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Wide-body aircraft

A wide-body aircraft known as a twin-aisle aircraft, is a jet airliner with a fuselage wide enough to accommodate two passenger aisles with seven or more seats abreast. The typical fuselage diameter is 5 to 6 m. In the typical wide-body economy cabin, passengers are seated seven to ten abreast, allowing a total capacity of 200 to 850 passengers; the largest wide-body aircraft are over 6 m wide, can accommodate up to eleven passengers abreast in high-density configurations. By comparison, a typical narrow-body airliner has a diameter of 3 to 4 m, with a single aisle, seats between two and six people abreast. Wide-body aircraft were designed for a combination of efficiency and passenger comfort and to increase the amount of cargo space. However, airlines gave in to economic factors, reduced the extra passenger space in order to maximize revenue and profits. Wide-body aircraft are used for the transport of commercial freight and cargo and other special uses, described further below; the biggest wide-body aircraft are known as jumbo jets due to their large size.

The phrase "jumbo jet" derives from a circus elephant in the 19th century. Seven-abreast aircraft seat 160 to 260 passengers, eight-abreast 250 to 380, nine- and ten-abreast 350 to 480. Up to the end of 2017, nearly 8,800 wide-body airplanes had been delivered since 1969, peaking at 412 in 2015. Following the success of the Boeing 707 and Douglas DC-8 in the late 1950s and early 1960s, airlines began seeking larger aircraft to meet the rising global demand for air travel. Engineers were faced with many challenges as airlines demanded more passenger seats per aircraft, longer ranges and lower operating costs. Early jet aircraft such as the 707 and DC-8 seated passengers along either side of a single aisle, with no more than six seats per row. Larger aircraft would have to be longer, higher, or wider in order to accommodate a greater number of passenger seats. Engineers realized having two decks created difficulties in meeting emergency evacuation regulations with the technology available at that time.

During the 1960s, it was believed that supersonic airliners would succeed larger, slower planes. Thus, it was believed that most subsonic aircraft would become obsolete for passenger travel and would be converted to freighters; as a result, airline manufacturers opted for a wider fuselage rather than a taller one. By adding a second aisle, the wider aircraft could accommodate as many as 10 seats across, but could be converted to a freighter and carry two eight-by-eight freight pallets abreast; the engineers opted for creating "stretched" versions of the DC-8, as well as longer versions of Boeing's 707 and 727. The wide-body age began in 1970 with the entry into service of the first wide-body airliner, the four-engined, partial double-deck Boeing 747. New trijet wide-body aircraft soon followed, including the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 and the Lockheed L-1011 TriStar; the first wide-body twinjet, the Airbus A300, entered service in 1974. This period came to be known as the "wide-body wars". After L-1011 TriStars were demonstrated in the USSR, in 1976 the Soviet Union launched its own first four-engined wide-body, the Ilyushin Il-86.

The USSR failed to negotiate their production. After the success of the early wide-body aircraft, several subsequent designs came to market over the next two decades, including the Boeing 767 and 777, the Airbus A330 and A340, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11. In the "jumbo" category, the capacity of the Boeing 747 was not surpassed until October 2007, when the Airbus A380 entered commercial service with the nickname "Superjumbo". Both the Boeing 747 and Airbus A380 "jumbo jets" have four engines each, however the upcoming Boeing 777X is a twinjet. In the mid-2000s, rising oil costs in a post-9/11 climate caused airlines to look towards newer, more fuel-efficient aircraft. Two such examples are the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and Airbus A350 XWB; the proposed Comac C929 and C939 may share this new wide-body market. The production of the large Boeing 747-8 and Airbus A380 four-engine, long-haul jets is being cut back as airlines are now preferring the smaller, more efficient A350, 787 and 777 twin-engine, long-range airliners.

