A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Rio Hondo (California)
The Rio Hondo is a tributary of the Los Angeles River in Los Angeles County, California 16.4 miles long. As a named river, it begins in Irwindale and flows southwest to its confluence in South Gate, passing through several cities. Above Irwindale its main stem is known as Santa Anita Creek, which extends another 10 miles northwards into the San Gabriel Mountains where the source, or headwaters, of the river are found; the Rio Hondo has sometimes been described as a second channel of the San Gabriel River. For much of its length, the rivers flow parallel to each other about two miles apart. Both rivers pass through the Whittier Narrows, a natural gap in the hills which form the southern boundary of the San Gabriel Valley. Here, both rivers are impounded by the Whittier Narrows Dam, which the Army Corps of Engineers describes as, "the central element of the Los Angeles County Drainage Area flood control system". During major storms, the outlet works at Whittier Narrows Dam can direct water to either channel, or runoff can be stored.
The Rio Hondo and San Gabriel River have both been part of a revitalization program called the Emerald Necklace. The goal of this program is to create a "necklace" of parks and reclaimed wild spaces with the two rivers, they are connected by a narrow strip in Irwindale and by Whittier Narrows to give them the appearance of a necklace if viewed from above. The project garnered broad support from organizations such as the Sierra Club along with the governments of the many cities the rivers pass through. Most of the Rio Hondo is a concrete-lined channel to serve its primary flood control function, but in two places the river flows over open ground: the Peck Road Water Conservation Park, the Whittier Narrows Recreation Area. Large spreading grounds for water conservation surround much of the river, its bike paths are popular; the river passes through the location of the Battle of Rio San Gabriel, fought on January 8, 1847, which resulted in a U. S. victory. Although the battle was fought on west bank of the present-day Rio Hondo near where it is crossed by Washington Blvd, the battle is named after the San Gabriel, which at that time flowed along these banks.
A flood in 1867 caused the San Gabriel to change course. The old San Gabriel was renamed the Rio Hondo after this flood. In Downey, the Rio Hondo was once known as the "Old River", because it was the old course of the San Gabriel River; the Old River School was named for it, Old River School Road was named for the school. The "New River" is the present course of the San Gabriel River; the Rio Hondo College and Rio Hondo Preparatory School were named after the river. From mouth to source: Eaton Wash Rio Hondo College LA Bike Paths: the Rio Hondo Bicycle Path Army Corps of Engineers - Whittier Narrows Dam Rio Hondo Preparatory School
Whittier is a city in Southern California located within Los Angeles County, California. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city had a population of 85,331, reflecting an increase of 1,631 from the 83,680 counted in the 2000 Census, encompasses 14.7 square miles. Like nearby Montebello, the city constitutes part of the Gateway Cities. Whittier was incorporated in February 1898 and became a charter city in 1955; the city is home to Whittier College. Whittier's roots can be traced to Spanish soldier Manuel Nieto. In 1784, Nieto received a Spanish land grant of 300,000 acres, Rancho Los Nietos, as a reward for his military service and to encourage settlement in California; the area of Nieto's land grant was reduced in 1790 as the result of a dispute with Mission San Gabriel. Nonetheless, Nieto still had claim to 167,000 acres stretching from the hills north of Whittier and Brea, south to the Pacific Ocean, from what is known today as the Los Angeles River east to the Santa Ana River. Nieto built a rancho for his family near Whittier, purchased cattle and horses for his ranch and planted cornfields.
When Nieto died in 1804, his children inherited their father's property. At the time of the Mexican–American War, much of the land that would become Whittier was owned by Pio Pico, a rancher and the last Mexican governor of Alta California. Pio Pico built a hacienda here on the San Gabriel River, known today as Pio Pico State Historic Park. Following the Mexican–American War, German immigrant Jacob F. Gerkens paid $234 to the U. S. government to acquire 160 acres of land under the Homestead Act and built the cabin known today as the Jonathan Bailey House. Gerkens would become the first chief of police of the Los Angeles Police Department. Gerkens' land was owned by several others before a group of Quakers purchased it and expanded it to 1,259 acres, with the intent of founding a Quaker community; the area soon became known as a thriving citrus ranching region, with "Quaker Brand" fruit being shipped all over the United States. Walnut trees were planted, Whittier became the largest walnut grower in the United States.
