Devon known as Devonshire, its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is part of South West England, bounded by Cornwall to the west, Somerset to the north east, Dorset to the east; the city of Exeter is the county town. The county includes the districts of East Devon, Mid Devon, North Devon, South Hams, Teignbridge and West Devon. Plymouth and Torbay are each geographically part of Devon, but are administered as unitary authorities. Combined as a ceremonial county, Devon's area is 6,707 km2 and its population is about 1.1 million. Devon derives its name from Dumnonia. During the British Iron Age, Roman Britain, the early Middle Ages, this was the homeland of the Dumnonii Brittonic Celts; the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain resulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia into the Kingdom of Wessex during the eighth and ninth centuries. The western boundary with Cornwall was set at the River Tamar by King Æthelstan in 936.
Devon was constituted as a shire of the Kingdom of England. The north and south coasts of Devon each have both cliffs and sandy shores, the county's bays contain seaside resorts, fishing towns, ports; the inland terrain is rural and hilly, has a lower population density than many other parts of England. Dartmoor is the largest open space in southern England, at 954 km2. To the north of Dartmoor are the Culm Measures and Exmoor. In the valleys and lowlands of south and east Devon the soil is more fertile, drained by rivers including the Exe, the Culm, the Teign, the Dart, the Otter; as well as agriculture, much of the economy of Devon is based on tourism. The comparatively mild climate and landscape make Devon a destination for recreation and leisure in England, with visitors attracted to the Dartmoor and Exmoor national parks; the name Devon derives from the name of the Britons who inhabited the southwestern peninsula of Britain at the time of the Roman conquest of Britain known as the Dumnonii, thought to mean "deep valley dwellers" from proto Celtic *dubnos'deep'.
In the Brittonic, Devon is known as Welsh: Dyfnaint, Breton: Devnent and Cornish: Dewnens, each meaning "deep valleys." Among the most common Devon placenames is -combe which derives from Brittonic cwm meaning'valley' prefixed by the name of the possessor. William Camden, in his 1607 edition of Britannia, described Devon as being one part of an older, wider country that once included Cornwall: THAT region which, according to the Geographers, is the first of all Britaine, growing straiter still and narrower, shooteth out farthest into the West, was in antient time inhabited by those Britans whom Solinus called Dumnonii, Ptolomee Damnonii For their habitation all over this Countrey is somewhat low and in valleys, which manner of dwelling is called in the British tongue Dan-munith, in which sense the Province next adjoyning in like respect is at this day named by the Britans Duffneit, to say, Low valleys, but the Country of this nation is at this day divided into two parts, knowen by names of Cornwall and Denshire, The term "Devon" is used for everyday purposes e.g. "Devon County Council" but "Devonshire" continues to be used in the names of the "Devonshire and Dorset Regiment" and "The Devonshire Association".
One erroneous theory is that the "shire" suffix is due to a mistake in the making of the original letters patent for the Duke of Devonshire, resident in Derbyshire. However, there are references to "Defenascire" in Anglo-Saxon texts from before 1000 AD, which translates to modern English as "Devonshire"; the term Devonshire may have originated around the 8th century, when it changed from Dumnonia to Defenascir. Kents Cavern in Torquay had produced. Dartmoor is thought to have been occupied by Mesolithic hunter-gatherer peoples from about 6000 BC; the Romans held the area under military occupation for around 350 years. The area began to experience Saxon incursions from the east around 600 AD, firstly as small bands of settlers along the coasts of Lyme Bay and southern estuaries and as more organised bands pushing in from the east. Devon became a frontier between Brittonic and Anglo-Saxon Wessex, it was absorbed into Wessex by the mid 9th century. A genetic study carried out by the University of Oxford & University College London discovered separate genetic groups in Cornwall and Devon, not only were there differences on either side of the Tamar, with a division exactly along the modern county boundary dating back to the 6th Century but between Devon and the rest of Southern England, similarities with the modern northern France, including Brittany.
