North Slave Region
The North Slave Region or Tłicho Region is one of five administrative regions in the Northwest Territories of Canada. It is the most populous of the five regions, with a population of 23,000. According to Municipal and Community Affairs the region consists of eight communities with the regional offices situated in Behchokǫ̀ and Yellowknife. With the exception of Yellowknife the communities are predominantly First Nations; the North Slave Region includes the following communities: ^ a: 2001 estimated population. Included with Yellowknife North Slave Region at Municipal and Community Affairs
The barren-ground caribou is a subspecies of the reindeer, found in the Canadian territories of Nunavut and the Northwest Territories, as well as in Kitaa, Greenland. It sometimes includes the similar-looking Porcupine caribou, in which case the barren-ground caribou is found in Alaska; the barren-ground caribou is a medium-sized caribou and lighter-coloured than the boreal woodland caribou, with the females weighing around 90 kg and the males around 150 kg. However, on some of the smaller islands, the average weight may be less; the large migratory herds of barren-ground caribou take their names from the traditional calving grounds, such as the Ahiak herd, the Baffin Island herds, the Bathurst herd, the Beverly herd, the Bluenose East herd, the Bluenose West herd, the Porcupine herd and the Qamanirjuaq herd. In Canada about fifty percent of all caribou are barren-ground caribou, they spend all of the year on the tundra from Alaska to Baffin Island. Most, or about 1.2 million, of the barren-ground caribou in Canada live in eight large migratory herds, which migrate seasonally from the tundra to the taiga, sparsely treed coniferous forests south of the tundra.
In order, from Alaska to Hudson Bay, these are the Porcupine herd, Cape Bathurst herd, Bluenose West herd, Bluenose East herd, Bathurst herd, Ahiak herd, Beverly herd, Qamanirjuaq herd. About 120 000 other barren-ground caribou live in smaller herds that spend the entire year on the tundra. Half of these are confined to Baffin Island. Like the Peary caribou, both the males and females have antlers. In general, during the summer, the coat of the caribou is brown, much lighter in the winter; the neck and rump tend towards a creamy-white colour. However, the general colouration may differ depending on the region; the barren-ground caribou breeds in the fall and calves in June but may not drop their single calf until July. The female gives birth away from the herd and if possible on a patch of snow. After birth, the female eats the tissues and the placenta; this may serve two purposes, to replace nutrients lost from birthing and to help remove the scent that would attract predators. The main food source is lichen, but they feed on Cyperaceae and grasses along with twigs and mushrooms.
Caribou have been observed eating antlers and seaweed and licking salt deposits. There is some evidence to suggest that, on occasion, they feed on small rodents such as lemmings, fish such as Arctic char and bird eggs. On the mainland of Canada, the animals may travel in herds of several thousand, but they move in smaller groups on the islands, they may travel 1,200 km in a season. Some groups, such as those living on Victoria Island during the summer, migrate to the mainland in the fall after the sea ice has formed. At this time, the smaller groups may form into a larger herd and several hundred animals may be seen. Mainland barren-ground caribou herds move to coastal areas for part of each year, with the exception of the Beverly herd; the Beverly herd and the Qamanirjuaq herd fall under the auspices of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board. The range of the Beverly herd spans the tundra from northern Manitoba and Saskatchewan and well into the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
In 1994 survey there were an all-time record. According to a 2011 survey based on data collected using cutting-edge digital tools and fly-over visual surveillance, there were 124,000 caribou in the Beverly herd and 83,300 in the Ahiak herd; the calving grounds of the Beverly herd are located around Queen Maud Gulf, but the herd shifted its traditional birthing area. Ross Thompson, executive director of the Beverly and Qamanirjuaq Caribou Management Board, explains the low calving rate on habitat deterioration and disturbance with other factors contributing to the low growth rate – parasites and poor weather. Most of the caribou populations in the north are cycling down. It's causing a lot of anxiety for a lot of hunters. We want to...give everybody time to work together to come up with solutions for the short term and until the caribou populations recover. John Nagy, University of Alberta's wildlife biologist and researcher, argued that the Beverly herd was robust, not declining, he claimed the herd had moved their calving grounds "near the western Queen Maud Gulf coast to the north of the herd's "traditional" calving ground in the Gary Lakes area north of Baker Lake."
