The Call of the Wild
The Call of the Wild is a short adventure novel by Jack London published in 1903 and set in Yukon, during the 1890s Klondike Gold Rush, when strong sled dogs were in high demand. The central character of the novel is a dog named Buck; the story opens at a ranch in Santa Clara Valley, when Buck is stolen from his home and sold into service as a sled dog in Alaska. He becomes progressively feral in the harsh environment, where he is forced to fight to survive and dominate other dogs. By the end, he sheds the veneer of civilization, relies on primordial instinct and learned experience to emerge as a leader in the wild. London spent a year in the Yukon, his observations form much of the material for the book; the story was serialized in the Saturday Evening Post in the summer of 1903 and was published a month in book form. The book's great popularity and success made a reputation for London; as early as 1923, the story was adapted to film, it has since seen several more cinematic adaptations. The story opens with Buck, a large and powerful St. Bernard-Scotch Shepherd, living in California's Santa Clara Valley as the pampered pet of rich Judge Miller and his family.
However, he is stolen by the gardener's assistant and sold to finance his gambling addiction. He is shipped to Seattle. Put in a crate, he is ill-treated; when released, he attacks his overseer, known only as the "man in the red sweater" but this man teaches the "law of the club", hitting Buck until he is sufficiently cowed. Buck is sold to a pair of French-Canadian dispatchers from the Canadian government, François and Perrault, who take him with them to the Klondike region of Canada. There, they train him as a sled dog. From his teammates, he learns to survive cold winter nights and the pack society. A rivalry develops between the vicious, quarrelsome lead dog, Spitz. Buck beats Spitz in a fight. Spitz is killed by the pack after his defeat by Buck, Buck becomes the leader of the team; when Francois and Perrault reach Dawson with their dispatches, are given new orders from the Canadian government, the team is sold to a "Scottish half-breed" man, working the mail service. The dogs must carry heavy loads to the mining areas, the journeys they make are tiresome and long.
One of the team, a morose husky named Dave, becomes sick and is shot. Buck's next owners are a trio of stampeders from the United States, who are inexperienced at surviving in the Northern wilderness, they struggle to control the sled and ignore helpful advice from others, in particular the warnings that the spring melt poses dangers. They overfeed the dogs and starve them when the food runs out; some dogs on the team die from either neglect or sickness. On their journey they meet John Thornton, an experienced outdoorsman, who notices the dogs have been poorly treated and are in a weakened condition, he warns the trio against crossing the river. Exhausted and sensing the danger ahead, Buck refuses and continues to lie unmoving in the snow. After Buck is beaten by Hal, Thornton recognizes him to be a remarkable dog. Disgusted by the driver's treatment of Buck, Thornton hits Hal with the butt of his axe, cuts Buck free from his traces, tells the trio he is keeping him, much to Hal's displeasure. After some argument, the trio leaves and tries to cross the river, but as Thornton warned, the ice breaks, the three fall into the river and drown, along with the sled and neglected dogs.
Buck comes to grow devoted to Thornton as he nurses him back to health. He saves Thornton. After Thornton takes him on trips to pan for gold, a bonanza king, named Matthewson, wagers Thornton on the dog's strength and devotion. Buck wins by breaking a half-ton sled free of the frozen ground, pulling it 100 yards and winning US$1,600 in gold dust. A king of the Skookum Benches offers a large sum to buy Buck, but Thornton has grown fond of him and declines. Using his winnings, John Thornton elects to continue searching for gold. While Thornton and his two friends Pete and Hans are panning in a campsite, Buck explores the wilderness and socializes with a timber wolf from a local pack. However, Buck decides not to join the wolves and elects to return to Thornton, mirroring John's refusal to sell Buck. However, Buck returns to the campsite to find Hans and Pete murdered sees John Thornton has suffered the same fate. Buck finds out. Buck kills the natives to avenge Thornton, he is attacked by an entire pack of wolves.