In addition to walnuts and citrus, Whittier was a major producer of pampas grass. For many years, the sole means of transport from this area to Los Angeles was on foot, or via horse and wagon over rough dirt roads, impeding settlement and the export of agriculture, thus in 1887 "enterprising and aggressive businessmen" contracted with the Southern Pacific Railroad to build the first railroad spur to Whittier, including a depot. The businessmen covered the $43,000 construction cost for the six-mile spur, which branched off from the Southern Pacific mainline at a junction near what is now Studebaker Road between Firestone Boulevard and Imperial Highway. By 1906, 650 carloads of oranges and 250 carloads of lemons were shipped annually by rail. In 1904, the Pacific Electric opened the trolley line known as "Big Red Cars" from Los Angeles to Whittier. In the first two decades, over a million passengers a year rode to and from Los Angeles on the Whittier line. Groves of walnuts were planted in 1887 and Whittier was known as the primary walnut growing town in the United States.
After World War II Whittier grew and the sub-dividing of orange groves began, driven by housing shortages in southern California. In 1955 the new Civic Center complex was completed and the City Council met in new chambers for the first time on March 8, 1955; the city continued to grow as the City annexed portions of East Whittier. The 1961 annexation added over 28,000 people to the population, bringing the total to about 67,000. In the founding days of Whittier, when it was a small isolated town, Jonathan Bailey and his wife, were among the first residents, they followed the Quaker religious faith and practice, held religious meetings on their porch. Other early settlers, such as Aquila Pickering, espoused the Quaker faith; as the city grew, the citizens named it after John Greenleaf Whittier, a respected Quaker poet, deeded a lot to him. Whittier wrote a dedication poem, is honored today with statues and a small exhibit at the Whittier museum. Whittier never set foot there, but the city still bears his name and is rooted in the Quaker tradition.
The first Quaker meetings were held on the front porch of the Jonathan Bailey House. As more Quakers arrived, the need for an actual Meeting House arose and the first Quaker meeting house was built on the corner of Comstock Avenue and Wardman Street in 1887; the meeting soon outgrew this 100 seat meeting house and a new larger building was erected on the corner of Philadelphia Street and Washington Avenue in 1902. By 1912, membership had grown to 1,200 and a third building was dedicated on the same site in 1917. With a capacity of 1,700, the 1917 meeting house featured a balcony and was constructed of brick with mahogany paneling and pews; the present meeting house, dedicated in 1975, features many architectural elements and materials from the 1917 building including the stained glass windows and mahogany interior. The Quakers founded Whittier Academy, additional meetings met in East Whittier and at Whittier College's Mendenhall. Both the Mendenhall meeting and the East Whittier meeting kept the silent meeting longer than the main church.
In 1887 the Pickering Land and Water Company set aside a 20-acre parcel of land for the development of a college, but a collapse in the land boom stalled construction. Progress on developing a college was sporadi
Government of Los Angeles County
The Government of Los Angeles County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, California law, the Charter of the County of Los Angeles. Much of the Government of California is in practice the responsibility of county governments, such as the Government of Los Angeles County; the County government provides countywide services such as elections and voter registration, law enforcement, vital records, property records, tax collection, public health, health care, social services. In addition the County serves as the local government for all unincorporated areas, it is composed of the elected five-member Board of Supervisors, several other elected offices including the Sheriff, District Attorney, Assessor, numerous county departments and entities under the supervision of the chief executive officer. Some chartered cities such as Los Angeles and Inglewood provide municipal services such as police, libraries and recreation, zoning. Other cities arrange to have the County provide all of these services under contract.