This suggests the Anglo-Saxon migration into Devon was limited rather than a mass movement of people. The border with Cornwall was set by King Æthelstan on the east bank of the River Tamar in 936 AD. Danish raids occurred sporadically along many coastal parts of Devon between around 800AD and just before the time of the Norman conquest, including the silver mint at Hlidaforda Lydford in 997 and Taintona in 1001. Devon has featured in most of th
Northumberland is a county in North East England. The northernmost county of England, it borders Cumbria to the west, County Durham and Tyne and Wear to the south and the Scottish Borders to the north. To the east is the North Sea coastline with a 64 miles path; the county town is Alnwick. The county of Northumberland included Newcastle upon Tyne until 1400, when the city became a county of itself. Northumberland expanded in the Tudor period, annexing Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1482, Tynedale in 1495, Tynemouth in 1536, Redesdale around 1542 and Hexhamshire in 1572. Islandshire and Norhamshire were incorporated into Northumberland in 1844. Tynemouth and other settlements in North Tyneside were transferred to Tyne and Wear in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. Lying on the Anglo-Scottish border, Northumberland has been the site of a number of battles; the county is noted for its undeveloped landscape of high moorland, now protected as the Northumberland National Park. Northumberland is the least densely populated county in England, with only 62 people per square kilometre.
Northumberland meant'the land of the people living north of the River Humber'. The present county is the core of that former land, has long been a frontier zone between England and Scotland. During Roman occupation of Britain, most of the present county lay north of Hadrian's Wall, it was controlled by Rome only for the brief period of its extension of power north to the Antonine Wall. The Roman road Dere Street crosses the county from Corbridge over high moorland west of the Cheviot Hills into present Scotland to Trimontium; as evidence of its border position through medieval times, Northumberland has more castles than any other county in England, including those at Alnwick, Dunstanburgh and Warkworth. Northumberland has a rich prehistory with many instances of rock art, hillforts such as Yeavering Bell, stone circles such as the Goatstones and Duddo Five Stones. Most of the area was occupied by the Brythonic-Celtic Votadini people, with another large tribe, the Brigantes, to the south; the region of present-day Northumberland formed the core of the Anglian kingdom of Bernicia, which united with Deira to form the kingdom of Northumbria in the 7th century.
The historical boundaries of Northumbria under King Edwin stretched from the Humber in the south to the Forth in the north. After the battle of Nechtansmere its influence north of the Tweed began to decline as the Picts reclaimed the land invaded by the Saxon kingdom. In 1018 its northern part, the region between the Tweed and the Forth, was ceded to the Kingdom of Scotland. Northumberland is called the "cradle of Christianity" in England, because Christianity flourished on Lindisfarne—a tidal island north of Bamburgh called Holy Island—after King Oswald of Northumbria invited monks from Iona to come to convert the English. A monastery at Lindisfarne was the centre of production of the Lindisfarne Gospels, it became the home of St Cuthbert, buried in Durham Cathedral. Bamburgh is the historic capital of Northumberland, the royal castle from before the unification of the Kingdoms of England under the monarchs of the House of Wessex in the 10th century; the Earldom of Northumberland was held by the Scottish royal family by marriage between 1139–1157 and 1215–1217.
Scotland relinquished all claims to the region as part of the Treaty of York. The Earls of Northumberland once wielded significant power in English affairs because, as powerful and militaristic Marcher Lords, they had the task of protecting England from Scottish retaliation for English invasions. Northumberland has a history of revolt and rebellion against the government, as seen in the Rising of the North against Elizabeth I of England; these revolts were led by the Earls of Northumberland, the Percy family. Shakespeare makes one of the Percys, the dashing Harry Hotspur, the hero of his Henry IV, Part 1; the Percys were aided in conflict by other powerful Northern families, such as the Nevilles and the Patchetts. The latter were stripped of all power and titles after the English Civil War of 1642–1651. After the Restoration of 1660, the county was a centre for Roman Catholicism in England, as well as a focus of Jacobite support. Northumberland was long a wild county, where Border Reivers hid from the law.
However, the frequent cross-border skirmishes and accompanying local lawlessness subsided after the Union of the Crowns of Scotland and England under King James I and VI in 1603. Northumberland played a key role in the Industrial Revolution from the 18th century on. Many coal mines operated in Northumberland until the widespread closures in the 1980s. Collieries operated at Ashington, Blyth, Netherton and Pegswood; the region's coalfields fuelled industrial expansion in other areas of Britain, the need to transport the coal from the collieries to the Tyne led to the development of the first railways. Shipbuilding and armaments manufacture were other important industries before the deindustrialisation of the 1980s. Northumberland remains rural, is the least-densely populated county in England. In recent years the county has had considerable growth in tourism. Visitors are attracted both to its historical sites. Northumberland has a diverse physical geography, it is low and flat near the North Sea coast and mountainous toward the northwest.
