Alexander the Great
Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of twenty and he was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of historys most successful military commanders. During his youth, Alexander was tutored by Aristotle until the age of 16, after Philips assassination in 336 BC, he succeeded his father to the throne and inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. Alexander was awarded the generalship of Greece and used this authority to launch his fathers Panhellenic project to lead the Greeks in the conquest of Persia, in 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years. Following the conquest of Anatolia, Alexander broke the power of Persia in a series of battles, most notably the battles of Issus. He subsequently overthrew Persian King Darius III and conquered the Achaemenid Empire in its entirety, at that point, his empire stretched from the Adriatic Sea to the Indus River.
He sought to reach the ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea and invaded India in 326 BC and he eventually turned back at the demand of his homesick troops. Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, the city that he planned to establish as his capital, without executing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following his death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, resulting in the establishment of several states ruled by the Diadochi, Alexanders surviving generals, Alexanders legacy includes the cultural diffusion which his conquests engendered, such as Greco-Buddhism. He founded some twenty cities that bore his name, most notably Alexandria in Egypt, Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and he features prominently in the history and mythic traditions of both Greek and non-Greek cultures. He became the measure against which military leaders compared themselves, and he is often ranked among the most influential people in human history.
He was the son of the king of Macedon, Philip II, and his wife, Olympias. Although Philip had seven or eight wives, Olympias was his wife for some time. Several legends surround Alexanders birth and childhood, sometime after the wedding, Philip is said to have seen himself, in a dream, securing his wifes womb with a seal engraved with a lions image. Plutarch offered a variety of interpretations of dreams, that Olympias was pregnant before her marriage, indicated by the sealing of her womb. On the day Alexander was born, Philip was preparing a siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of Chalcidice. That same day, Philip received news that his general Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian and Paeonian armies, and it was said that on this day, the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, burnt down. This led Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it had burnt down because Artemis was away, such legends may have emerged when Alexander was king, and possibly at his own instigation, to show that he was superhuman and destined for greatness from conception
Hrothgar /ˈhr̥oːðgɑːr/ was a legendary Danish king living in the early 6th century. Hrothgar appears in the Anglo-Saxon epics Beowulf and Widsith, in Norse sagas and poems, in both Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian tradition, Hrothgar is a Scylding, the son of Halfdan, the brother of Halga, and the uncle of Hrólfr Kraki. Moreover, in traditions, the mentioned characters were the contemporaries of the Swedish king Eadgils, and both traditions mention a feud with men named Fróði and Ingeld. The consensus view is that Anglo-Saxon and Scandinavian traditions describe the same person, rendered Hrōðgār, is an Old English form attested in Beowulf and Widsith, the earliest sources to mention the character. In non-English sources, the name appears in more or less corresponding Old Icelandic, Old Danish and he appears as Hróarr, etc. in sagas and poetry, and as Ro or Roe in the Danish Latin chronicles. The form Hrōðgār is thought to have derived from the proto-Norse *Hrōþigaizaz famous spear, the corresponding Old Norse name Hróarr and its variations are not derived from *Hrōþigaizaz, but from the very close names *Hrōþiwarjaz famous defender or *Hrōþiharjaz famous warrior.
These two names, both appearing as Hróarr in Scandinavia, did not have any corresponding Old English form, Hrothgar appears in two Anglo-Saxon poems and Widsith. Beowulf gives the account of Hrothgar and how the Geatish hero Beowulf visited him to free his people from the trollish creature Grendel. Widsith only mentions Hrothgar, his nephew Hroðulf and their enemy Ingeld and this is notably the case concerning the ending of his feud with Ingeld. In the epic poem Beowulf, Hrothgar is mentioned as the builder of the great hall Heorot, the sister is not named in the manuscript and most scholars agree this is a scribal error, but suggested names are Signy and Yrsa. The poem further tells that Hrothgar was given victory in war and he is both honest and generous, He broke no oaths, dealt out rings, treasures at his table. The poet emphasizes that the Danes did not find fault with Hrothgar, when Beowulf defeats Grendel, Hrothgar rewards Beowulf and his men with great treasures, showing his gratitude and open-handedness.