He based his findings on data collected from 510 barren-ground caribou tracked with satellite collars in the Northwest Territories and Nunavut from 1993 to 2009. The barren-ground caribou, one of several subspecies called tuktu in Inuinnaqtun/Inuktitut, written as ᓇᐹᕐᑐᕐᑲᓐᖏᑦᑐᒥ ᑐᒃᑐ in Inuktitut syllabics, is a major food source for the Inuit the Caribou Inuit bands living in the Kivalliq Region of present-day Nunavut; the major predator of barren-ground caribou is the Arctic wolf. Wolves may follow the herd for many miles; the caribou is capable of outrunning the wolf. The Dolphin-Union caribou herd, locally known as the island caribou, are a migratory population of barren-ground caribou that occupy Victoria Island in Canada's High Arctic and the nearby mainland, they are endemic to Canada. They migrate across the
In Canada, the First Nations are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle. Those in the Arctic area are distinct and known as Inuit; the Métis, another distinct ethnicity, developed after European contact and relations between First Nations people and Europeans. There are 634 recognized First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. Under the Employment Equity Act, First Nations are a "designated group", along with women, visible minorities, people with physical or mental disabilities. First Nations are not defined as a visible minority under the Act or by the criteria of Statistics Canada. North American indigenous; some of their oral traditions describe historical events, such as the Cascadia earthquake of 1700 and the 18th-century Tseax Cone eruption. Written records began with the arrival of European explorers and colonists during the Age of Discovery, beginning in the late 15th century.
European accounts by trappers, traders and missionaries give important evidence of early contact culture. In addition and anthropological research, as well as linguistics, have helped scholars piece together an understanding of ancient cultures and historic peoples. Although not without conflict, Euro-Canadians' early interactions with First Nations, Métis, Inuit populations were less combative compared to the violent battles between colonists and native peoples in the United States. Collectively, First Nations, Métis peoples constitute Indigenous peoples in Canada, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, or first peoples. First Nation as a term became used beginning in 1980s to replace the term Indian band in referring to groups of Indians with common government and language; the term had come into common usage in the 1970s to avoid using the word Indian, which some Canadians considered offensive. No legal definition of the term exists; some indigenous peoples in Canada have adopted the term First Nation to replace the word band in the formal name of their community.
A band is a "body of Indians for whose use and benefit in common lands... have been set apart... moneys are held... or declared... to be a band for the purposes of" the Indian Act by the Canadian Crown. The term Indian is a misnomer given to indigenous peoples of North America by European explorers who erroneously thought they had landed on the Indian subcontinent; the use of the term Native Americans, which the US government and others have adopted, is not common in Canada. It refers more to the Indigenous peoples residing within the boundaries of the United States; the parallel term Native Canadian is not used, but Native and autochtone are. Under the Royal Proclamation of 1763 known as the "Indian Magna Carta," the Crown referred to indigenous peoples in British territory as tribes or nations; the term First Nations is capitalized. Bands and nations may have different meanings. Within Canada, First Nations has come into general use for indigenous peoples other than Inuit and Métis. Individuals using the term outside Canada include U.