Although wide-body aircraft have larger frontal areas than narrow-body aircraft of similar capacity, they have several advantages over their narrow-body counterparts, such as: a larger cabin space for passengers, giving a more open feeling a lower ratio of surface area to volume, thus lower drag per passenger or cargo volume. The only exception to this would be with long narrow-body aircraft, such as the Boeing 757 and Airbus A321. Twin aisles that accelerate loading and evacuation compared to a single-aisle Reduced overall aircraft length for a given capacity, improving ground manoeuvrability and reducing the risk of tail strikes. Greater under-floor freight capacity Better structural efficiency for larger aircraft than would be possible with a narrow-body designBritish and Russian designers had proposed wide-body aircraft similar in configuration to the Vickers VC10 and Douglas DC-9, but with a wide-body fuselage; the British Three

Melanin theory

Melanin theory is a claim in Afrocentrism that a higher level of melanin, the primary determinant of skin color in humans, is the cause of an intellectual and physical superiority of dark-skinned people and provides them with superior abilities or Mystical/supernatural ones. It is considered a pseudoscientific theory. According to Bernard Ortiz De Montellano of Wayne State University, "The alleged properties of melanin unsupported, irrelevant, or distortions of the scientific literature, are used to justify Afrocentric assertions. One of the most common is that humans evolved as blacks in Africa, that whites are mutants"; the melanin hypothesis was supported by Leonard Jeffries, who according to Time magazine, believes that "melanin, the dark skin pigment, gives blacks intellectual and physical superiority over whites". Frances Cress Welsing Leonard Jeffries Naim Akbar Richard D. King In 2006, the views of adherents and critics of melanin theory were dramatized in Cassandra Medley's play, Relativity.

Afrocentrism Black supremacy

John Muckle

John Muckle is a British writer who has published fiction and literary criticism. Born in Kingston-upon-Thames, he grew up in the village of Surrey. After qualifying as a teacher and working in London FE colleges, he moved into book publishing, first for literary publisher Marion Boyars, moving on to Grafton Books as a paperback copywriter. In the mid-1980s he initiated the Paladin Poetry Series. Muckle was general editor of its flagship anthology The New British Poetry, commissioning a number of other titles before he left; the poetry imprint was edited subsequently by writer Iain Sinclair. Muckle worked as a freelance copywriter for Penguin before returning to teaching, for five years at Essex University in various other jobs; the Cresta Run, Muckle's first book, was reviewed enthusiastically by Norman Shrapnel in The Guardian: "An identifiable vernacular for this still measurable sector of the populace - working-class if not always working - is amply available and John Muckle's excellent stories prove it.

The territory of The Cresta Run is short on introverts. In 1989 he received a Hawthornden Writers' Fellowship. Writing of Cyclomotors, John Berger said: "It's a wonderful book - marvellously constructed and of a fidelity to experience such as you only come across with a true storyteller - as distinct from word-spinner." This hard-to-classify fiction was praised by a number of prominent writers. Will Self wrote: "I don't think I've read anything for quite a while - not since Norman Lewis's memoir Jackdaw Cake - which conjures up quite so this peculiar inter-zone between the behemoth of the city and the hinterland of the country, and on top of all this there is the wrenching portrayal of a family at odds with itself in the most violent fashion, rendered without cant or sentimentality." Muckle has published further novels, poetry collections, a critical work on British fiction in the 1950s and 1960s, as well as essays and reviews on poetry and poets, including Allen Ginsberg, Ed Dorn, Bill Griffiths, Tom Raworth, Denise Riley, Lee Harwood and many others.

It Is Now As It Was Then The Cresta Run Bikers Cyclomotors Firewriting and Other Poems London Brakes My Pale Tulip Little White Bull: British Fiction in the Fifties and Sixties Falling Through Mirrorball As editor The New British Poetry 1968-88 Active in Airtime - a journal of poetry and fiction Ian Brinton, review of London Brakes at Eyewear Andrew Duncan, The Failure of Conservatism in Contemporary Poetry Robert Hampson,'Memory, False Memory' in New Formations, Issue 50: Autumn 2004 Sandra Newman, Changeling: A Memoir Of Parents Lost And Found Robert Sheppard, The Poetry of Saying: British Poetry and Its Discontents 1950-2000 John Muckle,'The Names: Allen Ginsberg's Writings' in A. Robert Lee The Beat Generation Writers Shearsman author page PN Review online'Firewriting' on Shearsman website'Hazlitt's Paroxysms' at Jacket Magazine D.

