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White tiger

The white tiger or bleached tiger is a pigmentation variant of the Bengal tiger, reported in the wild from time to time in the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar,and Odisha in the Sunderbans region and in the former State of Rewa. Such a tiger has the black stripes typical of the Bengal tiger, but carries a white or near-white coat; the white Bengal tigers are distinctive due to the color of their fur. The white fur caused by a lack of the pigment pheomelanin, found in Bengal tigers with orange color fur; when compared to Bengal tigers, the white Bengal tigers tend to grow faster and heavier than the orange Bengal tiger. They tend to be somewhat bigger at birth, as grown adults. White Bengal tigers are grown when they are 2–3 years of age. White male tigers can grow up to 3 meters in length; as with all tigers, the white Bengal tiger’s stripes are like fingerprints, with no two tigers having the same pattern. The stripes of the tiger are a pigmentation of the skin. For a white Bengal tiger to be born, both parents must carry the unusual gene for white colouring, which only happens about once in 10,000 births.

Dark-striped white individuals are well-documented in the Bengal tiger subspecies as well as having been reported in several other subspecies. Several hundred white tigers are in captivity worldwide, with about one hundred being found in India, their unique white color fur has made them popular in entertainment showcasing exotic animals, at zoos. An additional genetic condition can remove most of the striping of a white tiger, making the animal pure white. One such specimen was exhibited at Exeter Change in England in 1820, described by Georges Cuvier as "A white variety of Tiger is sometimes seen, with the stripes opaque, not to be observed except in certain angles of light." Naturalist Richard Lydekker said that, "a white tiger, in which the fur was of a creamy tint, with the usual stripes faintly visible in certain parts, was exhibited at the old menagerie at Exeter Change about the year 1820." Hamilton Smith said, "A wholly white tiger, with the stripe-pattern visible only under reflected light, like the pattern of a white tabby cat, was exhibited in the Exeter Change Menagerie in 1820.", John George Wood stated that, "a creamy white, with the ordinary tigerine stripes so faintly marked that they were only visible in certain lights."

Edwin Henry Landseer drew this tigress in 1824. The modern strain of snow white tigers came from repeated brother–sister matings of Bhim and Sumita at Cincinnati Zoo; the gene involved may have come from their part-Siberian ancestor Tony. Continued inbreeding appears to have caused a recessive gene for stripelessness to show up. About one fourth of Bhim and Sumita's offspring were stripeless, their striped white offspring, which have been sold to zoos around the world, may carry the stripeless gene. Because Tony's genome is present in many white tiger pedigrees, the gene may be present in other captive white tigers; as a result, stripeless white tigers have appeared in zoos as far afield as the Czech Republic and Mexico. Stage magicians Siegfried & Roy were the first to attempt to selectively breed tigers for stripelessness. In 2004, a blue-eyed, stripeless white tiger was born in a wildlife refuge in Spain, its parents are normal orange Bengals. The cub was named "Artico". A white tiger's pale coloration is due to the lack of the red and yellow pheomelanin pigments that produce the orange coloration.

This had long been thought to be due to a mutation in the gene for the tyrosinase enzyme. A knockout mutation in this gene results in albinism, the inability to make either pheomelanin or eumelanin, while a less severe mutation in the same gene in other mammals results in selective loss of pheomelanin, the so-called Chinchilla trait; the white phenotype in tigers had been attributed to such a Chinchilla mutation in tyrosinase, in the past white tigers were sometimes referred to as'partial albinos'. However, whole genome sequencing of normal and white tigers demonstrated instead that a naturally-occurring point mutation in the SLC45A2 gene is responsible; the resultant single amino acid substitution introduces an alanine residue that protrudes into the transport protein's central passageway blocking it, by a mechanism yet to be determined this prevents pheomelanin expression in the fur. Mutations in the same gene are known to underlie the cream coloration of horses, play a role in the paler skin of humans of European descent.

This is a recessive trait, meaning that it is only seen in individuals that are homozygous for this mutation, but that white tigers can be bred from any colored Bengal tiger pair each possessing the unique mutation. Inbreeding promotes recessive traits and has been used as a strategy to produce white tigers in captivity, but this has resulted in a range of other genetic defects; the stripe color varies due to the interaction of other genes. Another genetic characteristic makes the stripes of the tiger pale. White tigers, Siamese cats, Himalayan rabbits have enzymes in their fur which react to temperature, causing them to grow darker in the cold. A white tiger named Mohin