S. tribes within the Pacific Northwest, as well as supporters of the Cascadian independence movement. The singular used on culturally politicized reserves, is the term First Nations person. A more recent trend is for members of various nations to refer to themselves by their tribal or national identity only, e.g. "I'm Haida". For pre-history, see: Paleo-Indians and Archaic periods First Nations by linguistic-cultural area: List of First Nations peoplesFirst Nations peoples had settled and established trade routes across what is now Canada by 1,000 BC to 500 BC. Communities developed, each with its own culture and character. In the northwest were the Athapaskan-speaking peoples, Slavey, Tłı̨chǫ, Tutchone-speaking peoples, Tlingit. Along the Pacific coast were the Haida, Kwakiutl, Nuu-chah-nulth, Nisga'a and Gitxsan. In the plains were the Blackfoot, Kainai and Northern Peigan. In the northern woodlands were the Chipewyan. Around the Great Lakes were the Anishinaabe, Algonquin and Wyandot. Along the Atlantic coast were the Beothuk, Innu and Micmac.
The Blackfoot Confederacies reside in the Great Plains of Montana and Canadian provinces of Alberta, British Columbia and Saskatchewan. The name "Blackfoot" came from the colour of the peoples' leather footwear, known as moccasins, they had painted the bottoms of their moccasins black. One account claimed that the Blackfoot Confederacies walked through the ashes of prairie fires, which in turn coloured the bottoms of their moccasins black, they had migrated onto the Great Plains from the Plateau area. The Blackfoot may have lived in their homeland since the end of the Pleistocene 11,000 years ago.. For thousands of years, they managed the prairie to support bison herds and cultivated berries and edible roots, they allowed only legitimate traders into their territory, making treaties only when the bison herds were exterminated in the 1870s. The Squamish history is a series of past events, both passed on through oral tradition and recent history, of the Squamish indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast.
Prior to colonization, they recorded their history through oral tradition as a way to transmit stories and knowledge across generations. This was common among all the peoples; the writing system esta
Area code 867
Area code 867, the area code for the three Territories of Canada in the Arctic far north, was created on October 21, 1997, from portions of area codes 403 and 819. It is the least populated mainland North American area code, serving only about 100,000 people, but is the geographically largest, it is adjacent to Greenland and eight provinces or states, more jurisdictions than any other area code in North America. It is one of four Canadian area codes yet to be overlaid, the others being 506, 709, 807 for which 7-digit dialling is still used; the incumbent local exchange carrier in 867 is Northwestel, a subsidiary of BCE. Until 1964, the geographic area now served by 867 did have up to five independent telephone companies, plus Bell Canada; the +1-867 area code is the most expensive geographic calling area in Canada. Iristel bills its subscribers in other area codes a 15¢/minute premium to call 1-867 numbers and charges a $20/year premium to issue a 1-867 number in-region instead of assigning the same subscriber any other Canadian area code.
The digits were chosen to promote the theme "TOP of the world", as 867 spells TOP on a standard North American keypad. 1867 is the year of Canadian confederation. It has the largest land area of any area code in the North American Numbering Plan; the territorial extent reaches 3,173 km from Cape Dyer on Baffin Island to the Alaska border, 4,391 km from the south end of James Bay to the North Pole. The largest distances between exchanges are 2,200 km from Sanikiluaq to Grise Fiord, 3,365 km from Beaver Creek to Pangnirtung. Four different official time zones are observed within the area: Eastern, Central and Pacific; the Yukon Territory and the western portion of the Northwest Territories were covered by Alberta's area code 403, served by a number of local companies that were merged into Canadian National Telecommunications, a subsidiary of the Canadian National Railway. CNT's operations in the territories became Northwestel in 1979; the eastern Northwest Territories were among the last areas of North America without telephone service.
When area codes were instituted in 1947, this region was nominally part of western Quebec's area code 514. In 1957, these non-diallable areas were nominally shifted to eastern Quebec's area code 418. Bell Canada introduced telephone service in the eastern NWT in 1958; as direct distance dialing was rolled out in this area in the 1970s, the eastern NWT, along with a large swath of northwestern Quebec, was shifted to western Quebec's 819. Bell Canada sold its northern service territory to Northwestel in 1992. Prior to the creation of 867, 403 and 819 were geographically the largest area codes in the North American Numbering Plan. 403 spanned more than one-ninth of the planet's circumference. Since the creation of 867, all of the former 819 portion of the Northwest Territories, plus that portion of the former 403 portion covering five exchanges, has become part of Nunavut. Area code 403 has since been further split to create 780 for the northern two-thirds of Alberta, including Edmonton. All existing prefixes stayed the same with the change to 867, with one exception: the conflict between 403-979 at Inuvik and 819-979 at Iqaluit was resolved by changing Inuvik from 403-979 to 867-777.