Buck wins the fight finds that the same timber wolf he had socialized with was in the pack he fought. Buck follows the wolf and its pack into the forest, answers the call of the wild; the legend of Buck is spread among other Indian tribes as the "Ghost Dog of the Northland". Buck comes out of the backwoods once a year on the anniversary of his attack on the Yeehats, at the former campsite where he was last with John Thornton and Pete, in order to mourn their deaths. California native Jack London had traveled around the United States as a hobo, returned to California to finish high school, spent a year in college at Berkeley, when in 1897 he went to the Klondike by way of Alaska during the height of the Klondike Gold Rush, he said of the experience: "It was in the Klondike I found myself."He left California in July and traveled by boat
Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a German philosopher, cultural critic, poet and Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history. He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy, he became the youngest to hold the Chair of Classical Philology at the University of Basel in 1869 at the age of 24. Nietzsche resigned in 1879 due to health problems. In 1889 at age 44, he suffered a collapse and afterward, a complete loss of his mental faculties, he lived his remaining years in the care of his mother until her death in 1897 and with his sister Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche. Nietzsche died in 1900. Nietzsche's body of work touched a wide range of topics, including art, history, tragedy and science, his writing spans philosophical polemics, cultural criticism and fiction while displaying a fondness for aphorism and irony. His early inspiration was drawn from figures such as Arthur Schopenhauer, Richard Wagner and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
Prominent elements of his philosophy include his radical critique of truth in favor of perspectivism. He developed influential concepts such as the Übermensch and the doctrine of eternal return. In his work, he became preoccupied with the creative powers of the individual to overcome social and moral contexts in pursuit of new values and aesthetic health. After his death, his sister Elisabeth became the curator and editor of Nietzsche's manuscripts, reworking his unpublished writings to fit her own German nationalist ideology while contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism. Through her published editions, Nietzsche's work became associated with Nazism. Nietzsche's thought enjoyed renewed popularity in the 1960s and his ideas have since had a profound impact on 20th and early-21st century thinkers across philosophy—especially in schools of continental philosophy such as existentialism and post-structuralism—as well as art, psychology and popular culture.
Born on 15 October 1844, Nietzsche grew up in the small town of Röcken, near Leipzig, in the Prussian Province of Saxony. He was named after King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia, who turned 49 on the day of Nietzsche's birth. Nietzsche's Carl Ludwig Nietzsche, a Lutheran pastor and former teacher, they had two other children: a daughter, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, born in 1846. Nietzsche's father died from a brain ailment in 1849; the family moved to Naumburg, where they lived with Nietzsche's maternal grandmother and his father's two unmarried sisters. After the death of Nietzsche's grandmother in 1856, the family moved into their own house, now Nietzsche-Haus, a museum and Nietzsche study centre. Nietzsche attended a boys' school and a private school, where he became friends with Gustav Krug, Rudolf Wagner and Wilhelm Pinder, all of whom came from respected families. In 1854, he began to attend Domgymnasium in Naumburg; because his father had worked for the state the now-fatherless Nietzsche was offered a scholarship to study at the internationally recognized Schulpforta.
He transferred and studied there from 1858 to 1864, becoming friends with Paul Deussen and Carl von Gersdorff. He found time to work on poems and musical compositions. Nietzsche led a music and literature club, during his summers in Naumburg. At Schulpforta, Nietzsche received an important grounding in languages—Greek, Latin and French—so as to be able to read important primary sources, his end-of-semester exams in March 1864 showed a 1 in German. While at Pforta, Nietzsche had a penchant for pursuing subjects, he became acquainted with the work of the almost-unknown poet Friedrich Hölderlin, calling him "my favorite poet" and composing an essay in which he said that the mad poet raised consciousness to "the most sublime ideality." The teacher who corrected the essay gave it a good mark but commented that Nietzsche should concern himself in the future with healthier, more lucid, more "German" writers. Additionally, he became acquainted with Ernst Ortlepp, an eccentric and drunken poet, found dead in a ditch weeks after meeting the young Nietzsche but who may have introduced Nietzsche to the music and writing of Rich
A name is a term used for identification. Names can identify a class or category of things, or a single thing, either uniquely, or within a given context; the entity identified by a name is called its referent. A personal name identifies, not uniquely, a specific individual human; the name of a specific entity is sometimes called a proper name and is, when consisting of only one word, a proper noun. Other nouns are sometimes called "common names" or "general names". A name can be given to a person, place, or thing. Caution must be exercised when translating, for there are ways that one language may prefer one type of name over another. For example, the French sometimes refer to Aristotle as "le Stagirite" from one spelling of his place of birth, English speakers refer to Shakespeare as "The Bard", recognizing him as a paragon writer of the language; the word "name" comes from Old English nama. Connected to non-Indo-European terms such as Tamil நாமம் and Proto-Uralic *nime. A personal name is an identifying word or words by which an individual is intimately known or designated such as "Bobby," "Sophia-Grace," or "Muhammad."