The poet says that Hrothgar is so generous that no man could fault him, Hrothgar was married to a woman named Wealhþeow, who was a Helming, probably defining her as a relative of Helm, the ruler of the Wulfings. When Hrothgar welcomes Beowulf, he recalls his friendship with Beowulfs family and he met Beowulfs father Ecgþeow when I first ruled the Danes after the death of Heorogar, he laments Heorogars fall and recalls how he settled Ecgþeows blood feud with the Wulfings. Hrothgar thanks God for Beowulfs arrival and victory over Grendel, the poem introduces Hroðulf as Hrothgars supporter and right-hand man, and we learn that Hroðulf is Hrothgars nephew and that each was true to the other. Yrsa herself was the result of Halga raping a woman. Wealhþeow has borne Hrothgar two sons, Hreðric and Hroðmund, and Hroðulf is to be regent if Hrothgar dies before his sons are grown. After Beowulf defeats Grendels mother, Hrothgar rewards him again, and preaches a sermon in which he warns Beowulf to beware of arrogance, Beowulf takes his leave of Hrothgar to return home, and Hrothgar embraces him and weeps that they will not meet again
Old English literature
Old English literature or Anglo-Saxon literature, encompasses literature written in Old English, in Anglo-Saxon England from the 7th century to the decades after the Norman Conquest of 1066. The Peterborough Chronicle can be considered a text, continuing into the 12th century. The poem Beowulf, which begins the traditional canon of English literature, is the most famous work of Old English literature. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle has significant for historical study, preserving a chronology of early English history. In all there are over 400 surviving manuscripts from the period, besides Old English literature, Anglo-Saxons wrote a number of Anglo-Latin works. Later, on account of the work of Bernard F. Huppé, a large number of manuscripts remain from the Anglo-Saxon period, with most written during its last 300 years, in both Latin and the vernacular. There were considerable losses of manuscripts as a result of the Dissolution of the Monasteries in the 16th century, Scholarly study of the language began in the reign of Queen Elizabeth I when Matthew Parker and others obtained whatever manuscripts they could.
There are four major poetic manuscripts, The Junius manuscript, known as the Cædmon manuscript, is a collection of poems on biblical narratives. The Exeter Book is an anthology, located in the Exeter Cathedral since it was donated there in the 11th century, the Vercelli Book contains both poetry and prose, it is not known how it came to be in Vercelli. The Beowulf Manuscript, sometimes called the Nowell Codex, contains prose and poetry, typically dealing with monstrous themes, including Beowulf. Seven major scriptoria produced a good deal of Old English manuscripts, Exeter, Abingdon, regional dialects include, Mercian and the main dialect, West Saxon. Some Old English text survives on parchment, stone structures, Old English poetry falls broadly into two styles or fields of reference, the heroic Germanic and the Christian. Almost all Old English poets are anonymous, although there are Anglo-Saxon discourses on Latin prosody, the rules of Old English verse are understood only through modern analysis of the extant texts.
The first widely accepted theory was constructed by Eduard Sievers, who distinguished five distinct alliterative patterns and his system of alliterative verse is based on accent, the quantity of vowels, and patterns of syllabic accentuation. It consists of five permutations on a base verse scheme, any one of the five types can be used in any verse, the system was inherited from and exists in one form or another in all of the older Germanic languages. Alternative theories have proposed, such as the theory of John C. Pope, which musical notation to track the verse patterns. J. R. R. Tolkien describes and illustrates many of the features of Old English poetry in his 1940 essay On Translating Beowulf
Attila, frequently referred to as Attila the Hun, was the ruler of the Huns from 434 until his death in March 453. Attila was a leader of the Hunnic Empire, a confederation consisting of Huns, Ostrogoths. During his reign, he was one of the most feared enemies of the Western and Eastern Roman Empires and he crossed the Danube twice and plundered the Balkans, but was unable to take Constantinople. His unsuccessful campaign in Persia was followed in 441 by an invasion of the Eastern Roman Empire and he attempted to conquer Roman Gaul, crossing the Rhine in 451 and marching as far as Aurelianum before being defeated at the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains. He subsequently invaded Italy, devastating the northern provinces, but was unable to take Rome and he planned for further campaigns against the Romans but died in 453. After Attilas death his close adviser Ardaric of the Gepids led a Germanic revolt against Hunnic rule, there is no surviving first-hand account of Attilas appearance, but there is a possible second-hand source provided by Jordanes, who cites a description given by Priscus.