A minor programming glitch temporarily allowed callers in the Inuvik area to dial 403-777 and reach Inuvik when it should have routed to Calgary, what appeared on customer's bills along with the higher rate. Northwestel's proposal for a new regulatory regime was approved for 2007, allowing resale of local telephone service, but no competitors entered the market to avail themselves of the resale option. In 2011, facilities-based local service competition was approved by the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission, so additional central office codes are now required for competitive carriers wishing to offer local service; the expense of deployment is limiting deployment so far to Whitehorse, Inuvik, Behchoko and Hay River, four of which have multiple prefixes. Communities that now have only one prefix are not to need a second prefix other than for local growth or the entry of a competitor. * Behchoko has two separate exchange areas each with its own prefix, but Iristel's 292 prefix is overlaid on both using independent facilities.
Area code 867 covers all points in the three Canadian territories: Northwest Territories Nunavut YukonExchanges within the territories serve some customers in Fraser and Swan Lake, British Columbia. Fort Fitzgerald, AB is served from Fort Smith, NWT. On a section of the Alaska Highway which crosses the BC-Yukon border six times in six miles, two highway lodges and area residents on the Yukon side are served by Watson Lake numbers, not the nearer Lower Post exchange. Aklavik: 375, 978 Arctic Bay: 439 Arviat: 857 Baker Lake: 793 Beaver Creek: 362 862 Behchoko: 292, 371, 392, 492, 731 Cambridge Bay: 391 983 Cape Dorset: 897 Carcross: 733, 821 Carmacks: 385, 863 Chesterfield Inlet: 898 Clyde River: 924 Colville Lake: 709, 722 Coral Harbour: 925 Dawson City: 730, 991, 992, 993 Deline: 589 744 Destruction Bay: 789, 841 Ekati: 880 Elsa: 995 Enterprise: 984 Faro: 746 994 Fort Good Hope: 496, 598 Fort Liard: 770 Fort McPherson: 377, 952 Fort Providence: 373, 699 Fort Resolution: 376, 394 Fort Simpson: 695 Fort Smith: 621, 870, 872 Gamèti: 365, 997 G
Eagle is the common name for many large birds of prey of the family Accipitridae. Eagles belong to several groups of genera, not all of which are related. Most of the 60 species of eagle are from Africa. Outside this area, just 14 species can be found—2 in North America, 9 in Central and South America, 3 in Australia. Eagles are large, powerfully built birds of prey, with heavy beaks; the smallest eagles, such as the booted eagle, comparable in size to a common buzzard or red-tailed hawk, have longer and more evenly broad wings, more direct, faster flight – despite the reduced size of aerodynamic feathers. Most eagles are larger than any other raptors apart from some vultures; the smallest species of eagle is the South Nicobar serpent eagle, at 40 cm. The largest species are discussed below. Like all birds of prey, eagles have large, hooked beaks for ripping flesh from their prey, muscular legs, powerful talons; the beak is heavier than that of most other birds of prey. Eagles' eyes are powerful.
It is estimated that the martial eagle, whose eye is more than twice as long as a human eye, has a visual acuity 3.0 to 3.6 times that of humans. This acuity enables eagles to spot potential prey from a long distance; this keen eyesight is attributed to their large pupils which ensure minimal diffraction of the incoming light. The female of all known species of eagles is larger than the male. Eagles build their nests, called eyries, in tall trees or on high cliffs. Many species lay two eggs, but the older, larger chick kills its younger sibling once it has hatched; the dominant chick tends to be a female. The parents take no action to stop the killing. Due to the size and power of many eagle species, they are ranked at the top of the food chain as apex predators in the avian world; the type of prey varies by genus. The Haliaeetus and Ichthyophaga eagles prefer to capture fish, though the species in the former capture various animals other water birds, are powerful kleptoparasites of other birds.