Dartmouth Big Green women's basketball

The Dartmouth Big Green women's basketball team is the intercollegiate women's basketball program representing Dartmouth College. The school competes in the Ivy League in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association; the Big Green play home basketball games at the Leede Arena near the campus. As of the 2015–16 season, the Big Green have a 571–506 record, with a 326–189 record in the Ivy League, they have won the Ivy League 17 times. Dartmouth is 5–2 in playoffs to determine the automatic bid to the NCAA Tournament, winning 66–49 over Princeton in 1999, beating Harvard 75–61 in 2005, beating Brown 73–62 and Princeton 63–48 and winning over Harvard 68–62 in the first game of a three-way tie in 2008 while losing to Brown 72–62 in 1994 and losing to Cornell 64–47 in 2008 in the final game; the Big Green have reached the NCAA Tournament seven times, though they have lost each time. In seven NCAA Tournament appearances, the Big Green are 0–7; the Big Green are 0–2 in WNIT appearances. Official website


K-25 was the codename given by the Manhattan Project to the program to produce enriched uranium for atomic bombs using the gaseous diffusion method. The codename for the product, over time it came to refer to the project, the production facility located at the Clinton Engineer Works in Oak Ridge, the main gaseous diffusion building, the site; when it was built in 1944, the four-story K-25 gaseous diffusion plant was the world's largest building, comprising over 1,640,000 square feet of floor space and a volume of 97,500,000 cubic feet. Gaseous diffusion is based on Graham's law, which states that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular mass; the corrosive uranium hexafluoride was the only known compound of uranium sufficiently volatile to be used in this process. Before this could be done, the Special Alloyed Materials Laboratories at Columbia University and the Kellex Corporation had to overcome formidable difficulties to develop a suitable barrier.

Construction of the K-25 facility was undertaken by J. A. Jones Construction. At the height of construction, over 25,000 workers were employed on the site. Gaseous diffusion was but one of three enrichment technologies used by the Manhattan Project. Enriched product from the S-50 thermal diffusion plant was fed into the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant, its product in turn was fed into the Y-12 electromagnetic plant. The enriched uranium was used in the Little Boy atomic bomb used in the atomic bombing of Hiroshima. In 1946, the K-25 gaseous diffusion plant became capable of producing enriched product. After the war, four more gaseous diffusion plants named K-27, K-29, K-31 and K-33 were added to the site; the K-25 site was renamed the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant in 1955. Production of enriched uranium ended in 1964, gaseous diffusion ceased on the site on 27 August 1985; the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant was renamed the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in 1989, the East Tennessee Technology Park in 1996.

Demolition of all five gaseous diffusion plants was completed in February 2017. The discovery of the neutron by James Chadwick in 1932, followed by that of nuclear fission in uranium by the German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann in 1938, its theoretical explanation by Lise Meitner and Otto Frisch soon after, opened up the possibility of a controlled nuclear chain reaction with uranium. At the Pupin Laboratories at Columbia University, Enrico Fermi and Leo Szilard began exploring how this might be achieved. Fears that a German atomic bomb project would develop atomic weapons first among scientists who were refugees from Nazi Germany and other fascist countries, were expressed in the Einstein-Szilard letter to the President of the United States, Franklin D. Roosevelt; this prompted Roosevelt to initiate preliminary research in late 1939. Niels Bohr and John Archibald Wheeler applied the liquid drop model of the atomic nucleus to explain the mechanism of nuclear fission; as the experimental physicists studied fission, they uncovered puzzling results.

George Placzek asked Bohr why uranium seemed to fission with both slow neutrons. Walking to a meeting with Wheeler, Bohr had an insight that the fission at low energies was due to the uranium-235 isotope, while at high energies it was due to the far more abundant uranium-238 isotope; the former makes up just 0.714 percent of the uranium atoms in natural uranium, about one in every 140. There is a tiny amount of uranium-234, which accounts for just 0.006 percent. At Columbia, John R. Dunning believed this was the case; the only way to settle this was to test it. He got Alfred O. C. Nier from the University of Minnesota to prepare samples of uranium enriched in uranium-234, 235 and 238 using a mass spectrometer; these were ready in February 1940, Dunning, Eugene T. Booth and Aristid von Grosse carried out a series of experiments, they demonstrated that uranium-235 was indeed responsible for fission with slow neutrons, but were unable to determine precise neutron capture cross sections because their samples were not sufficiently enriched.