In addition, several entities of the government of California have jurisdiction coterminous with Los Angeles County, such as the Los Angeles Superior Court Los Angeles County is the most populous county in the United States, the largest municipal government in the nation. If the County were a state, it would be the 9th most populous state in the United States, in between Georgia and North Carolina; the County has an annual budget of over $28.2 billion, equal to combined budgets of Indiana and Delaware. The county government employs over 100,000 people, making it larger than the government workforces of most US states. Under its foundational Charter, the five-member elected Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors is the county legislature; the board operates in a legislative and quasi-judicial capacity. As a legislative authority, it can pass ordinances for the unincorporated areas; as an executive body, it can tell the county departments what to do, how to do it. As a quasi-judicial body, the Board is the final venue of appeal in the local planning process, holds public hearings on various agenda items.
These were the board members as of 5 December 2016: Hilda Solis, district 1 Mark Ridley-Thomas, district 2 Sheila Kuehl, district 3 Janice Hahn, district 4 Kathryn Barger, district 5A local nickname sometimes used for the board is the "five little kings." In addition to the board of supervisors, there are several elected officers that form the Government of Los Angeles County that are required by the California Constitution and California law and authorized under the Charter. The Los Angeles County Sheriff provides general-service law enforcement to unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County, serving as the equivalent of the county police for unincorporated areas of the county as well as incorporated cities within the county that have contracted with the agency for law enforcement. Of the 88 cities in Los Angeles County, 40 are just such "contract cities," in an arrangement pioneered in 1954 by the city of Lakewood and known as the Lakewood Plan; the Los Angeles County District Attorney prosecutes all felony crimes that occur anywhere within Los Angeles County, any misdemeanor crimes that occur within the unincorporated areas of the county, for any city that has abdicated this responsibility to the county.
The City of Los Angeles, for example, has its own city attorney to handle most misdemeanor crimes and infractions the occurred within the City of Los Angeles. The Los Angeles County Assessor is the assessor responsible for discovering all taxable property in Los Angeles County except for state-assessed property and inventorying and listing all the taxable property, valuing the property, enrolling the property on the local assessment roll; the Chief Executive Officer known the chief administrative officer, assists the board of supervisors in handling the mounting administrative details of the county and coordinating between departments. From 2007 to 2015, the CEO had direct supervision over 31 of the 37 departments while the other departments did not report to the CEO. Prior to 2007 and from 2015 and following, the CEO provides an strategic coordination and support role. Departments submit recommendations and action items directly to the Board offices without CEO input required, are fired and hired directly by the board, with the CEO providing administrative support in negotiating department head salaries and facilitating communications between departments when necessary.
Board offices felt that the CEO added bureaucracy and that the additional deputy and assistant CEOs added little value. Other tasks given to the CEO include preparation and control of the annual budget in consultation with departments, providing leadership and direction for Board-sponsored initiatives and priorities and advocacy of state and federal legislation; the CEO's office administers the risk management and insurance programs, facilitates departments addressing unincorporated area issues and international protocol issues, manages the County's employee relations program and compensation/classification systems, represents the board in labor negotiations, monitors cable television com
Montebello is a city in Los Angeles County, United States, located in the southwestern area of the San Gabriel Valley on 8.4 sq mi 8 mi east of downtown Los Angeles. It is considered part of the Gateway Cities, is a member of the Gateway Cities Council of Governments. In the early 20th century, Montebello was a well-known source for oil reserves. At the 2010 census, the population was 62,500; the estimated population as of July 1, 2013 was 63,495. Before the arrival of the Spaniards in the area known today as Montebello, the land along the Rio Hondo River was populated by the Tongva portion of the Uto-Aztecan family of Native Americans; the Tongva occupied much of the Los Angeles basin and the southern Channel Islands - Santa Catalina, San Nicolas, San Clemente and Santa Barbara. Because the language of the Tongva was different from the neighboring tribes it was called "Gabrielino" by the Spanish; as more non-natives arrived and settlements were established and disease came with them. By 1870, the area had few remaining indigenous inhabitants as disease brought by the Europeans killed many of the Tongva.