It is traditional for individuals to have a personal name and a last name. Middle names are used by many people as a third identifier, can be chosen for personal reasons including signifying relationships, preserving pre-marital/maiden names, to perpetuate family names; the practice of using middle names dates back to ancient Rome, where it was common for members of the elite to have a praenomen, a nomen, a cognomen. Middle names fell out of use, but regained popularity in Europe during the nineteenth century. Besides first and last names, individuals may have nicknames, aliases, or titles. Nicknames are informal names used by friends or family to refer to a person. A person may choose to use an alias, or a fake name, instead of their real name to protect or obscure their identity. People may have titles designating their role in an institution or profession. In the ancient world in the ancient near-east names were thought to be powerful and act, in some ways, as a separate manifestation of a person or deity.
This viewpoint is responsible both for the reluctance to use the proper name of God in Hebrew writing or speech, as well as the common understanding in ancient magic that magical rituals had to be carried out "in name". By invoking a god or spirit by name, one was thought to be able to summon that spirit's power for some kind of miracle or magic; this understanding passed into religious tradition, for example the stipulation in Catholic exorcism that the demon cannot be expelled until the exorcist has forced it to give up its name, at which point the name may be used in a stern command which will drive the demon away. Quranic names We can see many Arabic names in the Quran and in Muslim people. Like the names Allah, Khwaja, Mehboob, Shoheb Ameena, Sameena, Swaleha, etc; the name Mohammed and Ahmed are same, for example Suhel Ahmad or Mohammad Suhel are same. In Islam and in Christianity we can see many similar names like Adam/Adam, Yusuf/Joseph, Dawood/David, Rumana/Romana, Maryam/Mary, Nuh/Noah, etc.
In the Old Testament, the names of individuals are meaningful, a change of name indicates a change of status. For example, the patriarch Abram and his wife Sarai were renamed "Abraham" and "Sarah" at the institution of the Abrahamic covenant. Simon was renamed Peter when he was given the Keys to Heaven; this is recounted in the Gospel of Matthew chapter 16, which according to Roman Catholic teaching was when Jesus promised to Saint Peter the power to take binding actions. Throughout the Bible, characters are given names at birth that reflect something of significance or describe the course of their lives. For example: Solomon meant peace, the king with that name was the first whose reign was without war. Joseph named his firstborn son Manasseh. Biblical Jewish people did not have surnames which were passed from generation to generation. However, they were known as the child of their father. For example: דוד בן ישי meaning, son of Jesse; the Babylonian Talmud maintains that names exert a mystical influence over their bearers, a change of name is one of four actions that can avert an evil heavenly decree, that would lead to punishment after one's death.
Rabbinical commentators differ as to whether the name's influence i
Sled dogs were important for transportation in arctic areas, hauling supplies in areas that were inaccessible by other methods. They were used with varying success in the explorations of both poles, as well as during the Alaskan gold rush. Sled dog teams delivered mail to rural communities in northern Canada. Sled dogs today are still used by some rural communities in areas of Alaska and Canada and throughout Greenland, they are used for recreational purposes and racing events, such as the Iditarod Trail and the Yukon Quest. Sled dogs are used in Canada, Greenland, Chukotka, Norway and Alaska. A 2017 study showed that 9,000 years ago the domestic dog was present at what is now Zhokhov Island, arctic north-eastern Siberia, which at that time was connected to the mainland; the dogs were selectively bred as either sled dogs or hunting dogs, implying that a sled dog standard and a hunting dog standard co-existed. The optimal maximum size for a sled dog is 20–25 kg based on themo-regulation, the ancient sled dogs were between 16–25 kg.