He was a man born into the world to shake the nations, the scourge of all lands and he was haughty in his walk, rolling his eyes hither and thither, so that the power of his proud spirit appeared in the movement of his body. He was indeed a lover of war, yet restrained in action, mighty in counsel, gracious to suppliants, the Gothic etymology can be tracked up to Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm in the early 19th century. Maenchen-Helfen noted that Hunnic names were not the names of the Hun princes. The names of Attilas brother Bleda, and most powerful minister Onegesius, mikkola connected it with Turkic āt. Gerd Althoff considered it was related to Turkish atli, or Turkish at, the Gothic origin of the name Attila is questionable, Snædal writes. It is at least as likely to be of Hunnic origin, the article points out that the word atta is a migratory term for father/forefather common in multiple languages, including many Turkic languages. He concludes, Of course we do not know how the name sounded in the language of the Huns, somewhere, somehow a proto-form like *agtala- changed to *attila.
We cannot tell if the assimilation of gt to tt, and/or if loss of a final consonant took place in Hunnic or if these changes were part of the process into Latin, Gothic. Truly, our knowledge of the Hunnic language is almost zero, One can only guess a solution to this riddle of Attilas name. The historiography of Attila is faced with a challenge, in that the only complete sources are written in Greek. Attilas contemporaries left many testimonials of his life, but only fragments of these remain and he wrote a history of the late Roman Empire in eight books covering the period from 430 to 476. Today we have fragments of Priscus work, but it was cited extensively by 6th-century historians Procopius and Jordanes,413 especially in Jordanes The Origin
Textiles in mythology and folklore
The theme of textiles in mythology and folklore is ancient, and its lost mythic lore probably accompanied the early spread of this art. In traditional societies today, westward of Central Asia and the Iranian plateau, where men have become the primary weavers in this part of the world, it is possible that they have usurped the archaic role, among the gods, only goddesses are weavers. Herodotus noted, the difference between gender identities and weaving among Hellenes and Egyptians, among Egyptians it was the men who wove. Until the spinning wheel was invented in the 14th century, all spinning was done with distaff, in English the distaff side indicates relatives through ones mother, and thereby denotes a womans role in the household economy. In Scandinavia, the stars of Orions belt are known as Friggjar rockr, Textiles have been associated in several cultures with spiders in mythology. In pre-Dynastic Egypt, nt was already the goddess of weaving and she protected the Red Crown of Lower Egypt before the two kingdoms were merged, and in Dynastic times she was known as the most ancient one, to whom the other gods went for wisdom.
Nit is identifiable by her emblems, most often it is the looms shuttle, according to E. A. Wallis Budge the root of the word for weaving and for being are the same, nnt. In Greece the Moirai are the three crones who control destiny, and the matter of it is the art of spinning the thread of life on the distaff. Ariadne, the wife of the god Dionysus in Minoan Crete, possessed the spun thread that led Theseus to the center of the labyrinth and safely out again. Among the Olympians, the goddess is Athena, despite her role, was bested by her acolyte Arachne. The daughters of Minyas, Alcithoe and their sister, defied Dionysus, a woven peplum, laid upon the knees of the goddesss iconic image, was central to festivals honoring both Athena at Athens, and Hera. Helen is at her loom in the Iliad to illustrate her discipline, work ethic, homer dwells upon the supernatural quality of the weaving in the robes of goddesses. For the Norse peoples, Frigg is a associated with weaving. Ritually deposited spindles and loom parts were deposited with the Pre-Roman Iron Age ritual wagon at Dejbjerg, Jutland, in Germanic mythology and Perchta were both known as goddesses who oversaw spinning and weaving.