James Augustine Aloysius Joyce was an Irish novelist, short story writer, poet and literary critic. He contributed to the modernist avant-garde and is regarded as one of the most influential and important authors of the 20th century. Joyce is best known for Ulysses, a landmark work in which the episodes of Homer's Odyssey are paralleled in a variety of literary styles, most famously stream of consciousness. Other well-known works are the short-story collection Dubliners, the novels A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Finnegans Wake, his other writings include three books of poetry, a play, his published letters and occasional journalism. Joyce was born in Dublin into a middle-class family. A brilliant student, he attended the Christian Brothers-run O'Connell School before excelling at the Jesuit schools Clongowes and Belvedere, despite the chaotic family life imposed by his father's alcoholism and unpredictable finances, he went on to attend University College Dublin. In 1904, in his early twenties, Joyce emigrated to continental Europe with his partner Nora Barnacle.
They lived in Trieste and Zurich. Although most of his adult life was spent abroad, Joyce's fictional universe centres on Dublin and is populated by characters who resemble family members and friends from his time there. Ulysses in particular is set with precision in the alleyways of the city. Shortly after the publication of Ulysses, he elucidated this preoccupation somewhat, saying, "For myself, I always write about Dublin, because if I can get to the heart of Dublin I can get to the heart of all the cities of the world. In the particular is contained the universal." On 2 February 1882, Joyce was born at 41 Brighton Square, Dublin, Ireland. Joyce's father was John Stanislaus Joyce and his mother was Mary Jane "May" Murray, he was the eldest of ten surviving siblings. James was baptised according to the Rites of the Catholic Church in the nearby St Joseph's Church in Terenure on 5 February 1882 by Rev. John O'Mulloy. Joyce's godparents were Ellen McCann. John Stanislaus Joyce's family came from Fermoy in County Cork, had owned a small salt and lime works.
Joyce's paternal grandfather, James Augustine Joyce, married Ellen O'Connell, daughter of John O'Connell, a Cork Alderman who owned a drapery business and other properties in Cork City. Ellen's family claimed kinship with Daniel O'Connell, "The Liberator"; the Joyce family's purported ancestor, Seán Mór Seoighe was a stonemason from Connemara. In 1887, his father was appointed rate collector by Dublin Corporation. Around this time Joyce was attacked by leading to his lifelong cynophobia, he suffered from astraphobia. In 1891 Joyce wrote a poem on the death of Charles Stewart Parnell, his father was angry at the treatment of Parnell by the Catholic Church, the Irish Home Rule Party and the British Liberal Party and the resulting collaborative failure to secure Home Rule for Ireland. The Irish Party had dropped Parnell from leadership, but the Vatican's role in allying with the British Conservative Party to prevent Home Rule left a lasting impression on the young Joyce. The elder Joyce had the poem printed and sent a part to the Vatican Library.
In November, John Joyce was suspended from work. In 1893, John Joyce was dismissed with a pension, beginning the family's slide into poverty caused by his drinking and financial mismanagement. Joyce had begun his education at Clongowes Wood College, a Jesuit boarding school near Clane, County Kildare, in 1888 but had to leave in 1892 when his father could no longer pay the fees. Joyce studied at home and at the Christian Brothers O'Connell School on North Richmond Street, before he was offered a place in the Jesuits' Dublin school, Belvedere College, in 1893; this came about because of a chance meeting his father had with a Jesuit priest called John Conmee who knew the family and Joyce was given a reduction in fees to attend Belvedere. In 1895, now aged 13, was elected to join the Sodality of Our Lady by his peers at Belvedere; the philosophy of Thomas Aquinas continued to have a strong influence on him for most of his life. Joyce enrolled at the established University College Dublin in 1898, studying English and Italian.
