A white wedding is a traditional formal or semi-formal wedding originating in Great Britain. The term originates from the white colour of the wedding dress, which first became popular with Victorian era elites after Queen Victoria wore a white lace dress at her wedding; the term now encapsulates the entire Western wedding routine in the Christian religious tradition, which includes a ceremony during which the marriage begins, followed by a reception. Though Mary, Queen of Scots, wore a white wedding gown in 1559 when she married her first husband, Francis Dauphin of France, the tradition of a white wedding dress is credited to Queen Victoria's choice to wear a white court dress at her wedding to Prince Albert in 1840. Debutantes had long been required to wear white court dresses for their first presentation at court, at a "Drawing Room" where they were introduced to the queen for the first time. Royal brides before Victoria did not wear white, instead choosing "heavy brocaded gowns embroidered with white and silver thread," with red being a popular colour in Western Europe more generally.
European and American brides had been wearing a plethora of colours, including blue and practical colours like black, brown, or gray. As accounts of Victoria's wedding spread across the Atlantic and throughout Europe, elites followed her lead. After Queen Victoria's and Prince Albert's wedding, the color white resembled wealth and social status; because of the limitations of laundering techniques before the part of the 20th century, white dresses provided an opportunity for conspicuous consumption. They were favored as a way to show the world that the bride's family was so wealthy and so part of the leisure class that the bride would choose an elaborate dress that could be ruined by any sort of work or spill. Although women were required to wear veils in many churches through at least the 19th century, the resurgence of the wedding veil as a symbol of the bride, its use when not required by the bride's religion, coincided with societal emphasis on women being modest and well-behaved. Etiquette books began to turn the practice into a tradition and the white gown soon became a popular symbol of status that carried "a connotation of innocence and virginal purity."
The story put out about the wedding veil was that decorous brides were too timid to show their faces in public until they were married. By the end of the 19th century the white dress was the garment of choice for elite brides on both sides of the Atlantic. However, middle-class British and American brides did not adopt the trend until after World War II. With increased prosperity in the 20th century, the tradition grew to include the practice of wearing the dress only once; as historian Vicky Howard writes, "f a bride wore white in the nineteenth century, it was acceptable and that she wore her gown again". Queen Victoria had her famous lace wedding dress re-styled for use; the portrayal of weddings in Hollywood movies immediately after World War II, helped crystallize and homogenize the white wedding into a normative form. The white wedding style was given another significant boost in 1981, when three-quarter billion people—one out of six people around the globe—watched Charles, Prince of Wales marry Diana Spencer in her elaborate white taffeta dress with a 25-foot-long train.
This wedding is considered the most influential white wedding of the 20th century. The traditional white wedding wasn't defined by the color of the dress only; the wedding of Queen Victoria's daughter Victoria, to Prince Fredrick William of Prussia in 1858 introduced choral music to the processional when standard practice had been to have music of any kind only during a party after the wedding ceremony. After World War I, as full-scale formal weddings began to be desired by the mothers of brides who did not have a permanent social secretary, the position of the wedding planner, who could coordinate the printer, florist and seamstress, began to assume importance; the first edition of Bride's Magazine was published in 1934 as a newspaper advertising insert called "So You're Going to Get Married!" in a column titled "To the Bride", its rival Modern Bride began publishing in 1949. Today a whole industry surrounds the provision of such weddings; the full white wedding experience today requires the family to arrange for or purchase printed or engraved wedding invitations, decorations such as flowers or candles and flowers for bridesmaids, groomsmen, a flower girl, a ring bearer.
They may add optional features, such as a guest book or commemorative wedding leaflets. It is common to have a celebration after the wedding ceremony featuring a large white wedding cake. A subtle shift in the requirements for a wedding can be detected in the modern blurb for Emily Post's Weddings "creating a wedding experience that demonstrates the bride and groom's commitment and uniqueness." "Uniqueness" is a modern addition to a wedding's requirements. Traditional weddings require, in addition to the bride and groom, a marriage officiant, a minister, rabbi, imam, or civil officer, authorized to perform marriages. Typical white weddings include a wedding party, which consists of some or all of the following: Groomsmen or ushers: One or more friends or family members who assist the groom men; the chief groomsman is called the best man, is given a place of honor. A woman is called an honor attendant. Bridesmaids: One or more friends or family members who support the bride; the chief bridesmaid may be called a maid of matron of honor.