The same standard has been found in the remains of sled dogs from this region 2,000 years ago and in the modern Siberian husky breed standard. Other dogs were more massive at 30 kg and appear to be dogs, crossed with wolves and used for polar bear hunting. At death, the heads of the dogs had been separated from their bodies by humans and is thought to be for ceremonial reasons; the Danish military act as the police in Greenland and conduct sled dog patrols during the winter, which record all sighted wildlife. The number of patrols averaged 14,876 km/year during 1978-1998. By 2011, the arctic wolf had re-populated eastern Greenland from their reserve in the northeast through following these dog-sled patrols over distances of up to 560 kilometers. Historical references of the dogs and dog harnesses that were used by Native American cultures date back to before European contact; the use of dogs as draft animals was widespread in North America. There were two main kinds of sled dogs; these interior dogs formed the basis of the Alaskan Husky.
Russian traders following the Yukon River inland in the mid-1800s acquired sled dogs from the interior villages along the river. The dogs of this area were reputed to be stronger and better at hauling heavy loads than the native Russian sled dogs; the Alaskan Gold Rush brought renewed interest in the use of sled dogs as transportation. Most gold camps were accessible only by dogsled in the winter. "Everything that moved during the frozen season moved by dog team. This, along with the dogs' use in the exploration of the poles, led to the late 1800s and early 1900s being nicknamed the "Era of the Sled Dog". Sled dogs were used to deliver the mail in Alaska during the late early 1900s. Malamutes were the favored breed, with teams averaging eight to ten dogs. Dogs were capable of delivering mail in conditions that would stop boats and horses; each team hauled between 320 kilograms of mail. The mail was stored in waterproofed bags to protect it from the snow. By 1901, dog trails had been established along the entirety of the Yukon River.
Mail delivery by dog sled came to an end in 1963 when the last mail carrier to use a dog sled, Chester Noongwook of Savoonga, retired. He was honored by the US Postal Service in a ceremony on St. Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea. Airplanes took over Alaskan mail delivery in the 1930s. In 1924, Carl Ben Eielson flew the first Alaskan airmail delivery. Dogsleds were used to patrol western Alaska during World War II. Highways and trucking in the 40s and 50s, the snowmobile in the 50s and 60s, contributed to the decline of the working sled dog. Recreational mushing came into place to maintain the tradition of dog mushing; the desire for larger, load-pulling dogs changed to one for faster dogs with high endurance used in racing, which caused the dogs to become lighter than they were historically. Americans began to import Siberian Huskies to increase the speed of their own dogs, presenting "a direct contrast to the idea that Russian traders sought heavier draft-type sled dogs from the Interior regions of Alaska and the Yukon less than a century earlier to increase the hauling capacity of their lighter sled dogs."Outside of Alaska, dog-drawn carts were used to haul peddler's wares in cities like New York.
In 1925, there was a diphtheria outbreak in Alaska. There was not enough serum in Nome to treat the number of people infected by the disease. There was serum in Nenana, but the town was 1,100 kilometres away, inaccessible except by dog sled. A dog sled relay was set up by the villages between Nenana and Nome, 20 teams worked together to relay the serum to Nome; the serum reached Nome in six days. The Iditarod Trail was established on the path between these two towns, it was known as the Iditarod Trail. During the 1940s, the trail fell into disuse. However, in 1967, Dorothy Page, conducting Alaska's centennial celebration, ordered 14 kilometres of the trail to be cleared for a dog sled race. In 1972, the US Army performed a survey of the trail, in 1973 the Iditarod was established by Joe Redington, Sr; the race was won by Dick Wilmarth. The modern Iditarod is a 1,800-kilometre-long endurance sled dog race, it lasts for ten to eleven days, weather permitting. It begins with a ceremonial start in Anchorage, Alaska on the morning of t
The Northwest Territories is a federal territory of Canada. At a land area of 1,144,000 km2 and a 2016 census population of 41,786, it is the second-largest and the most populous of the three territories in Northern Canada, its estimated population as of 2018 is 44,445. Yellowknife became the territorial capital in 1967, following recommendations by the Carrothers Commission; the Northwest Territories, a portion of the old North-Western Territory, entered the Canadian Confederation on July 15, 1870, but the current borders were formed on April 1, 1999, when the territory was subdivided to create Nunavut to the east, via the Nunavut Act and the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement. While Nunavut is Arctic tundra, the Northwest Territories has a warmer climate and is both boreal forest, tundra, its most northern regions form part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago; the Northwest Territories is bordered by Canada's two other territories, Nunavut to the east and Yukon to the west, by the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan to the south.