He became active in literary circles in the city. In 1900 his laudatory review of Henrik Ibsen's When We Dead Awaken was published in The Fortnightly Review. Joyce wrote a number of at least two plays during this period. Many of the friends he made at University College Dublin appeared as characters in Joyce's works, his closest colleagues included leading figures of the generation, most notably, Tom Kettle, Francis Sheehy-Skeffington and Oliver St. John Gogarty. Joyce was first introduced to the Irish public by Arthur Griffith in his newspaper, United Irishman, in November 1901. Joyce had written an article on the Irish Literary Theatre and his college magazine refused to print it. Joyce had it distributed locally. Griffith himself wrote a piece decrying the censorship of the student James Joyce. In 1901, the National Census of Ireland lists James Joyce as an English- and Irish-speaking scholar living with his mother and father, six sisters and three brothers at Royal Terrace (now Inverness Ro
Boudinnt-m are various kinds of sausage in French, Belgian, Quebec, Aostan, Surinamese Creole and Cajun cuisine. The Anglo-Norman word boudin meant ` blood sausage' or ` entrails' in general, its origin is unclear. It has been traced both to Romance and to Germanic roots; the English word "pudding" comes from boudin. Boudin ball: A Cajun variation on boudin blanc. Instead of the fillings being stuffed into pork casings, it is rolled into a ball and deep-fried. Boudin blanc: A white sausage made of pork without the blood. Pork liver and heart meat are included. In Cajun versions, the sausage is made from a pork rice dressing, stuffed into pork casings. Rice is always used in Cajun cuisine, whereas the French/Belgian version uses milk, is therefore more delicate than the Cajun variety. In French/Belgian cuisine, the sausage is grilled; the Louisiana version is simmered or braised, although coating with oil and slow grilling for tailgating is becoming a popular option in Lafayette, New Orleans, Lake Charles, Baton Rouge.
Boudin blanc de Rethel (pronounced: a traditional French boudin, which may only contain pork meat, fresh whole eggs and milk, cannot contain any breadcrumbs or flours/starches. It is protected under EU law with a PGI status. Boudin noir: A dark-hued blood sausage, containing pork, pig blood, other ingredients. Variants of the boudin noir occur in French, Belgian and Catalan cuisine; the Catalan version of the boudin noir is called botifarra negra. In the French Caribbean, it is known as boudin Créole. In Britain a similar sausage is called "black pudding", the word "pudding" being an anglicized pronunciation of boudin, introduced after the Norman invasion. Boudin rouge: In Louisiana cuisine, a sausage similar to boudin blanc, but with pork blood added to it; this originated from the French boudin noir. Boudin valdôtain: with beetroot, spices and beef or pork blood, in the French-speaking Aosta Valley of Italy. Crawfish boudin: Popular in Cajun cuisine, crawfish boudin is made with the meat of crawfish tails added to rice.
It is served with cracklins and saltine crackers, hot sauce, ice-cold beer. Gator boudin: Made from alligator, gator boudin can be found sporadically in Louisiana and the Mississippi gulf coast. Shrimp Boudin: Similar to crawfish boudin, shrimp boudin is made by adding the shrimp to rice, it is great for appetizers or party food served in thin slices. Bloedworst: In Surinamese Creole culture, bloedworst is made with pig blood, onions and breadcrumbs. Though spices and herbs may vary, the texture is smooth and soft of a melted-like consistency. After filling the pork casing, it is put into a large cooking pot and cooked in water with spices and herbs like onions and Chinese celery, it is served with vleesworst and fladder, all cooked in the herbed and spiced broth. If the customer so wishes, it is eaten with a puréed pepper mixture. Most the Madame Jeanette is used. Boudin gave rise to "Le Boudin", the official march of the French Foreign Legion. "Blood sausage" is a colloquial reference to the gear that used to top the backpacks of Legionnaires.