A girl too young to be marriageable, bu
Moloney's mimic bat is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in Angola, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Guinea, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Togo and Zambia, it is found in subtropical or tropical dry or moist forests, subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests and moist savanna
Princess Isabella de Ligne de La Trémoïlle is an Italian actress. By marriage, she is a member of the House of a Belgian noble family. Orsini married in a civil ceremony on 2 September 2009 and in a religious ceremony on 5 September 2009, to Prince Édouard Lamoral Rodolphe de Ligne de La Trémoïlle, at Antoing Castle in the Hainaut province of Belgium; the couple's first child, Princess Althea Isabelle Sophie de Ligne de la Trémoïlle, was born on 12 May 2010 at the private "Villa Mafalda" clinic in Rome. On 9 May 2014, the couple had their second child, Princess Athénaïs Allegra Isabella de Ligne de la Trémoïlle at the American Hospital of Paris. On 10 January 2019, Orsini gave birth to the couple's third child, Prince Antoine Tau Édouard Adrien de Ligne de la Trémoïlle in Paris, France; as Belgium is a monarchy which confers and recognises hereditary titles of nobility, the right of Orsini and her Ligne la Trémoïlle children to the prefix of prince/ss and to the style of Highness is legal—not a courtesy title.
Personal website Isabella Orsini @ ECI Global Talent Isabella Orsini on IMDb
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data. The most used standards are those of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, although these are not universally accepted standards. Other organizations have established a variety of alternative definitions for their standard reference conditions. In chemistry, IUPAC changed the definition of standard temperature and pressure in 1982: Until 1982, STP was defined as a temperature of 273.15 K and an absolute pressure of 1 atm. Since 1982, STP is defined as a temperature of 273.15 K and an absolute pressure of 105 Pa. STP should not be confused with the standard state used in thermodynamic evaluations of the Gibbs energy of a reaction. NIST uses an absolute pressure of 1 atm; this standard is called normal temperature and pressure. The International Standard Metric Conditions for natural gas and similar fluids are 288.15 K and 101.325 kPa.
In industry and commerce, standard conditions for temperature and pressure are necessary to define the standard reference conditions to express the volumes of gases and liquids and related quantities such as the rate of volumetric flow: standard cubic meters per second, normal cubic meters per second. However, many technical publications state "standard conditions" without specifying them. In special cases this can lead to confusion and errors. Good practice always incorporates the reference conditions of pressure. If not stated, some room environment conditions are supposed, close to 1 atm pressure, 293 К, 0% humidity. Before 1918, many professionals and scientists using the metric system of units defined the standard reference conditions of temperature and pressure for expressing gas volumes as being 15 °C and 101.325 kPa. During those same years, the most used standard reference conditions for people using the imperial or U. S. customary systems was 60 °F and 14.696 psi because it was universally used by the oil and gas industries worldwide.
The above definitions are no longer the most used in either system of units. Many different definitions of standard reference conditions are being used by organizations all over the world; the table below lists a few of them. Some of these organizations used other standards in the past. For example, IUPAC has, since 1982, defined standard reference conditions as being 0 °C and 100 kPa, in contrast to its old standard of 0 °C and 101.325 kPa. The new value is the mean atmospheric pressure at an altitude of about 112 metres, which closer to the worldwide median altitude of human habitation. Natural gas companies in Europe and South America have adopted 15 °C and 101.325 kPa as their standard gas volume reference conditions, used as the base values for defining the standard cubic meter. The International Organization for Standardization, the United States Environmental Protection Agency and National Institute of Standards and Technology each have more than one definition of standard reference conditions in their various standards and regulations.