Father Angel Somera and Father Pedro Cambon, both Franciscan missionaries, founded the original Mission San Gabriel Arcangel on September 8, 1771. The establishment of the mission marked the beginning of the Los Angeles region's settlement by Spaniards and the fourth of twenty-one missions established along California's El Camino Real; the mission did well as a farm and cattle ranch. Six years after its founding, however, a destructive flood led the mission fathers to relocate the establishment farther north, to its current location in what is the present day city of San Gabriel; the original mission site is now memorialized as California Historical Landmark #158. During the early years of the mission's existence, the region operated under a "Rancho" land grant system; the current city of Montebello consists of land from Rancho San Antonio, Rancho La Merced, Rancho Paso de Bartolo. The Juan Matias Sanchez Adobe, built in 1844, still stands at the center of old Rancho la Merced in East Montebello.
Restored, Rancho la Merced is the city's oldest standing structure. On January 8, 1847, the Battle of Rio San Gabriel took place in what are today parts of the cities of Whittier, Pico Rivera and Montebello; the battle was a decisive victory for the U. S. Army, giving control of Los Angeles and Alta California to the United States, is viewed by historians as a critical juncture in the Mexican-American war. Today the site is California State Historical Landmark #385. Following the American Civil War, some 5,000 acres of the East Los Angeles area was owned by Alessandro Repetto, an Italian immigrant settler from Genoa, Italy. Following Repetto's death in 1885, his brother sold his rancho to a consortium of five Los Angeles businessmen including banker Isaias Hellman and wholesale grocer/historian Harris Newmark for $60,000 $12 per acre; the land was divided among the partners, one large parcel of 2,000 acres going to a partnership of Newmark and his nephew, banker Kaspare Cohn. It was out of the Newmark and Cohn share of 1,200 acres that city Montebello had its beginnings in May 1899.
After receiving the advice of hydraulic engineer William Mulholland for the drafting and building of the town's water system, the land was subdivided. In 1900 the completed water system was incorporated as the Montebello Water Company. An area of 200 acres adjacent to the tracks of what was the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad was developed into a townsite called Newmark, bounded by Los Angeles Avenue on the south, 1st Street on the east, Cleveland Avenue on the north, & 5th Street on the west; the remainder of the land was subdivided into 5 acres lots suitable for small-scale agriculture. On Mulholland's suggestion, Montebello was adopted as the city's name, replacing the original name Newmark. An agricultural community, Montebello was known for its prolific production of flowers, berries and vegetables; the first public flower show was sponsored by the Montebello Women’s Club and held in the Montebello High School auditorium on Whittier Boulevard in 1912. The Montebello – El Carmel Improvement Association, the predecessor of the Montebello Chamber of Commerce, operated from September 1907 to April 1912.
With its stated purpose "to improve and beautify the community." Some of its early achievements included: seeing Whittier Boulevard paved, trees planted along the streets, establishment of the city's first high school, working to drop the name of "Newmark" and having the entire area incorporated as "The City of Montebello". On October 19, 1920, the city was incorporated and its name changed to "Montebello". In honor of Montebello's agricultural roots, the city's official seal contains a red poinsettia in the center. Much of south Montebello, was populated by Japanese American farmers who would lose their property during the WW II internment of US citizens. Many of the displaced residents were unable to return to their homes. Citation Executive Order 1066; the Family of M's Flowers can trace their history and participation In the growth of the all flower industry through their efforts. The Standard Oil Company discovered oil in the Montebello hills in 1917 on t
Pico Rivera, California
Pico Rivera is a city located in southeastern Los Angeles County, United States. The city is situated 11 miles southeast of downtown Los Angeles, on the eastern edge of the Los Angeles basin, on the southern edge of the area known as the San Gabriel Valley; the ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles, as well as Los Angeles International Airport, are in close proximity. The 2010 census reported that the city has a population of 62,942. Pico Rivera was founded in 1958, from the merger of the long-standing unincorporated communities of Pico and Rivera. Situated on a rich alluvial plain between the Rio Hondo and the San Gabriel River, the area was once predominantly agricultural. Since the 1950s, it has been both residential as well as industrial, it had a Ford Motor Company plant for many years: Los Angeles Assembly. Pico Rivera lies below the Whittier Narrows, making it one of the “Gateway Cities”. In January 1958, 56 percent of the electorate voted for incorporation, they approved a Council-Manager form of government, the name “Pico Rivera” was established for the new city.