The song makes repeated reference to the fact that the Belgians don't get any "blood sausage", since the King of the Belgians at one time forbade his subjects from joining the Legion. Black pudding Blood sausage White pudding
Blancmange is a sweet dessert made with milk or cream and sugar thickened with gelatin, corn starch or Irish moss, flavoured with almonds. It is set in a mould and served cold. Although traditionally white, blancmanges are given alternative colours; some similar desserts are French chef Marie-Antoine Carême's Bavarian cream, Italy's panna cotta, China's annin tofu, Turkey's muhallebi, Hawaiʻi's haupia and Puerto Rico's tembleque. The historical blancmange originated some time in the Middle Ages and consisted of capon or chicken, milk or almond milk and sugar and was considered to be an ideal food for the sick. Tavuk göğsü is a sweet contemporary Turkish pudding made with shredded chicken, similar to the medieval European dish; the true origin of the blancmange is obscure, but it is believed by some that it was a result of the Arab introduction of rice and almonds in early medieval Europe. However, there is no evidence of the existence of any similar Arab dishes from that period. Variants of the dish appear in numerous European cultures with related names including biancomangiare in Italy and manjar blanco in Spain.
Additionally, related or similar dishes have existed in other areas of Europe under different names, such as the 13th-century Danish hwit moos, the Anglo-Norman blanc desirree. The oldest recipe found so far for blancmange is from a copy of the oldest extant Danish cookbook, written by Henrik Harpestræng, who died in 1244, which dates it to the early 13th century at the latest; the Danish work may be a translation of a German cookbook, believed to have been based on a Latin or Romance vernacular manuscript from the 12th century or earlier. The "whitedish" was an upper-class dish common to most of Europe during the Middle Ages and early modern period, it occurs in countless variations from recipe collections from all over Europe and was one of the few international dishes of medieval and early modern Europe. It is mentioned in the prologue to Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and in an early 15th-century cookbook written by the chefs of Richard II; the basic ingredients were milk or almond milk and shredded chicken or fish combined with rosewater and rice flour and mixed into a bland stew.
Almond milk and fish were used as substitutes for the other animal products on Lent. It was often flavoured with spices like saffron or cinnamon and the chicken could be exchanged for various types of fowl, like quail or partridge. Spices were used in recipes of the Middle Ages since they were considered prestigious. On festive occasions and among the upper classes, whitedishes were rendered more festive by various colouring agents: the reddish-golden yellow of saffron. In 14th-century France, parti-colouring, the use of two bright contrasting colours on the same plate, was popular and was described by Guillaume Tirel, one of the primary authors of the editions of Le Viandier; the brightly coloured whitedishes were one of the most common of the early entremets, edibles that were intended to entertain and delight through a gaudy appearance, as much as through flavour. In the 17th century, the durian was compared to the blanc-mangé by Alexandre de Rhodes: il est plein d'une liqueur blanche, épaisse & sucrée: elle est entierement semblable au blanc-mangé, qu'on sert aux meilleures tables de France.
In the 19th century and cornflour were added, the dish evolved into the modern blancmange. The word blancmange derives from Old French blanc mangier; the name "whitedish" is a modern term used by some historians, though the name was either a direct translation from or a calque of the Old French term. Many different local or regional terms were used for the dish in the Middle Ages: English: blancmanger, blank maunger, blamang Catalan: menjar blanch, menjar blanc, menjablanc Portuguese: manjar branco Italian: mangiare bianco, blanmangieri, bramangere Spanish: manjar blanco Dutch/Flemish: blanc mengier German: Blamensir Latin: albus cibus, esus albusThough it is certain that the etymology is indeed "white dish", medieval sources are not always consistent as to the actual colour of the dish. Food scholar Terence Scully has proposed the alternative etymology of bland mangier, "bland dish", reflecting its mild and "dainty" taste and popularity as a sick dish. Annin tofu Custard Flummery Maja blanca Medieval cuisine Food in the Middle Ages: A Book of Essays edited by Melitta Weiss Adamson ISBN 0-8153-1345-4 Ossa, Germán Patiño.
Fogón de negros: cocina y cultura en una región latinoamericana. Scully, The Art of Cookery in the Middle Ages. ISBN 0-85115-611-8 Blanc-Manger: A Journey Through Time More Intelligent Life article
Blood as food
Many cultures consume blood as food in combination with meat. The blood may be in the form of blood sausage, as a thickener for sauces, a cured salted form for times of food scarcity, or in a blood soup; this is a product from domesticated animals, obtained at a place and time where the blood can run into a container and be swiftly consumed or processed. In many cultures, the animal is slaughtered. In some cultures, blood is a taboo food. Blood is the most important byproduct of slaughtering, it consists predominantly of protein and water, is sometimes called "liquid meat" because its composition is similar to that of lean meat. Blood collected hygienically can be used for human consumption, otherwise it is converted to blood meal. Special fractions of animal blood are used in human medicine. Blood sausage is any sausage made by cooking animal blood with a filler until it is thick enough to congeal when cooled. Pig or cattle blood is most used. Typical fillers include meat, suet, rice and oatmeal.