The name is descriptive, adopted by the British government during the colonial era to indicate where it lay in relation to Rupert's Land. It is shortened from North-Western Territory. In Inuktitut, the Northwest Territories are referred to as ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ, "beautiful land."There was some discussion of changing the name of the Northwest Territories after the splitting off of Nunavut to a term from an Aboriginal language. One proposal was "Denendeh", among others. One of the most popular proposals for a new name – one to name the territory "Bob" – began as a prank, but for a while it was at or near the top in the public-opinion polls. In the end, a poll conducted prior to division showed that strong support remained to keep the name "Northwest Territories"; this name arguably became more appropriate following division than it had been when the territories extended far into Canada's north-central and northeastern areas. Located in northern Canada, the territory borders Canada's two other territories, Yukon to the west and Nunavut to the east, three provinces: British Columbia to the southwest, Alberta and Saskatchewan to the south.
It meets Manitoba at a quadripoint to the extreme southeast, though surveys have not been completed. It has a land area of 1,183,085 km2. Geographical features include Great Bear Lake, the largest lake within Canada, Great Slave Lake, the deepest body of water in North America at 614 m, as well as the Mackenzie River and the canyons of the Nahanni National Park Reserve, a national park and UNESCO World Heritage Site. Territorial islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago include Banks Island, Borden Island, Prince Patrick Island, parts of Victoria Island and Melville Island, its highest point is Mount Nirvana near the border with Yukon at an elevation of 2,773 m. The Northwest Territories extends for more than 1,300,000 km2 and has a large climate variant from south to north; the southern part of the territory has a subarctic climate, while the islands and northern coast have a polar climate. Summers in the north are short and cool, with daytime highs of 14-17 Celsius, lows of 1-5 Celsius. Winters are long and harsh, daytime highs in the mid −20 °C and lows around −40 °C.
Extremes are common with summer highs in the south reaching 36 °C and lows reaching into the negatives. In winter in the south, it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −40 °C, but they can reach the low teens during the day. In the north, temperatures can reach highs of 30 °C, lows can reach into the low negatives. In winter in the north it is not uncommon for the temperatures to reach −50 °C but they can reach the single digits during the day. Thunderstorms are not rare in the south. In the north they are rare, but do occur. Tornadoes are rare but have happened with the most notable one happening just outside Yellowknife that destroyed a communications tower; the Territory has a dry climate due to the mountains in the west. About half of the territory is above the tree line. There are not many trees in the north islands; the present-day territory came under government authority in July 1870, after the Hudson's Bay Company transferred Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory to the British Crown, which subsequently transferred them to Canada, giving it the name the North-west Territories.
This immense region comprised all of today's Canada except that, encompassed within the early signers of Canadian Confederation, that is, British Columbia, early forms of present-day Ontario and Quebec, the Maritimes, the Labrador coast, the Arctic Islands, except the southern half of Baffin Island. The first residential school opened in 1867 in Fort Resolution, followed by several others in regions across the territory, thus contributing to the Northwest Territories reaching the highest percentage of students in residential schools of any area in Canada. After the 1870 transfer, some of the North-west Territories was whittled away; the province of Manitoba was created on July 15, 1870, at first a small square area around Winnipeg
Outing was a late 19th- and early 20th-century American magazine covering a variety of sporting activities. It began publication in 1882 as the Wheelman "an illustrated magazine of cycling literature and news" and had four title changes before ceasing publication in 1923. Samuel McClure edited the Wheelman for Colonel Albert Pope, Pope Manufacturing Company for bicycles for two years. Bicycling was the first outdoor sport to seize the Americans. Bicycling was all the rage. In 1884 it was called the Wheelman: An Illustrated Monthly Magazine of Recreation. Thomas Stevens became a "special correspondent" that year; the magazine first published Jack London's novel White Fang in serial form. Frederic Remington submitted commissioned drawings of the Old West. Outing Publishing Company published Westerns and outdoor books, it was active in book publishing from 1905 to 1918. Serial Archive Listing University of Pennsylvania Google Books - The Wheelman, Volume 1
Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was an American statesman, conservationist and writer who served as the 26th president of the United States from 1901 to 1909. He served as the 25th vice president of the United States from March to September 1901 and as the 33rd governor of New York from 1899 to 1900; as a leader of the Republican Party during this time, he became a driving force for the Progressive Era in the United States in the early 20th century. His face is depicted on Mount Rushmore, alongside those of George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Abraham Lincoln. In polls of historians and political scientists, Roosevelt is ranked as one of the five best presidents. Roosevelt was born a sickly child with debilitating asthma, but he overcame his physical health problems by embracing a strenuous lifestyle, he integrated his exuberant personality, vast range of interests, world-famous achievements into a "cowboy" persona defined by robust masculinity. Home-schooled, he began a lifelong naturalist avocation before attending Harvard College.