At the University of Birmingham in Britain, the Australian physicist Mark Oliphant assigned two refugee physicists—Otto Frisch and Rudolf Peierls—the task of investigating the feasibility of an atomic bomb because their status as enemy aliens precluded their working on secret projects like radar. Their March 1940 Frisch–Peierls memorandum indicated that the critical mass of uranium-235 was within an order of magnitude of 10 kilograms, small enough to be carried by a bomber of the day. In April 1940, Jesse Beams, Ross Gunn, Nier, Merle Tuve and Harold Urey had a meeting at the American Physical Society in Washington, D. C. At the time, the prospect of building an atomic bomb seemed dim, creating a chain reaction would require enriched uranium, they therefore recommended that research be conducted with the aim of developing the means to separate kilogram amounts of uranium-235. At a lunch on 21 May 1940, George B. Kistiakowsky suggested the possibility of using gaseous diffusion. Gaseous diffusion is based on Graham's law, which states that the rate of effusion of a gas through a porous barrier is inversely proportional to the square root of the gas's molecular mass.

In a container with a porous barrier containing a mixture of two gases, the lighter molecules will pass out of the container more than the heavier molecules. The gas leaving the container is enriched in the lighter molecules, while the residual gas is depleted. A container wherein the enrichme

Rebecca Jordan-Young

Rebecca M. Jordan-Young, is an American sociomedical scientist whose research focuses on sex and sexuality, as well as the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS, she is the Tow Associate Professor for Distinguished Scholars and the Chair of the Department of Women's, Gender and Sexuality Studies at Barnard College. Jordan-Young completed her undergraduate work at Bryn Mawr College, she earned her master's degree and Ph. D. from Columbia University. Jordan-Young was a principal investigator and deputy director of the Social Theory Core at the Center for Drug Use and HIV Research of the National Development and Research Institutes, she has served as a health disparities scholar sponsored by the National Institutes of Health. In 2008, Jordan-Young was a visiting scholar in cognitive neuroscience at the International School for Advanced Studies, she is the author of Brain Storm: The Flaws in the Science of Sex Differences, a critical analysis of scientific research supporting the theory that psychological sex differences in humans are "hard-wired" into the brain.

Jordan-Young argues that studies of “human brain organization theory,” fail to meet scientific standards. In Out of Bounds? A Critique of the New Policies on Hyperandrogenism in Elite Female Athletes, a collaborative article with Katrina Karkazis, Georgiann Davis, Silvia Camporesi, published in 2012 in the American Journal of Bioethics, the authors argue that a new sex testing policy by the International Association of Athletics Federations aimed at intersex women athletes will not protect against breaches of privacy, will require athletes to undergo unnecessary treatment in order to compete, will intensify "gender policing", they recommend. In 2016, Jordan-Young was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship to work on a book on testosterone, "T: The Unauthorized Biography", with co-author Katrina Karkazis. Brain Storm: The Flaws in the Science of Sex Differences. Harvard University Press. October 2011. ISBN 9780674063518. Karkazis, Katrina. "The Powers of Testosterone: Obscuring Race and Regional Bias in the Regulation of Women Athletes".

Feminist Formations. 30: 1–39. Doi:10.1353/ff.2018.0017. Retrieved 2018-08-17. Jordan-Young, Rebecca. "Letter to the Editor | Journal of Neuroscience research policy on addressing sex as a biological variable: Comments and elaborations". Journal of Neuroscience Research. Wiley. 95: 1357–1359. Doi:10.1002/jnr.24045. PMID 28225166. Jordan-Young, Rebecca. "Debating a testosterone "sex gap"". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 348: 858–886. Bibcode:2015Sci...348..858K. Doi:10.1126/science.aab1057. PMID 25999490. Jordan-Young, Rebecca. "Reaction to "Equal ≠ The Same: Sex Differences in the Human Brain"". Cerebrum. Dana Foundation. 2014. See also: Cahill, Larry. "Equal ≠ The Same: Sex Differences in the Human Brain". Cerebrum. Dana Foundation. 2014: 5. PMC 4087190. PMID 25009695. Jordan-Young, Rebecca. "Recommendations for sex/gender neuroimaging research: key principles and implications for research design and interpretation". Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. Frontiers. 8: 650. Doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00650.

PMC 4147717. PMID 25221493. Jordan-Young, Rebecca. "Sex and athletes". BMJ. BMA. 348: g2926. Doi:10.1136/bmj.g2926. PMID 24776640. Jordan-Young, Rebecca. "Plasticity, plasticity…and the rigid problem of sex". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. Elsevier. 17: 550–551. Doi:10.1016/j.tics.2013.08.010. PMID 24176517. Jordan-Young, Rebecca. "Hardwired for sexism? Approaches to sex/gender in neuroscience". Neuroethics. Springer. 5: 305–315. Doi:10.1007/s12152-011-9134-4. Jordan-Young, Rebecca. "Out of Bounds? A Critique of the New Policies on Hyperandrogenism in Elite Female Athletes". American Journal of Bioethics. 12: 3–16. Doi:10.1080/15265161.2012.680533. PMC 5152729. PMID 22694023. Jordan-Young, Rebecca. "Hormones, "Brain Gender": A review of evidence from congenital adrenal hyperplasia". Social Science & Medicine. 74: 1738–1744. Doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.08.026. PMID 21962724. Karkazis, Katrina. "The testosterone rule targets global south athletes like Caster Semenya". The Guardian. Retrieved 2018-08-17. Karkazis, Katrina. "The Trouble With Too Much T".

