Attigny is a French commune in the Ardennes department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Attignatiens; the commune has been awarded one flower by the National Council of Towns and Villages in Bloom in the Competition of cities and villages in Bloom. Attigny is located some 16 km east by south-east of Rethel and 14 km west by south-west of Le Chesne. Access to the commune is by the D 987 road from Charbogne in the north passing through the village and continuing south to Coulommes-et-Marqueny; the D 983 road comes from Givry in the west passing through the village and continuing south-east to Vrizy. The D 25 road comes from Saulces-Champenoises in the south-west merging with the D 983 west of the village continuing north-east to Rilly-sur-Aisne. There is a railway with a station just north of the village. There is the hamlet of La Couture east of the village; the town has a large residential area with the rest of the commune farmland. The Aisne river runs through the commune as it flows west to join the Seine at Conflans-Sainte-Honorine.
The Canal des Ardennes is close to and parallel to the Aisne. The Ruisseau de Saint-Lambert flows into the Aisne from the north. In the Middle Ages Attigny had some importance as it had had a royal residence since Clovis II who built a palace there in 647, it was the Carolingian imperial residence and Charlemagne is said to have attended many Christmas and Easter festivals there. Charles the Bald stayed many times at the palace; the first Council of Attigny was convened at Attigny in 765 by Pepin the Short, a general assembly of the Frankish nation, continued as a synodal council). The Council made a decree: "pro causa religionis et salute animarum", signed by twenty-seven bishops and seventeen abbots, it involved a form of alliance in the event of death. Each of the bishops and abbots who signed this document committed, on the death of a member of the alliance, to sing 100 psalms and the priests to celebrate 100 Masses; each of the bishops himself was to celebrate thirty masses and if he was prevented by illness or some other cause, he should appoint another bishop care to celebrate for him.
The abbots who were not bishops should appoint a bishop to say these thirty masses. The monks who were priests were to celebrate 100 Masses and the monks who were not should sing 100 psalms. In 785, Charlemagne held a council at Attigny where Saxon Duke Widukind, main enemy of Charlemagne during his wars against the Saxons, Aboin received baptism from Charlemagne. In 822, Pope Paschal I was present at a Council of Attigny, convened for the reconciliation of the emperor Louis the Pious with his three younger brothers, Hugo and Theodoric, whom he had caused to be violently tortured and whom he had intended to put to death. In the council he confessed publicly his wrongdoing, he exhibited an earnest desire to correct abuses arising from the negligence of the bishops and the nobles and confirmed the rule that the Council of Aachen had drawn up in 816 for canons and monks. In 870, thirty bishops and six archbishops met at Attigny, to pass judgement on Karlomann, the king's son, made an ecclesiastic at an early age, accused by his father of conspiring against his life and throne.
He was imprisoned at Senlis. In the council of 875 Hincmar, Bishop of Laon appealed to the pope for his uncle, Archbishop of Reims. In 880 the Battle of Attigny was fought between a Carolingian coalition against an army of Boso - self-proclaimed King of Provence. In 916 Charles the Simple transported relics of Saint Walpurga to Attigny and founded a chapel served by twelve canons and his intention was that this chapel would be subject to the Abbey of Saint-Corneille at Compiègne; the Carolingians abandoned the residence before 931 and the palace disappeared after the 10th century. Attigny was a royal domain and remained so when it ceased to be a royal residence of the Carolingians. At the beginning of the 10th century it encompassed at least 3,500 hectares. Donations of land to the Church remained limited; the domain passed intact to the smaller Capetian royal domain. It formed the dowry of the daughter of Philip I, Constance, on her marriage to Hugh, Count of Champagne, in 1093; the domain was split apart by the prince for the benefit of Reims Cathedral, is the origin of the ecclesiastical lordships of Attigny and Sainte-Vaubourg.