His book, The Naval War of 1812, established his reputation as both a learned historian and as a popular writer. Upon entering politics, he became the leader of the reform faction of Republicans in New York's state legislature. Following the near-simultaneous deaths of his wife and mother, he escaped to a cattle ranch in the Dakotas. Roosevelt served as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President William McKinley, but resigned from that post to lead the Rough Riders during the Spanish–American War. Returning a war hero, he was elected Governor of New York in 1898. After the death of Vice President Garret Hobart, the New York state party leadership convinced McKinley to accept Roosevelt as his running mate in the 1900 election. Roosevelt campaigned vigorously, the McKinley-Roosevelt ticket won a landslide victory based on a platform of peace and conservation. After taking office as Vice President in March 1901, he assumed the presidency at age 42 following McKinley's assassination that September, remains the youngest person to become President of the United States.
As a leader of the Progressive movement, he championed his "Square Deal" domestic policies, promising the average citizen fairness, breaking of trusts, regulation of railroads, pure food and drugs. Making conservation a top priority, he established many new national parks and monuments intended to preserve the nation's natural resources. In foreign policy, he focused on Central America, he expanded the Navy and sent the Great White Fleet on a world tour to project the United States' naval power around the globe. His successful efforts to broker the end of the Russo-Japanese War won him the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize, he avoided controversial money issues. Elected in 1904 to a full term, Roosevelt continued to promote progressive policies, many of which were passed in Congress. Roosevelt groomed his close friend, William Howard Taft, Taft won the 1908 presidential election to succeed him. Frustrated with Taft's conservatism, Roosevelt belatedly tried to win the 1912 Republican nomination, he failed, walked out and founded a third party, the Progressive, so-called "Bull Moose" Party, which called for wide-ranging progressive reforms.
He ran in the 1912 election and the split allowed the Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson to win the election. Following his defeat, Roosevelt led a two-year expedition to the Amazon basin, where he nearly died of tropical disease. During World War I, he criticized President Wilson for keeping the country out of the war with Germany, his offer to lead volunteers to France was rejected. Though he had considered running for president again in 1920, Roosevelt's health continued to deteriorate, he died in 1919. Theodore Roosevelt Jr. was born on October 1858, at East 20th Street in New York City. He was the second of four children born to socialite Martha Stewart "Mittie" Bulloch and businessman and philanthropist Theodore Roosevelt Sr.. He had an older sister, Anna, a younger brother, a younger sister, Corinne. Elliott was the father of First Lady Anna Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of Theodore's distant cousin, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, his paternal grandfather was of Dutch descent. Theodore Sr. was the fifth son of businessman Cornelius Van Schaack "C.
V. S." Roosevelt and Margaret Barnhill. Theodore's fourth cousin, James Roosevelt I, a businessman, was the father of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Mittie was the younger daughter of Major James Stephens Bulloch and Martha P. "Patsy" Stewart. Through the Van Schaacks, Roosevelt was a descendant of the Schuyler family. Roosevelt's youth was shaped by his poor health and debilitating asthma, he experienced sudden nighttime asthma attacks that caused the experience of being smothered to death, which terrified both Theodore and his parents. Doctors had no cure, he was energetic and mischievously inquisitive. His lifelong interest in zoology began at age seven. Having learned the rudiments of taxidermy, he filled his makeshift museum with animals that he killed or caught. At age nine, he recorded his observation of insects in a paper entitled "The Natural History of Insects". Roosevelt'