Note: This table needs careful checking. For example the American Association of Physicists in Medicine paper quotes a temperature of 22°C, it does not quote a Fahrenheit equivalent. The correct Fahrenheit equivalent is 71.6°F, not 72°F as stated in the table. Abbreviations: EGIA: Electricity and Gas Inspection Act SATP: Standard Ambient Temperature and Pressure SCF: Standard Cubic Foot In aeronautics and fluid dynamics the "International Standard Atmosphere" is a specification of pressure, temperature and speed of sound at each altitude; the International Standard Atmosphere is representative of atmospheric conditions at mid latitudes. In the USA this information is specified the U. S. Standard Atmosphere, identical to the "International Standard Atmosphere" at all altitudes up to 65,000 feet above sea level; because many definitions of standard temperature and pressure differ in temperature from standard laboratory temperatures, reference is made to "standard laboratory conditions". However, what is a "standard" laboratory temperature and pressure is geography-bound, given that different parts of the world differ in climate and the degree of use of heat/cooling in the workplace.
For example, schools in New South Wales, Australia use 25 °C at 100 kPa for standard laboratory conditions. ASTM International has published Standard ASTM E41- Terminology Relating to Conditioning and hundreds of special conditions for particular materials and test methods. Other standards organizations have specialized standard test conditions, it is as important to indicate the applicable reference conditions of temperature and pressure when stating the molar volume of a gas as it is when expressing a gas volume or volumetric flow rate. Stating the molar volume of a gas without indic
Markethill High School is a secondary school located in Markethill, County Armagh, Northern Ireland. The school caters for 11- to 16-year-olds and has 490 pupils, it is within the Southern Library Board area. In March 2012 the school won the British Academy Award for the Best Mainstream School for Modern Languages in Northern Ireland. In addition, the school has been shortlisted to the final 3 entries for the Best Mainstream School in the UK for Modern Languages. In January 2012 the school won £4000 to fund a STEM project based on an exciting and creative cross-curricular initiative. In 2011 the school opened a new state-of-the-art fitness suite and gymnasium, open to the public three evenings per week. In 2012 the school's Art and Music Departments will be refurbished and there will be new rugby posts on the Pinley Green site. In 2012 the school received its best GCSE results, with 85% of pupils attaining five A*-C GCSE passes or better; this is an 8% increase on 2011 and the first time the school has achieved over 80%.
The 85% statistic would put the school into the top 6% of all non-selective schools in Northern Ireland, would make it one of the top two performing non-selective controlled schools in the Southern Education and Library Board, with results more than 20% above the Northern Ireland average for non-selective schools. The school opened in 1959, was renovated and extended in 1985. 1959 - 1984 Mr J. McCartney 1984 - 1994 Mr W. G. S. Parr 1994 - 2011 Mr S. J. Loughrey 2011–2018 Mr J. A. Maxwell 2019- present Mr Colin Berry Infosite
Mikayel Nalbandian Shirak State University, is a public university in Gyumri, the capital of Shirak Province, opened in 1934. Shirak State University is the largest educational institute in the northern part of Armenia, it was opened in 1934 as a pedagogical institute during the Soviet, through the efforts of S. Movsisyan. In 2016, the institute was restructured to become the public university of the Shirak Province, it offers 28 bachelor's degrees as well 16 master's degrees. As of 2017, the university has around 6,000 students, it has produced around 80,000 graduates throughout its existence since 1934. In 2014, the university celebrated its 80th anniversary. Shirak State University has its own emblem as well as an anthem written by Sonik Khachatryan and composed by Robert Amirkhanyan; the university complex is located on Paruyr Sevak Street of Ani district at the northwestern suburbs of Gyumri. Leninakan Pedagogical Institute was founded in 1934 as a branch of the Armenian State Pedagogical University.
During the first year of admission, it had around 100 students. The first rector was S. Movsisyan who enrolled best teachers from Gyumri as well as specialists from the capital Yerevan. In 1949, the institute was named after Mikael Nalbandian and functioned as a branch of the Armenian Pedagogical University until 1966, when it was given the status of an independent higher educational institution. After the independence of Armenia in 1991, it became known as the Gyumri State Pedagogical Institute named after Mikael Nalbandian. On December 2, 2016, the institute was restructured and turned into a university foundation being known as Shirak State University named after Mikael Nalbandian. A of 2017, Shirak State University is home to 7 faculties: Faculty of Physics and Economics Faculty of History and Philology Faculty of Biology and Geography Faculty of Foreign Languages Faculty of Pedagogy Faculty of Physical and Preliminary Military Training Faculty of Philosophy and Social sciences Hovhannes Shiraz, notable Armenian poet Samvel Balasanyan, mayor of Gyumri Susanna Amatuni, art critic Official website