, Tsim Sha Tsui, or Tsim Sha Tsui Ferry Pier, is a pier located on reclaimed land at the southernmost tip of Tsim Sha Tsui on Kowloon Peninsula in Hong Kong. It is known as Star Ferry Pier in Tsim Sha Tsui. Star Ferry operates the pedestrian ferry service across Victoria Harbour to Wan Chai and to Central on Hong Kong Island; the location is identified as "Kowloon Point" in the franchise held by Star Ferry. Construction of the first pier on the present location started in 1904, after the great land reclamation which extended Salisbury Road, it was of a "finger design". The pier opened in 1906, but was destroyed by typhoon in September 1906, its replacement, designed to accommodate two ferries, was completed in 1914. In the early 1950s, construction of the present twin-piered terminal commenced on both sides of Victoria Harbour; the structure was completed in 1957, concurrent with the completion of the now demolished Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier, built on the island side. Both piers were examples of Streamline Moderne.
Like the Ferry Pier on Hong Kong Island, the pier consists of a two bi-level piers. The upper level boarding is more expensive than the lower level boarding area; the two structures are supported by wood pilings. Unlike the Hong Kong side, the Tsim Sha Tsui pier itself does not have a clock tower, though one is located nearby. A bus terminus located at the foot of Salisbury Road hosts Kowloon Motor Bus bus routes travelling to various parts of Kowloon and New Kowloon; the pier is close to Star House, Ocean Terminal, Hong Kong Cultural Centre, the Clock Tower of former KCR Kowloon Station. The Five Flag Poles between the pier and Star House are a popular meeting place; the Kowloon Public Pier is located south-east. There are a few retail shops at the Pier, including newsstands, a shop selling Star Ferry merchandise, an HSBC branch, a Hong Kong Tourism Board information centre. Queen's Pier Edinburgh Place Ferry Pier Star Ferry Pier, Central Star Ferry Hong Kong
Yaohan Co. LTD. or Yaohan was a Japanese retail group. The company was founded in 1930 by Ryohei Wada and incorporated in 1948. A single shop, it expanded into a major supermarket chain with most retail outlets located in Shizuoka prefecture, south of Tokyo, it was listed on Tokyo Stock Exchange. The store was far more established and notable outside Japan, due to restrictive laws in Japan that made it difficult to set up new businesses, such that by the time it opened its first store in the Tokyo metropolitan area, the company was in a state of decline due to accumulated debts from over-expansion. During the 1980s and 1990s, the Yaohan group expanded outside Japan into Hong Kong, the People's Republic of China and the USA. At its peak, it had 450 outlets in 16 countries, including 9 in Hong Kong, as well in São Paulo, San José, Los Angeles, Honolulu and San Jose, California. Yaohan's first American location, at Fresno, was opened in 1979 at Yaohan Plaza. Typical of large Japanese companies, new employees were required to go through induction training programs that, in the case of Yaohan, had a strong religious emphasis on the principles of Seicho-no-Ie.
Employees had to go through regular seminars on Seicho-no-Ie and were required to be members of Seicho-no-Ie. This was not without resistance from its employees. Although the company was less strict on seminar attendance and membership for employees of overseas branches, the same resistance persisted; the first Yaohan store was opened in New Town Plaza, Sha Tin, Hong Kong in 1984. After that, Yaohan store grew in Hong Kong and had opened nine stores, which include Tuen Mun Town Plaza, Whampoa Garden, Yuen Long, Ma On Shan, Tsuen Wan. All the stores were closed in 1997 due of the financial turmoil and the burst of the Japanese economy bubble. Many stores were replaced by another Japanese department store chain, JUSCO. Yaohan is one of the listed companies in Hong Kong during 1986 to 1997, it has owned many companies, such as the Wonderful World of Whimsy, Santa Ana Bakery and some another fast food restaurant. But many of them were closed later. Yaohan store was opened in 1992 in Macau, it is the only department store in Macau until now.