J. Taylor, review of Little White Bull: British fiction in the Fifties and Sixties in TLS Steve Spence, review of Little White Bull at Stride Magazine Spence.htm

George Parbury

George Parbury was a publisher with a special interest in India, a freemason in India and London, Master of Merchant Taylors livery company, Justice of the Peace for two counties and Deputy Lieutenant of the Tower Hamlets. George Parbury was born 24 January 1807, baptised on 18 February at St. Leonard’s, Shoreditch, he was the second child and eldest son of Hannah Warne and Charles Parbury, the “head of the firm of Parbury, Co. the eminent booksellers connected with India”. George was apprenticed to his father in March 1823. In December 1826 he was granted permission to reside in Bengal. George arrived in Calcutta on the steamship Enterprise in 1828. Parbury had been sent by his father to work with William Thacker’s bookselling firm in Calcutta. Thacker had received a licence from the East India Company, allowing him to reside at Fort William “to dispose of Messrs. Black Parbury and Co.’s consignment” shipped from England, thus marking the beginning of Thacker’s company in Calcutta, was made a partner of W. Thacker and Co.

St. Andrew's Library, Calcutta. There were family connections between Thacker and Parbury: William Thacker’s third marriage, at St Pancras church on 29 December 1841, was to Helen Parbury, George’s youngest sister. Soon after he arrived in Calcutta George Parbury became a freemason: in August 1830 he was initiated in the Aurora Lodge of Candour and Cordiality No. 816, Calcutta. After his return to England in 1832, Parbury joined Moira Lodge No. 109 in London, became Master of the Lodge in 1838. In England George met, or was re-acquainted with, 22 year old Mary Ann Joanna Ellis of Hertford, married her in St Andrew’s church there on 21 May 1833. In April 1834 their first child, George Edward Ellis, was born. Parbury gained Freedom of the City of London on 3 September 1835, followed three months by Livery status in the Merchant Taylors’ Company. George and Mary’s second child George, was born in July 1836, a third was born the following year. Eighteen months in May 1839, he sailed from Portsmouth on the Owen Glendower, arriving in Calcutta on 20 August.

George remained there for some eight months, returned to England, this time overland to Bombay and by ship. Early on 13 August 1840 Parbury departed by river from Calcutta on a steam vessel to Allahabad, as far as it could go at the time, he travelled overland, via Agra, Delhi and Simla reaching Bombay at the end of November, 109 days after setting out. On the first of December he was on the steamer Cleopatra, en route to Suez. After travelling overland and reaching Cairo on 21 December, he sailed from Alexandria on “the splendid steamer, Great Liverpool”, which set off on the 24th, travelling via Malta, Gibraltar and the Isle of Wight quarantine station. Parbury set foot on land on 16 January 1841, six and a half weeks after leaving Bombay, just over 5 months from Calcutta. Soon afterwards Parbury published a description of his travels; the first edition, published anonymously, was dated London, 20 June 1841. A year a second edition was published under the name of George Parbury, Esq. MRAS. Parbury's book – a copy of which he had lodged in the Royal Asiatic Society library – was soon given a warm review in The Asiatic JournalJ.

H. Stocqueler had written a Handbook of India based on his various experiences as a traveller and his residence in India for some twenty years; when he left India he sailed in distinguished company from Calcutta to Suez on the Hindostan, thence overland to take a ship from Alexandria. Parbury’s colleagues, W Thacker and Co. chose to attack Stocqueler’s work in 1845, but without informing him first. They accused Stocqueler of not having acknowledged his "obligation to Mr Parbury’s'Hand Book of India and Egypt' " when presenting his own book. Stocqueler's rejoinder was published as a letter to The Madras Athenaeum, stating in part: Has it occurred to him that in sending people to buy his personal narrative, facetiously dubbed a "Hand Book of India and Egypt," I should be guilty of leading people to purchase a volume which treats of the merest fraction of India in the most superficial style, was found so ridiculously insufficient as a guide to Overland Travellers that none of the passengers by the Hindostan in 1843 could gather from its pages the slightest information, of any use to them.

I declare most solemnly that my Hand Book was undertaken and put forth because Mr Parbury's was so wretchedly imperfect, for no other reason. Soon after the birth of his fourth and last child by Mary George sailed again to India, he returned from Calcutta on the launched steamship Bentinck, departing in March 1844. In October of the following year, Mary died of consumption at Mansfield House, 37 Russell Square, aged 34. In 1849 Parbury was married again, this time to Lucy Wilson Key, the fourth child of John Key Sir John Key, first baronet, Lord Mayor of London and Master of the Stationers' Company. Lucy, 15 years Parbury’s junior and only 10 years older than his first wife, provided George with five more children: three sons and two daughters, born variously in Germany and England. One of his grandchildren was Florence Tyzack Parbury. Parbury turned his attention to Merchant Taylors again. In July 1855 he was appointed a Warden and a member of the Court of As