The snake and serpent eagles of the genera Circaetus and Spilornis predominantly prey on the great diversity of snakes found in the tropics of Africa and Asia. The eagles of the genus Aquila are the top birds of prey in open habitats, taking any medium-sized vertebrate they can catch. Where Aquila eagles are absent, other eagles, such as the buteonine black-chested buzzard-eagle of South America, may assume the position of top raptorial predator in open areas. Many other eagles, including the species-rich genus Spizaetus, live predominantly in woodlands and forest; these eagles target various arboreal or ground-dwelling mammals and birds, which are unsuspectingly ambushed in such dense, knotty environments. Hunting techniques differ among the species and genera, with some individual eagles having engaged in quite varied techniques based their environment and prey at any given time. Most eagles grab prey without landing and take flight with it, so the prey can be carried to a perch and torn apart.
The bald eagle is noted for having flown with the heaviest load verified to be carried by any flying bird, since one eagle flew with a 6.8 kg mule deer fawn. However, a few eagles may target prey heavier than themselves. Golden and crowned eagles have killed ungulates weighing up to 30 kg and a martial eagle killed a 37 kg duiker, 7–8 times heavier than the preying eagle. Authors on birds David Allen Sibley, Pete Dunne, Clay Sutton described the behavioral difference between hunting eagles and other birds of prey thus: They have at least one singular characteristic, it has been observed. All hawks seem to have this habit, from the smallest kestrel to the largest Ferruginous – but not the Eagles. Among the eagles are some of the largest birds of prey: only the condors and some of the Old World vultures are markedly larger, it is debated which should be considered the largest species of eagle. They could be measured variously in body mass, or wingspan. Different lifestyle needs among various eagles result in variable measurements from species to species.
For example, many forest-dwelling eagles, including the large harpy eagle, have short wingspans, a feature necessary for being able to maneuver in quick, short bursts through densely forested habitats. Eagles in the genus Aquila, though found strictly in open country, are superlative soarers, have long wings for their size; these lists of the top five eagles are based on weight and wingspan, respectively. Unless otherwise noted by reference, the figures listed are the median reported for each measurement in the guide Raptors of the World in which only measurements that could be verified by the authors were listed. Australasian Australia: wedge-tailed eagle, white-bellied sea-eagle, little eagle. New Guinea: Papuan eagle, white-bellied sea-eagle, pygmy eagle. Nearctic: golden eagle, bald eagle. Neotropical: Spizaetus, solitary eagles, harpy eagle, crested eagle, black-chested buzzard-eagle
Métis in Canada
The Métis in Canada are groups of peoples in Canada who trace their descent to First Nations peoples and European settlers French in the early decades. They are recognized as one of Canada's aboriginal peoples under the Constitution Act of 1982, along with First Nations and Inuit peoples; as of 2016, they number over 587,545. Canadian Métis represent the majority of people that identify as Métis, although there are a number of Métis in the United States. While the Métis developed as the mixed-race descendants of early unions between First Nations and colonial-era European settlers, within generations, a distinct Métis culture developed; the women in the unions in eastern Canada were Wabanaki and Menominee. Their unions with European men engaged in the fur trade in the Old Northwest were of the type known as Marriage à la façon du pays. After New France was ceded to Great Britain's control in 1763, there was an important distinction between French Métis born of francophone voyageur fathers, the Anglo-Métis descended from English or Scottish fathers.