It was renamed as New Yaohan after the bankruptcy of the original company, the new company is operated by Yaohan International Company Limited. The first Yaohan store was opened in The Mall, Kuala Lumpur in 1987, it was followed by Centre Point, Kota Kinabalu, Plaza OUG at Taman OUG in Jalan Klang Lama, KOMTAR, Penang. It opened in Terminal 1, Seremban in 1996 and Sunway Pyramid, Subang Jaya in September 1997. All former stores were replaced by Aktif Lifestyle Corporation Bhd. in January 1998 and Parkson in 2004. Its first store to open in Singapore in 1974 at Plaza Singapura revolutionised the grocery shopping experience in Singapore, it became a household name. Other stores were opened in Thomson Plaza, Bukit Timah and Parkway Parade; the Jurong store was closed in 1989, a new store planned at the IMM Shopping Mall was due to open in 1990. The sixth store was supposed to open in Kovan Shopping Centre in 1993; when the last store to cease operations in 1997 exited Singapore from Thomson Plaza, its staff were visibly moved and some were in tears.
In operation in Singapore since 1985 was the Yaohan Best chain, specializing in electronics, which first opened in Yaohan's store space. When the company faced financial difficulties, it was split into two companies, one in Japan and with the overseas part headquartered in Hong Kong, in a bid to survive; the group was traded on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange as Yaohan International Company Limited until 11 August 1998. Through a combination of the 1997 Asian financial crisis and the stagnation of the Japanese retail market, the group declared bankruptcy with 161 billion yen of debts, it was the biggest postwar failure in Japan's retail sector at the time. The super-market chain asked for protection from creditors under Japan's Corporate Rehabilitation Law on 18 September 1997. Many outlets were closed. In March 2000, Yaohan in Japan changed its name to Maxvalu Tokai. Other stores in the U. S. were bought by Mitsuwa and Marukai, the latter two based in Los Angeles. Stores in Canada were bought by a Taiwanese company.
A former Yaohan department store in Macau is operating under the trading name New Yaohan, operated by Yaohan International Company Limited in Hong Kong, owned by STDM and no longer has a connection with the Wada family. Yaohan Best has been renamed as Best Denki. Economy of Japan Yaohan Japan
Kowloon City District
Kowloon City District is one of the 18 districts of Hong Kong. It is located in the city of Kowloon, it had a population of 381,352 in 2001, increased to 418,732 in 2016. The district has the third most educated residents while its residents enjoy the highest income in Kowloon. Kowloon City district covers area of 1,000 hectares, is a residential area with the majority of its population living in private sector housing, including old tenement buildings, private residential developments and low-rise villas, while the rest of them live in public rental housing and the Home Ownership Scheme estates, it is the only district that incorporated into the land of Hong Kong in different stages Kowloon City District is a low density residential area. Areas include: Ho Man Tin, Hung Hom, Kai Tak Airport, Kowloon Tong, Ma Tau Wai, To Kwa Wan, Whampoa Garden, the proper Kowloon City. According to reliable historical records such as History book of Song Dynasty, emperor Zhao Shi and emperor Zhao bing took refuge in nowadays Kowloon City District.
Soong Wong Toi was a remarkable monument during that era. Part of the district was the location of the original Kowloon Walled City, see Kowloon Walled City; this is now Walled City Park. The former airport, Kai Tak International Airport was located in the district. In 1982, the Hong Kong Government decided to divide Hong Kong into 18 administrative districts, Kowloon City and its neighbouring areas such as Hung Hom now belongs to Kowloon City District. Kowloon Walled City Sung Wong Toi Park Holy Trinity Cathedral Hong Kong Baptist University Open University of Hong Kong Hong Kong Polytechnic University List of areas of Hong Kong Kowloon City District Council List and map of electoral constituencies
ParknShop is one of the two largest supermarket chains in Hong Kong, the other being Wellcome. ParknShop operates more than 300 outlets in Hong Kong and Mainland China; the first ParknShop store opened in Stanley, Hong Kong in 1973. For a decade the store remained a local retailer until the mid-1980s when it began to expand outside Hong Kong. ParknShop is a member of the A. S. Watson Group, a subsidiary of CK Hutchison Holdings Limited. ParknShop has 9,000 employees in Hong Kong. ParknShop opened the first superstore in Hong Kong in 1996 in Whampoa Garden Phase 12 with a floor space of 4,200 m²; the first ParknShop megastore opened in 2002 in Metro City Tseung Kwan O with a floor space of 6,700 m². A. S. Watson Group operates a number of supermarkets under different brand names that target higher-income consumers. There is one Great supermarket located at Pacific Place, one Gourmet supermarket at Leighton Centre, Taste supermarkets at Festival Walk, Stanley Plaza, Hopewell Centre, East Point City, Maritime Square, Olympian City 2, Metroplaza and TMTplaza.