Holda taught the secret of making linen from flax, an account of Holda was collected by the Brothers Grimm, as the fairy tale Frau Holda. Spindel, geh du aus, bring den Freier in mein Haus and he arrives to find her simple village cottage magnificently caparisoned by the magically-aided products of spindle and needle. Jacob Grimm reported the superstition if, while riding a horse overland, the Norns, female giantesses, weavers of fate, belong in this folklore of weaving. The goddess Brigantia, due to her identification with the Roman Minerva, may have considered, along with her other traits
Wayland the Smith
In Norse mythology, Wayland the Smith is a legendary master blacksmith, described by Jessie Weston as the weird and malicious craftsman, Weyland. In Old Norse sources, Völundr appears in Völundarkviða, a poem in the Poetic Edda, and in Þiðrekssaga, in Old English sources, he appears in Deor, Waldere and in Beowulf and the legend is depicted on the Franks Casket. He is mentioned in the German poems about Theoderic the Great as the Father of Witige, according to Völundarkviða, the king of the Sami people had three sons, Völundr and his two brothers Egil and Slagfiðr. In one version of the myth, the three lived with three Valkyries, Ölrún, Hervör alvitr and Hlaðguðr svanhvít. After nine years, the Valkyries left their lovers and Slagfiðr followed, never to return. In another version, Völundr married the swan maiden Hervör, and they had a son, Heime, in both versions, his love left him with a ring. In the former myth, he forged seven hundred duplicates of this ring, King Niðhad captured Völundr in his sleep in Nerike and ordered him hamstrung and imprisoned on the island of Sævarstöð.
There Völundr was forced to forge items for the king, völundrs wifes ring was given to the kings daughter, Böðvildr. In revenge, Völundr killed the kings sons when they visited him in secret, fashioned goblets from their skulls, jewels from their eyes, and he sent the goblets to the king, the jewels to the queen and the brooch to the kings daughter. When Bodvild took her ring to Wayland for mending, he took the ring and raped her and he escaped, using wings he made. Völundr made the magic sword Gram and the ring that Thorsten retrieved. The Old English poem Deor, which recounts the famous sufferings of various figures before turning to those of Deor, its author, begins with Welund, Welund tasted misery among snakes. The stout-hearted hero endured troubles had sorrow and longing as his companions cruelty cold as winter - he often found woe Once Nithad laid restraints on him and that went by, so can this. That went by, so can this, Weland had fashioned the mail shirt worn by Beowulf according to lines 450–455 of the epic poem of the same name, No need to lament for long or lay out my body.
If the battle takes me, send back this breast-webbing that Weland fashioned and Hrethel gave me, fate goes ever as fate must. The Franks Casket is one of a number of other Old English references to Wayland, whose story was well known and popular. Below the forge is the body of Niðhads son, who Wayland has killed, making a goblet from his skull. With his other hand Wayland offers the goblet, containing drugged beer, to Böðvildr, Niðhads daughter, another female figure is shown in the centre, perhaps Waylands helper, or Bodvild again
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Central Asia between the 1st century AD and the 7th century AD. In 91 AD, the Huns were said to be living near the Caspian Sea, by 370, the Huns had established a vast, if short-lived, dominion in Europe. In the 18th century, the French scholar Joseph de Guignes became the first to propose a link between the Huns and the Xiongnu people, who were neighbours of China in the 3rd century BC. Since Guignes time, considerable effort has been devoted to investigating such a connection. However, there is no consensus on a direct connection between the dominant element of the Xiongnu and that of the Huns. Numerous other ethnic groups were included under Attilas rule, including very many speakers of Gothic and their main military technique was mounted archery. The Huns may have stimulated the Great Migration, a factor in the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. They formed an empire under Attila the Hun, who died in 453. Variants of the Hun name are recorded in the Caucasus until the early 8th century, the Huns were a confederation of warrior bands, ready to integrate other groups to increase their military power, in the Eurasian Steppe in the 4th to 6th centuries AD.