Today these two cultures have coalesced into location-specific Métis traditions. This does not preclude a range of other Métis cultural expressions across North America; such polyethnic people were referred to by other terms, many of which are now considered to be offensive, such as Mixed-bloods, Half-breeds, Bois-Brûlés, Black Scots, Jackatars. The contemporary Métis in Canada are a specific Indigenous people. While people of Métis culture or heritage are found across Canada, the traditional Métis "homeland" includes much of the Canadian Prairies; the most known group are the "Red River Métis", centring on southern and central parts of Manitoba along the Red River of the North. Related are the Métis in the United States those in border areas such as northern Michigan, the Red River Valley, eastern Montana; these were areas in which there was considerable Aboriginal and European mixing due to the 19th-century fur trade. But they do not have a federally recognized status in the United States, except as enrolled members of federally recognized tribes.
Although Métis existed further west than today's Manitoba, much less is known about the Métis of Northern Canada. In 2016, 587,545 people in Canada self-identified as Métis, they represented 1.5 % of the total Canadian population. Most Métis people today are descendants of unions between generations of Métis individuals and live in Canadian society with people of other ethnicities; the exception are the Métis in rural and northern parts, who still live in close proximity to First Nations communities. Over the past century, countless Métis have assimilated into the general European Canadian populations. Métis heritage is more common than is realized. Geneticists estimate that 50 percent of today's population in Western Canada has some Aboriginal ancestry. Most people with more distant ancestry are not part of culture. Unlike among First Nations peoples, there is no distinction between Treaty status and non-Treaty status; the Métis did not sign treaties with Canada, with the exception of an adhesion to Treaty 3 in Northwest Ontario.
This adherence was never implemented by the federal government. The legal definition is not yet developed. Section Thirty-five of the Constitution Act, 1982 recognizes the rights of Indian, Métis and Inuit people. In 2003, the Supreme Court of Canada defined a Métis as someone who self-identifies as Métis, has an ancestral connection to the historic Métis community, is accepted by the modern community with continuity to the historic Métis community; the most well-known and documented mixed-ancestry population in Canadian history are the groups who developed during the fur trade in south-eastern Rupert's Land in the Red River Settlement and the Southbranch Settlements. In the late nineteenth century, they organized politically and had confrontations with the Canadian government in an effort to assert their independence; this was not the only place where métissage between Indigenous people occurred. It was part of the history of colonization from the earliest days of settlements on the Atlantic Coast throughout the Americas.
But the strong sense of ethnic national identity among the French- and Michif-speaking Métis along the Red River, demonstrated during the Riel Rebellions, resulted in wider use of the term "Métis" as the main word used by Canadians for all mixed Euro-Native groups. Continued organizing and political activity resulted in "the Métis" gaining official recognition from the national government as one of the recognized Aboriginal groups in S.35 of the Constitution Act, 1982, which states: 35. The existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the Aboriginal People of Canada are hereby recognized and affirmed. In this Act, "Aboriginal Peoples of Canada" includes the Indian, Métis Peoples of Canada.... Section-35 does not define criteria for an individual, Métis
Great Slave Lake
The Great Slave Lake is the second-largest lake in the Northwest Territories of Canada, the deepest lake in North America at 614 metres, the tenth-largest lake in the world. It is 20 to 203 km wide, it covers an area of 27,200 km2 in the southern part of the territory. Its given volume ranges from 1,070 km3 to 1,580 km3 and up to 2,088 km3 making it the 10th or 12th largest; the lake shares its name with the First Nations peoples called Slavey of the Dene family by their enemies the Cree. Towns situated on the lake include Yellowknife, Hay River, Behchokǫ̀, Fort Resolution, Łutselk'e, Hay River Reserve and Ndilǫ; the only community in the East Arm is Łutselk'e, a hamlet of about 350 people Chipewyan Indigenous peoples of the Dene Nation and the now abandoned winter camp/Hudson's Bay Company post, Fort Reliance. Along the south shore, east of Hay River is the abandoned Pine Point Mine and the company town of Pine Point. Indigenous peoples were the first settlers around the lake after the retreat of glacial ice.