Varieties include biroldo, black pudding, blood tongue, drisheen, morcilla, mustamakkara, sundae and many types of boudin. Blood pancakes are encountered in Galicia and the Baltic. Blood soups and stews, which use blood as part of the broth, include czernina, haejangguk, pig's organ soup, tiet canh and svartsoppa. Blood is used as a thickener in sauces, such as coq au vin or pressed duck, puddings, such as tiết canh, it can provide color for meat, as in cabidela. Blood can be used as a solid ingredient, either by allowing it to congeal before use, or by cooking it to accelerate the process. Blood curd is a dish found in Asia that consists of cooled and hardened animal blood. In China, "blood tofu" is most made with pig's or duck's blood, although chicken's or cow's blood may be used; the blood is allowed to congeal and cut into rectangular pieces and cooked. This dish is known in Java as saren, made with chicken's or pig's blood. Blood tofu is found in curry mee as well as Mao Xue Wang. Chinese people use pig blood and vegetables to make a healthy soup.
Pig blood is rich in vitamin B2, vitamin C, iron, calcium and other nutrients, while tofu is good for the liver and stomach, therefore this soup has a reputation as a healthy and tasty meal in China. In Hungary when a pig is slaughtered in the morning, the blood is fried with onions and served for breakfast. In Korea, blood curd is made of cattle blood and is used as an ingredient for different kinds of soups and stews, such as hangover soup. In Tibet, congealed yak's blood is a traditional food. In Vietnamese cuisine pig blood curd is used in soup based noodles dishes such as Bún bò Huế or Bánh canh. In some cases, blood is used as an ingredient without any additional preparation. Raw blood is not consumed by itself, but may be used as an addition to drinks or other dishes. One example is the drinking of seal blood, traditionally believed by the Inuit to bring health benefits; the USSR and ex-USSR countries produce sweet nutrition bars containing cattle blood, known under the generic name Hematogen.
The Catholic Church, as well as the Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, some Anglican churches, believe that in the sacrament of the Eucharist, the participants consume the real blood and body of Jesus Christ. The post-communion prayer of the 1662 Anglican Book of Common Prayer describes the meal as "spiritual food". Many other Christian denominations symbolically consume the Eucharist. However, nowhere in Christianity is the drink consumed at the Eucharist actual blood among denominations believing in transsubstantiation; the liquid consumed is wine or grape juice. The consumption of actual blood is in fact forbidden according to the book of Leviticus, part of both Jewish and Christian holy scriptures; the "words of institution", which includes the words Jesus said to his Disciples at the Last Supper, would have been surprising and unsettling to those present for this reason as the Last Supper was a Passover seder. The ban on consumption of blood by Christians was affirmed after Jesus' death by the Apostolic Decree, chronicled in the Acts of the Apostles.
Some cultures consider blood to be a taboo form of food. In Abrahamic religions and Muslim cultures forbid the consumption of blood. Blood and its by-products are forbidden in Islam, in the Qurʼan, surah 5, al-Maʼidah, verse 3. In the New Testament, blood was forbidden by the Apostolic Decree and is still forbidden among Greek Orthodox. See Biblical law in Christianity and Communion; the Igbo ethnic group of Nigeria has no explicit prohibitions against eating blood, but most regard it with disgust and refuse to eat any meat perceived as "bloody" or undercooked. Goats and other animals slaughtered in the traditional Igbo manner are dispatched with a single cut across the neck and most or all of the blood is allowed to drain from the wound; this practice may have been influenced by the Igbo Jewish community that predates contact with Europe. Many Igbos who buy butchered, packaged meat from groceries and supermarkets are in the habit of washing the blood from the meat with water before preparing it.
The taboos may be rooted in the fact that consuming greater quantities