Most aspects of their ethnogenesis are uncertain, walter Pohl explicitly states, All we can say safely is that the name Huns, in late antiquity, described prestigious ruling groups of steppe warriors. Jerome associated them with the Scythians in a letter, written four years after the Huns invaded the eastern provinces in 395. The equation of the Huns with the Scythians, together with a fear of the coming of the Antichrist in the late 4th century. This demonization of the Huns is reflected in Jordaness Getica, written in the 6th century, otto J. Maenchen-Helfen was the first to challenge the traditional approach, based primarily on the study of written sources, and to emphasize the importance of archaeological research. Thereafter the identification of the Xiongnu as the Huns ancestors became controversial among some, the similarity of their ethnonyms is one of the most important links between the two peoples. A Sogdian merchant described the invasion of northern China by the Xwn people in a letter, Étienne de la Vaissière asserts both documents prove that Huna or Xwn were the exact transcriptions of the Chinese Xiongnu name.
Christopher P. Atwood rejects that identification because of the very poor match between the three words. For instance, Xiongnu begins with a velar fricative, Huna with a voiceless glottal fricative, Xiongnu is a two-syllable word. However, according to Zhengzhang Shangfang, Xiongnu was pronounced in Late Old Chinese, the Chinese Book of Wei contain references to the remains of the descendants of the Xiongnu who lived in the region of the Altai Mountains in the early 5th century AD
It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empires Greek East and Latin West divided. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empires official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed. Finally, under the reign of Heraclius, the Empires military, the borders of the Empire evolved significantly over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Maurice, the Empires eastern frontier was expanded, in a matter of years the Empire lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arabs. This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia, the Empire recovered again during the Komnenian restoration, such that by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city.
Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence. Its remaining territories were annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 finally ended the Byzantine Empire, the term comes from Byzantium, the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantines capital. This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts. The publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, and in 1680 of Du Canges Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of Byzantine among French authors, however, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world. The Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the Roman Empire, the Empire of the Romans, the Roman Republic, and as Rhōmais. The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and Graikoi, and even as late as the 19th century Greeks typically referred to modern Greek as Romaika and Graikika.
The authority of the Byzantine emperor as the legitimate Roman emperor was challenged by the coronation of Charlemagne as Imperator Augustus by Pope Leo III in the year 800. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known primarily as Rûm, the Roman army succeeded in conquering many territories covering the entire Mediterranean region and coastal regions in southwestern Europe and north Africa. These territories were home to different cultural groups, both urban populations and rural populations. The West suffered heavily from the instability of the 3rd century AD
Kaleva - known as Kalevi or Kalev - is an ancient Finnish ruler, known from the Finnish epic Kalevala. Kaleva and his sons are important heroic figures in Estonian, Widsith states, Caesar ruled the Greeks, Caelic the Finns. I was with the Greeks and Finns and with Caesar, some historians have interpreted the term Caelic in Widsith to refer to the ancient Finnish ruler Kaleva, discussed in the Finnish epic Kalevala. The first clear written mentioning of Kaleva appears in 1641 in the Leyen Spiegel by Heinrich Stahl, the name of Estonias national epic Kalevipoeg means son of Kalevi and the name of Finnish national epic Kalevala means Land of Kaleva. Some have suggested that Kalevala might be the Estonian mainland, according to the 18th century Finnish folklore-collector Kristfrid Ganander, Kaleva had 12 sons in total, which included e. g. such renowned heroes as Väinämöinen and Hiisi. In Estonian stories, sons of Kalev were originally considered royalty, in Finnish stories though, they are more often referred to as giants who built several castles and lived in various regions of Finland.