A Leper colony was cited in the 14th century. The town was badly damaged by the two world wars. From 14 May to 10 June 1940 the 18th Infantry Regiment of Pau fought at Attigny. For 25 consecutive days it repelled successive attacks by an enemy superior in numbers and resources, they left their position in their flanks being threatened by the German advance. The town was destroyed in 1914 and 1940. Attigny holds two Croix de Guerre. A monument to the 18th Infantry Regiment was inaugurated on 20 September 1947 near the canal bridge. A plaque celebrating Franco-German reconciliation was affixed by the Fellowship of the French 18th regiment and the German 20th Infantry Regiment of Ratisbonne; this regiment was part of the attacking German forces at Attigny. Croix de guerre 1914-1918: 4 September 1920Croix de guerre 1939-1945: 12 February 1949 List of Successive Mayors In 2010 the com
Widukind of Corvey
Widukind of Corvey was a medieval Saxon chronicler. His three-volume Res gestae saxonicae sive annalium libri tres is an important chronicle of 10th-century Germany during the rule of the Ottonian dynasty. In view of his name, he was a descendant of the Saxon leader and national hero Widukind, mentioned in the Royal Frankish Annals, who had battled Charlemagne in the Saxon Wars from 777 to 785. Widukind the Chronicler entered the Benedictine abbey of Corvey in the Westphalian part of Saxony around 940/42 to become a tutor, it is assumed that he had reached the age of 15 upon his access, though it has been suggested that he may have joined the Order as a child. In 936 Henry the Fowler, the first East Frankish king of the Saxon ducal Ottonian dynasty had died and was succeeded by his son Otto the Great. Otto's rise as undisputed ruler of a German kingdom against the reluctant dukes made great impression on the Benedictine monk. By his own admission, Widukind first wrote several Christian hagiographies before he began his Res gestae saxonicae.
He dedicated the chronicles to Abbess Matilda of Quedlinburg, daughter of Emperor Otto the Great, like himself a descendant of the Saxon leader Widukind. The annals were written after Otto's coronation by Pope John XII on 2 February 962. After the elevation of Matilda's brother Otto II as co-emperor in 967 and the death of her half-brother Archbishop William of Mainz one year the abbess remained the only important member of the Ottonian dynasty in the Saxon lands under regent Hermann Billung; the annals were continued until Otto's death on 7 May 973. Widukind died thereafter at Corvey Abbey; the Res gestae saxonicae are significant historical accounts of the times of Otto the Great and Henry the Fowler, modelled on the works of the Roman historian Sallust and the deuterocanonical Books of the Maccabees. Widukind wrote as a Saxon, proud of his people and history, beginning his narration not with the Roman Empire but with a brief synopsis derived from the orally-transmitted history of the Saxons and their struggles with the Franks, with a terseness that makes his work difficult to interpret.
Widukind of Corvey starts with the wars between Theuderich I, King of Austrasia, the Thuringii, in which the Saxons played a large part. An allusion to the conversion of the Saxons to Christianity under Charlemagne brings him to the early Saxon dukes and details of the reign of Henry the Fowler, he omitted Italian events in tracing the career of Henry, nor does he mention a pope, but one of the three surviving manuscripts of his Gesta was transcribed in Benevento, the Lombard duchy south of Rome. The second book opens with the election of Otto the Great as German king, treats of the risings against his authority, again omitting events in Italy, concludes with the death of his first wife Edith of England in 946. A manuscript of Res gestae saxonicae sive annalium libri tres was first published in Basle in 1532 and is today in the British Library. There are two other surviving manuscripts; the best edition was published in 1935 by Paul Hirsch and Hans-Eberhard Lohmann in the series Monumenta Germaniae Historica: Scriptores rerum Germanicarum in usum scholarum editi.
A German translation appears in the Quellen zur Geschichte der sächsischen Kaiserzeit published by Albert Bauer and Reinhold Rau in 1971. An English translation is found in an unprinted doctoral dissertation: Raymond F. Wood, The three books of the deeds of the Saxons, by Widukind of Corvey, translated with introduction and bibliography. Widukind is credited with a vita of St Paul and St Thecla doubtless based on the 2nd century Acts of Paul and Thecla, but no traces of it now remain. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Widukind of Corvey". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Widukind". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. An English translation with notes by Raymund F. Wood, The three books of the Deeds of the Saxons, unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 1949, available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses
Easter called Pascha or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday commemorating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day after his burial following his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary c. 30 AD. It is the culmination of the Passion of Jesus, preceded by Lent, a 40-day period of fasting and penance. Most Christians refer to the week before Easter as "Holy Week", which contains the days of the Easter Triduum, including Maundy Thursday, commemorating the Maundy and Last Supper, as well as Good Friday, commemorating the crucifixion and death of Jesus. In Western Christianity, Eastertide, or the Easter Season, begins on Easter Sunday and lasts seven weeks, ending with the coming of the 50th day, Pentecost Sunday. In Eastern Christianity, the season of Pascha begins on Pascha and ends with the coming of the 40th day, the Feast of the Ascension. Easter and the holidays that are related to it are moveable feasts which do not fall on a fixed date in the Gregorian or Julian calendars which follow only the cycle of the sun.