Five citizens were chosen from a slate of 24 candidates to serve as members of the first City Council. The north side of the city is home to the Pico Rivera Sports Arena, where concerts and other events are held. There are nine parks and playgrounds throughout the city, including Smith Park on Rosemead Boulevard, Rivera Park on Shade Lane, Pico Park on Beverly Boulevard, Rio Vista Park, Stream Land Park at the north end of Durfee Road; the community enjoys more than 120 acres committed to public recreational facilities. There are 18 athletic fields, two gymnasiums and four community centers, a nine-hole executive golf course and aquatic centers. In 1965, the Pico Rivera Municipal Golf Course was built for the communal enjoyment of not only its residents and golfers, but for those in the surrounding communities; the executive nine-hole course plays to measures 1,504 yards. The practice facilities include two putting a covered driving range. Lighting throughout the golf course and driving range enables practice until 10:00 p.m..
Pico Rivera’s Congressional Representative, Grace Napolitano, helped with the funding, city officials launched a newly renovated senior center that includes a high-tech computer lab with 16 computers and a modern dance room. Funded by the U. S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the city’s general fund, the US$350,000 renovation of the over 20-year-old center “is an example of your tax dollars at work,” Napolitano told a crowd of local officials and residents, who toured the new facility. Napolitano secured a $198,000 federal grant for the project and the city contributed $157,000 in federal stimulus funds; the fitness room has a set of free weights and two 40-inch flat screen TVs. The activity room has a mirrored wall with a state-of-the-art sound system; the billiard room, a popular part of the senior center, was relocated to larger quarters within the center. It now houses four new pool tables; the Pico Rivera Center, 9200 Mines Avenue, opens from 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Monday through Thursday and 8 a.m. to 3 p.m. Friday.
Pico Rivera is located at 33°59′20″N 118°5′21″W. It is bordered by Downey on the southwest, Santa Fe Springs on the southeast, Whittier on the east, City of Industry on the northeast, Montebello on the northwest, Commerce on the west. Rosemead/Lakewood Boulevard, CA 19 runs through the center of the city, the San Gabriel River Freeway runs along its southeastern edge. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 23.003 square kilometers. 21.485 square kilometers of it is land and 1.518 kilometers of it is water. Pico Rivera was the epicenter of a magnitude 4.4 earthquake on March 16, 2010, which occurred at 4:04 a.m. Pacific Daylight Time. During 2009–2013, Pico Rivera had a median household income of $57,550, with 13.0% of the population living below the federal poverty line. The 2010 United States Census reported that Pico Rivera had a population of 62,942; the population density was 7,086.8 people per square mile. The Racial makeup of Pico Rivera was 5.2% Non-Hispanic White, 1.0% Black or African American, 1.4% Native American, 2.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander.