In either case, they are blamed for oddities in nature. Myths tell that as more and more of the citizens became Christianized, Kalevas sons were forced to leave their country, Kalevala. As time passed, Christians invaded more and more land, pushing Kalevas sons further away, Kalevas sons found an island where they stayed and from where refused to leave. Christian priests came and cursed them, until they took a big stone and they have not been seen since then, but the legend has it that they often appear in the night time and destroy crops on the farm lands or cut down forests. According to the legend, almost the type of visitations are done by the Hiisi people. They too were forced to flee by the Christians, Finnish people called the star Sirius Kalevantähti which means Star of Kaleva. The belt of Orion was called Kalevas sword, oskar Kallis, an Estonian painter from the 1900s, produced the Kalevipoeg series of paintings portraying the epic heroic figure Kaleva/Kalevi/Kalev. These paintings are viewable at Kumu art museum in Estonia, Kalevala Väinämöinen Ilmarinen Joukahainen Lemminkäinen Louhi Hiisi
The Suebi was a large group of related Germanic peoples who lived in Germania in the time of the Roman Empire. They were first mentioned by Julius Caesar in connection with his battles against Ariovistus in Gaul and they actually occupy more than half of Germania, and are divided into a number of distinct tribes under distinct names, though all generally are called Suebi. At one time, classical ethnography had applied the name Suevi to so many Germanic tribes that it appeared as if, in the first centuries AD, classical authors noted that the Suevic tribes, compared to other Germanic tribes, were very mobile and not reliant on agriculture. Various Suevic groups moved from the direction of the Baltic Sea, towards the end of the empire, the Alemanni, referred to as Suebi, first settled in the Agri Decumates and crossed the Rhine and occupied Alsace. An area in southwest Germany is still called Swabia, which derives from the Suebi. Other Suebi entered Gaul and some moved as far as Gallaecia, where they established the Kingdom of the Suebi, which lasted for 170 years until its integration into the Visigothic Kingdom.
Notably, the Semnones, known to classical authors as one of the largest Suebian groups, seem to have a name with this same meaning, alternatively, it may be borrowed from a Celtic word for vagabond. Caesar placed the Suebi east of the Ubii apparently near modern Hesse, in the position where writers mention the Chatti, some commentators believe that Caesars Suebi were the Chatti or possibly the Hermunduri, or Semnones. Later authors use the term Suebi more broadly, to cover a number of tribes in central Germany. Whether or not the Chatti were ever considered Suevi, both Tacitus and Strabo distinguish the two partly because the Chatti were more settled in one territory, whereas Suevi remained less settled. The definitions of the greater ethnic groupings within Germania were apparently not always consistent and clear, whereas Tacitus reported three main kinds of German peoples, Irminones and Ingaevones, Pliny specifically adds two more genera or kinds, the Bastarnae and the Vandili. The Vandals were tribes east of the Elbe, including the well-known Silingi and Burgundians, the modern term Elbe Germanic similarly covers a large grouping of Germanic peoples that at least overlaps with the classical terms Suevi and Irminones.
In the time of Caesar, southern Germany was Celtic, in addition, near the Hercynian forest Caesar believed that the Celtic Tectosages had once lived. All of these peoples had for the most part moved by the time of Tacitus, Cassius Dio wrote that the Suebi, who dwelt across the Rhine, were called Celts, which could mean that some Celtic groups were absorbed by larger Germanic tribal confederations. Strabo, in Book IV of his Geography associates the Suebi with the Hercynian Forest and the south of Germania north of the Danube. He describes a chain of mountains north of the Danube that is like an extension of the Alps, possibly the Swabian Alps. In Book VII Strabo specifically mentions as Suevic peoples the Marcomanni, some of these tribes were inside the forest and some outside of it. Tacitus confirms the name Boiemum, saying it was a survival marking the old population of the place