The First Council of Nicaea established two rules, independence of the Jewish calendar and worldwide uniformity, which were the only rules for Easter explicitly laid down by the council. No details for the computation were specified, it has come to be the first Sunday after the ecclesiastical full moon that occurs on or soonest after 21 March, but calculations vary. Easter is linked to the Jewish Passover by much of its symbolism, as well as by its position in the calendar. In most European languages the feast is called by the words for passover in those languages. Easter customs vary across the Christian world, include sunrise services, exclaiming the Paschal greeting, clipping the church, decorating Easter eggs; the Easter lily, a symbol of the resurrection, traditionally decorates the chancel area of churches on this day and for the rest of Eastertide. Additional customs that have become associated with Easter and are observed by both Christians and some non-Christians include egg hunting, the Easter Bunny, Easter parades.
There are various traditional Easter foods that vary regionally. The modern English term Easter, cognate with modern Dutch ooster and German Ostern, developed from an Old English word that appears in the form Ēastrun, -on, or -an; the most accepted theory of the origin of the term is that it is derived from the name of an Old English goddess mentioned by the 7th to 8th-century English monk Bede, who wrote that Ēosturmōnaþ was an English month, corresponding to April, which he says "was once called after a goddess of theirs named Ēostre, in whose honour feasts were celebrated in that month". In Latin and Greek, the Christian celebration was, still is, called Pascha, a word derived from Aramaic פסחא, cognate to Hebrew פֶּסַח; the word denoted the Jewish festival known in English as Passover, commemorating the Jewish Exodus from slavery in Egypt. As early as the 50s of the 1st century, writing from Ephesus to the Christians in Corinth, applied the term to Christ, it is unlikely that the Ephesian and Corinthian Christians were the first to hear Exodus 12 interpreted as speaking about the death of Jesus, not just about the Jewish Passover ritual.
In most of the non-English speaking world, the feast is known by names derived from Greek and Latin Pascha. Pascha is a name by which Jesus himself is remembered in the Orthodox Church in connection with his resurrection and with the season of its celebration; the New Testament states that the resurrection of Jesus, which Easter celebrates, is one of the chief tenets of the Christian faith. The resurrection established Jesus as the powerful Son of God and is cited as proof that God will righteously judge the world. For those who trust in Jesus' death and resurrection, "death is swallowed up in victory." Any person who chooses to follow Jesus receives "a new birth into a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead". Through faith in the working of God those who follow Jesus are spiritually resurrected with him so that they may walk in a new way of life and receive eternal salvation. Easter is linked to Passover and the Exodus from Egypt recorded in the Old Testament through the Last Supper and crucifixion of Jesus that preceded the resurrection.
According to the New Testament, Jesus gave the Passover meal a new meaning, as in the upper room during the Last Supper he prepared himself and his disciples for his death. He identified the matzah and cup of wine as his body soon to be sacrificed and his blood soon to be shed. Paul states, "Get rid of the old yeast that you may be a new batch without yeast—as you are. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed"; the first Christians and Gentile, were aware of the Hebrew calendar. Jewish Christians, the first to celebrate the resurrection of Jesus, timed the observance in relation to Passover. Direct evidence for a more formed Christian festival of Pascha begins to appear in the mid-2nd century; the earliest extant primary source referring to East
Deventer is a city and municipality in the Salland region of the province of Overijssel, Netherlands. In 2017, Deventer had a population of 99,577; the city is situated on the east bank of the river IJssel, but has a small part of its territory on the west bank. In 2005 the municipality of Bathmen was merged with Deventer as part of a national effort to reduce bureaucracy in the country. Deventer was founded around AD 768 by the English missionary Lebuinus, who built a wooden church on the east bank of the river IJssel. In January 772 the sack and burning of this church by a Saxon expedition was the cause for the first punitive war waged by Charlemagne to the Saxons, in which, in retribution, the Irminsul was destroyed; this was not the first human settlement at the location. It was rebuilt and fortified with an earthen wall. Deventer received city rights in 956, after which fortifications were built or replaced by stone walls around the city for defense. Between 1000 and 1500, Deventer grew to be a flourishing trade city because of its harbour on the river IJssel, capable of accommodating large ships.