Hispanic or Latino of any race is 91.2% of the population. The Census reported that 62,488 people lived in households, 39 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 415 were institutionalized. There were 16,566 households, out of which 8,073 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 8,843 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 3,334 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,470 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,041 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 91 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 2,276 households were made up of individuals and 1,154 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.77. There were 13,647 families; the population was spread out with 16,792 people under the age of 18, 6,971 people aged 18 to 24, 17,225 people aged 25 to 44, 14,323 people aged 45 to 64, 7,631 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34.0 years. For ever
Battle of Rio San Gabriel
The Battle of Rio San Gabriel, fought on 8 January 1847, was a decisive action of the California campaign of the Mexican–American War and occurred at a ford of the San Gabriel River, at what are today parts of the cities of Whittier, Pico Rivera and Montebello, about ten miles south-east of downtown Los Angeles. After the Battle of San Pasqual, the battered Army of the West, commanded by General Stephen W. Kearny, went to the headquarters of Commodore Robert F. Stockton at San Diego, California. Stockton's next objective was to recapture Pueblo de Los Angeles; that settlement had been captured by Stockton's forces but was left in the command of Captain Archibald Gillespie and had been lost to the Californio militia, commanded by General José María Flores in the Siege of Los Angeles that Fall. Stockton's force, which included six cannons this time, left San Diego on 28–29 December. Kearny and Stockton disputed the right of command. Although Kearny had superior orders from the United States War Department, he had sent most of his troops back to Santa Fe, New Mexico, believing that the war in California had ended, his remaining force sustained heavy losses at the Battle of San Pasqual.
Stockton had a larger force and was familiar with the area, so Kearny did not dispute Stockton's command of the campaign to recapture Los Angeles. U. S. scouts discovered the Mexican position at a key ford along the San Gabriel River on January 7, 1847. Approaching from the south and Kearny planned a crossing for the next day; the U. S. forces were formed into a hollow square with the baggage in the center. Kearny ordered the artillery unlimbered to cover the crossing, but Stockton countered the order and began to move across the river; the crossing proved to be difficult because Flores was in a good position to contest the crossing from the high banks across the river, the ford had patches of quicksand at the bottom of the knee deep water. At 2 PM, the Americans formed into a square when two miles from the river with the baggage and cattle in the middle, sent skirmishers ahead. Flores attacked the square with horses, which failed, plus his makeshift ammunition and inadequate gunpowder proved to be ineffective.
The U. S. officers and men manhandled their cannon across while the forward quarter of the square took cover on the river edge. Stockton helped unlimber and direct the artillery, which silenced both Californio cannons. Kearny commanded the assault force while Stockton stayed with the guns; the left flank of the square took a Californio riverbank position and held it against a counterattack from militia lancers shouting "viva Los Californios". The whole square charged forward shouting "New Orleans, New Orleans", in honor of Andrew Jackson's victory against Great Britain there that day thirty-one years before; the charge took the heights, Flores withdrew his smaller force. The battle had lasted an hour and a half, the battle was decisive in the campaign for control of Los Angeles, Alta California. General Kearny's official report of the battle: "Headquarters Army of the West, Ciudad de Los Angeles, Upper California, January 12, 1847. SIR, -- I have the honor to report, that at the request of Commodore R. F. Stockton, I consented to take command of an expedition to this place – capital of the country – and that on the 29th of December, I left San Diego with about five hundred men, consisting of sixty dismounted dragoons, under Captain Turner.
Lieutenant Emory, topographical engineers, acted as assistant adjutant-general. Commodore Stockton accompanied us. We proceeded on our route without seeing the enemy till the 8th instant, when they showed themselves in full force of six hundred mounted men, with four pieces of artillery, under their Governor Flores, occupying the heights in front of us, which commanded the crossing of the river San Gabriel, they ready to oppose our further progress; the necessary disposition of our troops was made, by covering our front with a strong party of skirmishers, placing our wagons and baggage train in rear of them, protecting the flanks and rear with the remainder of the command. We proceeded, forded the river, carried the heights, drove the enemy from them after an action of about one and a half hours, during which they made a charge upon our left flank, repulsed; the next day, the 9th instant, we proceeded on our march at the usual hour, the enemy in front and on our flanks, when we reached the plains of the Mesa, their artillery again opened upon us, when their fire was returned by our guns as we advanced.
Our loss in the actions of the 8th and 9th instant was small, being one private killed and two officers and eleven privates wounded. The enemy mounted on fine horses and being the best riders in the world, carried off their killed and wounded, we know not the number of them, though it must have been considerable." Stockton and Kearny stayed on the field overnight and resumed the pursuit the next day, moving west from the San Gab