In 2007, another brand, International by ParknShop, was introduced at Happy Valley, Hong Lok Yuen, United Centre at Admiralty and Cyberport which specialises in organic foods. ParknShop's higher-income stores are billed as a "lifestyle" food stores and stock a large variety of imported goods, as well as fresh fruit and vegetables and many nonfood items; the upmarket stores were launched in November 2004, when the existing 35,000-square-foot ParknShop store located at Festival Walk in Kowloon Tong was rebranded as Taste. In 1984 ParknShop opened its first mainland China store in Shekou, the first foreign retailer to enter the mainland Chinese market; the chain's first mainland superstore opened in 2000 and its first mainland megastore followed in 2001 in the Tianhe district of Guangzhou. There are now about sixty ParknShop stores in northern and southern China, including locations in Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Zhuhai. In April 2005, the ParknShop chain, including the rebranded Taste superstore in Festival Walk, controversially dismissed 525 employees, when the company outsourced the labour for its fresh foods counter.
The aggrieved employees included many low-paid workers of longtime service. The employees' union complained that although 90% of the dismissed workers were rehired at the same position as before, their wages were lowered, their working hours were increased from 10 to 12 hours by the outsourcing subcontractor; the resulting average hourly rate was HK$18. In 2013, Hutchison invited bids for the entire ParknShop chain, during "a strategic review" of the ParknShop business, for an expected price of US$3 billion to US$4 billion; the company received eight bids, from: China Resources Vanguard, Wal-Mart Stores, Aeon and Wesfarmers, CP Group, Sun Art Retail. However, in October the company announced that it would retain ownership of the chain and focus on expanding in China. ParknShop sells products under generic brands, both what it calls "private label" and "Best Buy" branding, their group of supermarkets exclusively carries a variety of Waitrose and Groupe Casino products from the UK and France respectively.
ParknShop participates in A. S. Watson's customer loyalty program, called "MoneyBack". City'super Wellcome Supermarkets Official site of ParknShop PARKnSHOP on A. S. Watson website
Kai Ching Estate
Kai Ching Estate is a public housing estate in a brownfield development area in Hong Kong of the disused Kai Tak Airport. It consists of six residential buildings completed in 2013, it houses around 5,200 flats for 13,300 residents and shares the "Ching Long Shopping Centre" with Tak Long Estate. Kai Ching Estate was built by China State Construction Engineering. In 1998, the Kai Tak Airport relocated to Chek Lap Kok as Hong Kong International Airport, clearing the way for a redevelopment of the Kai Tak lands. In 2006 the Planning Department outlined plans to build two new public estates on part of this brownfield site; the two estates, called Kai Ching and Tak Long, opened on the former north apron in 2013/2014. Like other public housing estates in Hong Kong, the construction of Kai Ching Estate made use of prefabricated components including precast facades and staircases, semi-precast slabs, precast kitchens and bathrooms. Kai Ching was a pilot estate for the use of precast water taps; the estate incorporates a number of water saving features.
Renewable energy sources include solar panels on the housing block rooftops, lift motors that can generate power when the lift is carrying a heavy load down, a light load up, or under braking conditions. A district cooling system cools non-domestic facilities including the shops and estate offices. A rainwater collection system is used for irrigation; the estate dominated television news for some days in early June 2014 after resident Li Tak-yan shot and killed Liu Kai-chung, another resident of Lok Ching House. The murder sparked a 12-hour standoff with police as Li hid in his 10th storey flat. Amid exchanges of gunfire the police fired tear stun grenades into the flat; the gunman killed himself. Li, a Mainland immigrant and father of actress Liddy Li, had been jailed for attacking a neighbour with a chopper and hammer. Media reported that Li had ammunition at home. In 2015 water samples from Kai Ching Estate were found to be contaminated with lead, sparking a citywide scandal and the discovery of contaminated drinking water at many other buildings.
Pipe soldering samples taken from Kai Ching Estate contained 50 per cent lead. The government announced on 13 July 2015 that a man suffering from a chronic illness had been admitted to intensive care on 28 May; the water supply at the home of the 72-year-old resident of Mun Ching House had tested positive for Legionella bacteria. The news has created fear and uncertainty among residents, who complained at the long time the authorities took to make the investigation public; the lack of transparency of government was deplored by pro-establishment and pro-democracy politicians alike