Secular Pro-Life

Secular Pro-Life is an American anti-abortion organization. SPL argues against abortion and conducts advocacy, including on university campuses.. Anti-abortion activism in the UNited States is predominantly associated with the religious right. Within the United States, 72% of the religiously unaffiliated say that "abortion should be legal in most or all cases" compared to 53% of the general public. Among atheists and agnostics, 84 % say abortion should be legal in all cases. While 75% of white evangelical Protestants say that having an abortion is morally wrong, 25% of religiously unaffiliated people say so; the Oxford Handbook of Religion and American Politics notes that 22% of nonreligious unaffiliated Americans describe themselves as "pro-life on abortion" while just 12% of atheists and agnostics do. Secular Pro-Life ran a stall at the 2012 American Atheists conference, their presence there caused some controversy within the atheist community. In February 2014, President of Secular Pro-Life Kelsey Hazzard gave a talk at the University of Georgia entitled "Pro-Life Without God".

In the run up to the event, SPL posters were torn down in an attempt to thwart Hazzard's presentation

Thomas Mackenzie (Royal Navy officer)

Admiral Thomas Mackenzie was a prominent British Royal Navy officer of the late eighteenth century. Mackenzie's career, while successful, was blighted by a series of controversies that limited his opportunities and command, resulting in his placement in reserve for the last 19 years of his career. During his early service, Mackenzie served at a number of engagements in the American Revolutionary War and advanced but he was caught during service in the Indian Ocean in the midst of a disagreement between two senior officers and as a result was placed in reserve at the end of the war. At the start of the French Revolutionary Wars ten years Mackenzie was restored to service, commanded the ship of the line Gibraltar at the Glorious First of June. Mackenzie was again involved in a major dispute in the aftermath of the battle over credit for the victory, with the result that he never again served at sea. Thomas Mackenzie was born in the son of Vice-Admiral George Mackenzie. At a young age, Thomas joined the frigate Montreal and in 1771 passed the lieutenants exam and joined the sloop Trial.

He continued to rise in rank, in 1776 at the start of the American Revolutionary War he was promoted to post captain for his services at the Battle of Quebec, was assigned command of the 28-gun frigate Lizard. On 4 December he was in command of Lizard. Mackenzie was assigned to command the ship Ariel, but was captured with his vessel by the French frigate Amazone on 10 September 1779 <ADM 1/5315 court-martial 23 Feb 1780> near Charleston, South Carolina. Released in Cadiz the following year, Mackenzie returned to Britain, was cleared at a court martial and given command of the frigate Active. Active was attached to the squadron under Commodore George Johnstone sent to the Cape of Good Hope in 1781, but the force was intercepted at Porto Praya on St Jago by a French squadron; the ensuing Battle of Porto Praya was inconclusive, but the French were able to reinforce the Cape before the British could attack, making an invasion impossible. Continuing westwards, Active joined a squadron under Vice-Admiral Edward Hughes and was engaged in operations on the Malabar coast and against the Dutch city of Negapatam.

In 1782 he was ordered by the council at Calcutta to escort a ship pass the Hoogly River, watched by a French privateer. This diversion caused him to miss the attack on Trincomalee and invoked Hughes' anger, despite Lord Macartney's advocacy of Mackenzie's actions; when peace came the following year, Mackenzie was placed in reserve. Mackenzie did not serve again until 1793, when the outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars necessitated the employment of experienced seamen. Taking command of the ship of the line Gibraltar, Mackenzie joined the Channel Fleet under Lord Howe. During the Atlantic campaign of May 1794, Gibraltar was engaged at the actions on 28 and 29 May and again at the Glorious First of June, but failed to distinguish herself at any of the engagements. Mackenzie was left off the list of officer commended for their service and was furious at his omission, as were many of the captains whose names were not included; the resulting furore was divisive in the Navy, Mackenzie was never employed again, despite his promotion to rear-admiral three days later.

He remained in reserve, continuing to gain in rank but never participating at sea until his death in 1813, childless at age 60. Tracy, Nicholas. Who's Who in Nelson's Navy. Chatham. ISBN 1-86176-244-5. Winfield, Rif. British Warships of the Age of Sail 1714–1792: Design, Construction and Fates. Seaforth. ISBN 9781844157006