Archaeological evidence has revealed several different periods of cultural history, including: Northern Plano Paleoindian tradition, Shield Archaic, Arctic small tool tradition, the Taltheilei Shale Tradition. Each culture has left a distinct mark in the archaeological record based on type or size of lithic tools. Great Slave Lake was put on European maps during the emergence of the fur trade towards the northwest from Hudson Bay in the mid 18th century; the name'Great Slave' came from the Slavey Indians, one of the Athapaskan tribes living on its southern shores at that time. The name was influenced by Cree disdain for this rival tribe, with whom they shared a sordid history; as the French explorers dealt directly with the Cree traders, the large lake was referred to as "Grand lac des Esclaves", translated into English as "Great Slave Lake". British fur trader Samuel Hearne explored Great Slave Lake in 1771 and crossed the frozen lake, which he named Lake Athapuscow. In 1897-1898, the American frontiersman Charles "Buffalo" Jones traveled to the Arctic Circle, where his party wintered in a cabin that they had constructed near the Great Slave Lake.
Jones's exploits of how he and his party shot and fended off a hungry wolf pack near Great Slave Lake was verified in 1907 by Ernest Thompson Seton and Edward Alexander Preble when they discovered the remains of the animals near the long abandoned cabin. In the 1930s, gold was discovered on the North Arm of Great Slave Lake, leading to the establishment of Yellowknife which would become the capital of the NWT. In 1960, an all-season highway was built around the west side of the lake an extension of the Mackenzie Highway but now known as Yellowknife Highway or Highway 3. On January 24, 1978, a Soviet Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite, named Kosmos 954, built with an onboard nuclear reactor fell from orbit and disintegrated. Pieces of the nuclear core fell in the vicinity of Great Slave Lake. 90% of the nuclear debris was recovered by a joint Canadian Armed Forces and United States Armed Forces military operation called Operation Morning Light. The Hay, Slave and Taltson Rivers are its chief tributaries.
It is drained by the Mackenzie River. Though the western shore is forested, the east shore and northern arm are tundra-like; the southern and eastern shores reach the edge of the Canadian Shield. Along with other lakes such as the Great Bear and Athabasca, it is a remnant of the vast glacial Lake McConnell; the lake has a irregular shoreline. The East Arm of Great Slave Lake is filled with islands, the area is within the proposed Thaydene Nene National Park Reserve; the Pethei Peninsula separates the East Arm into McLeod Bay in the north and Christie Bay in the south. The lake is at least frozen during an average of eight months of the year; the main western portion of the lake forms a moderately deep bowl with a surface area of 18,500 km2 and a volume of 596 km3. This main portion has a maximum depth of 187.7 m and a mean depth of 32.2 m. To the east, McLeod Bay and Christie Bay are much deeper, with a maximum recorded depth in Christie Bay of 614 m On some of the plains surrounding Great Slave Lake, climax polygonal bogs have formed, the early successional stage to which consists of pioneer black spruce.
South of Great Slave Lake, in a remote corner of Wood Buffalo National Park, is the Whooping Crane Summer Range, a nesting site of a remnant flock of whooping cranes, discovered in 1954. Rivers that flow into Great Slave Lake include, it is a 6.5 km road that connects the Northwest Territories capital of Yellowknife to Dettah, a small First Nations fishing community in the Northwest Territories. To reach the community in summer the drive is 27 km via the Ingraham Trail. From 2014 to 2016, Animal Planet aired, it takes place on Great Slave Lake, details the lives of houseboaters on the lake. List of lakes of Canada Mackenzie Northern Railway Canada.. Sailing directions, Great Slave Lake and Mackenzie River. Ottawa: Dept. of Fisheries and Oceans. ISBN 0-660-11022-9 Gibson, J. J. Prowse, T. D. & Peters, D. L.. "Partitioning impacts of climate and regulation on water level variability in Great Slave Lake." Journal of Hydrology. 329, 196. Hicks, F. Chen, X. & Andres, D.. "Effects of ice on the hydr