The New York Times. Retrieved 21 May 2016. Karkazis, Katrina. "You Say You're a Woman? That Should Be Enough"; the New York Times. Rebecca Jordan-Young via Barnard College


An athlete is a person who competes in one or more sports that involve physical strength, speed or endurance. The use of the term in sports such as golf or auto racing is somewhat controversial. Athletes may be amateurs. Most professional athletes have well-developed physiques obtained by extensive physical training and strict exercise accompanied by a strict dietary regimen; the word "athlete" is a romanization of the Greek: άθλητὴς, athlētēs, one who participates in a contest. The primary definition of "sportsman" according to Webster's Third Unabridged Dictionary is, "a person, active in sports: as: one who engages in the sports of the field and in hunting or fishing." Athletes involved in isotonic exercises have an increased mean left ventricular end-diastolic volume and are less to be depressed. Due to their strenuous physical activities, athletes are far more than the general population to visit massage salons and pay for services from massotherapists and masseurs. Athletes whose sport requires endurance more than strength have a lower calorie intake than other athletes.

An "all-round athlete" is a person. Examples of people who played more than one sport professionally include Jim Thorpe, Lionel Conacher, Deion Sanders, Danny Ainge, Babe Zaharias and Erin Phillips. Others include Ricky Williams, Bo Jackson, Damon Allen, each of whom was drafted both by Major League Baseball and by professional gridiron football leagues such as the NFL and the CFL. Another female example is Heather Moyse, a multiple Winter Olympic gold medalist in bobsled and member of the World Rugby Hall of Fame who represented Canada internationally in track cycling and competed at university level in basketball and track and field. Japanese athletes such as Kazushi Sakuraba, Kazuyuki Fujita, Masakatsu Funaki and Naoya Ogawa have performed in professional wrestling and competed in mixed martial arts; the title of "World's Greatest Athlete" traditionally belongs to the world's top competitor in the decathlon and heptathlon in track and field. The decathlon consists of 10 events: 100 meters, long jump, shot put, high jump, 400 meters, 110 m hurdles, pole vault, 1500 m.

The heptathlon consists of seven events: the 100 m hurdles, high jump, shot put, 200 meters, long jump, 800 meters. These competitions require an athlete to possess the whole spectrum of athletic ability in order to be successful including speed, coordination, jumping ability, endurance. Although the title "World's Greatest Athlete" seems a natural fit for these two events, its traditional association with the decathlon/heptathlon began with Jim Thorpe. During the 1912 Olympics in Stockholm, Thorpe won the gold medal in the Decathlon. Thorpe competed professionally in baseball, American football, basketball. King Gustav V of Sweden, while awarding Thorpe the decathlon gold said: "You, are the greatest athlete in the world." That title has been associated with the decathlon event since. Sportswear Outdoor enthusiast Jock Athlete of the Year Women's sports

Khanderao Holkar

Khanderao Holkar, was the only son of Malhar Rao Holkar the founder of Holkar dynasty of Indore, born from Gautama Bai. He was heir apparent to his father from 20 January 1734. Khanderao had 10 wives. Ahilyabai Holkar was his first wife, he had a daughter. Ahilyabai influenced his thinking and mended his wayward nature by repeating her statecraft and training lessons to him and told him stories from the epics. In 1754, on behest of Mughal Emperor Ahmad Shah Bahadur's Mir Bakhshi Imad-ul-Mulk, Khanderao laid the seize of Kumher fort of Jat Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur State who had sided with Ahmad Shah's adversary Safdar Jang. Khanderao was inspecting his troops on an open palanquin in the battle of Kumher when was hit and killed by a cannonball from the Jat army. In Khanderao's honor, Jat Maharaja Suraj Mal built a chattri, in Hindu style of architecture, on his cremation spot at Kumher near Deeg. After his death in 1754, 9 of his 10 wives committed sati but his father Malhar Rao prevented his first wife Ahilya Bai from committing sati.

Malhar Rao died in 12 years after the death of his son Khanderao. Malhar Rao's grandson and Khanderao's young son Male Rao Holkar became the ruler of Indore in 1766, under the regentship of Ahilyabai, but he too died within few months in 1767. Ahilyabai became the ruler of Indore after the death of her son with Khanderao. Holkar