The city joined the Hanseatic League. One of the commodities it traded in, dried haddock and cod from Norway, gave the citizens the nickname they carry to this day: "Deventer Stokvis" In the 15th century, Deventer had a common mint, where coins for the three IJssel cities Deventer and Kampen were made. Deventer is the birthplace of Geert Groote and home to his Brethren of the Common Life, a school of religious thought that influenced Thomas a Kempis and Erasmus in times. Together with Haarlem it was among the first cities to have printing presses, dating back to as early as 1477. From around 1300, it housed a Latin School, which became internationally renowned, remained in service in changing forms until 1971, its most well-known was the scholar Desiderius Erasmus, born in 1466 and attended the school from 1475 to 1484. Between 1500 and 1800, the volume of water flowing through the IJssel decreased, decreasing the importance of Deventer's harbour; the competition with trade centres in Holland, as well as the religious war between 1568 and 1648, brought a decline in the city's economy.
In the 18th century, the iron industry came to Deventer. East of the town, so-called "oer", riversand containing iron, was found as early as 900. From this material, ore was brought to town; the main road of the villages Okkenbroek and Schalkhaar is still named Oerdijk. In the 19th century, Deventer became an industrial town. Bicycles, carpets and cans for food and drinks, cigars and heavy machinery, textiles were produced until the mid to late 20th century; some of these industries are still thriving today, such as beds and accessories and publishing The city's trade and industry is still of some importance. The city is host to a factory producing central heating systems, as well as Wolters Kluwer, a global information services and publishing company; the Deventer honey cake, produced in Deventer for over 500 years, is still manufactured locally and sold all over the Netherlands and beyond. Deventer has seen few military engagements throughout its long history, although it was a garrison city of the Dutch cavalry.
The industrial area and harbour were bombed during World War II. The city centre has been spared, thus offering a view that has remained unchanged for the past few centuries; the female Jewish poet and writer Etty Hillesum lived in Deventer during the war before being deported to Auschwitz. In Schalkhaar, a village only 2 km northeast of the city centre, barracks were used by the German occupying forces to train Nazi policemen; the compound is now a centre for asylum seekers. Deventer has been somewhat popular with the film industry. During the production of the 1977 film A Bridge Too Far, all of the scenes taking place in nearby Arnhem were filmed in Deventer - as Arnhem itself had lost its historic centre. Associated hamlets at second level The population centres in the municipality are: Deventer Snippeling Colmschate De Bannink Oxe Diepenveen, a village 4 km to the north, surrounded by forest Molenbelt Rande Tjoene Lettele, in a forest area Linde Oude Molen Zandbelt Okkenbroek Schalkhaar Averlo Frieswijk Bathmen Apenhuizen Dortherhoek Loo Pieriksmars Zuidloo The Waag on the edge of the Brink square, built in 1550 and restored in 2003.
The Deventer City Museum is housed inside the Waag. The Museum's collections include industrial and trading history, paintings by Gerard Terborch and Han van Meegeren, silver objects, prehistoric findings). Thea Beckman's novel Het wonder. On the outer w
Paderborn is a city in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, capital of the Paderborn district. The name of the city derives from the river Pader and "born", an old German term for the source of a river; the river Pader originates in more than 200 springs near Paderborn Cathedral, where St. Liborius is buried. Paderborn was founded as a bishopric by Charlemagne in 795, although its official history began in 777 when Charlemagne built a castle near the Pader springs. In 799 Pope Leo III fled his enemies in Rome and reached Paderborn, where he met Charlemagne, stayed there for three months, it was during this time. Charlemagne was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Leo in return. In 836, St. Liborius became the patron saint of Paderborn after his bones were moved there from Le Mans by Bishop Badurad. St. Liborius is commemorated in Paderborn every year in July with the Liborifest; the bishop of Paderborn, became a Prince of the Empire in 1100. The bishop had several large buildings built, the area became a place for the emperors to stay.
The city was taken by Prussia in 1802 by the French vassal state Kingdom of Westphalia from 1807 to 1813 and returned to Prussia. Native Friedrich Sertürner, a pharmacist's apprentice in Paderborn, was the first to isolate morphine from opium in 1804. In 1930, the See of Paderborn was promoted to archdiocese. During World War II, Paderborn was bombed by Allied aircraft in 1944 and 1945, resulting in 85% destruction, including many of the historic buildings, it was seized by the US 3rd Armored Division after a pitched battle 31 March - 1 April 1945, in which tanks and flamethrowers were used during combined mechanized-infantry assaults against the city's southwestern and southeastern approaches. After the city was reconstructed in the 1940s and 1950s, Paderborn became a major industrial seat in Westphalia; the British Army has retained a significant presence in the area, uses the nearby Sennelager Training Area. Paderborn is situated at the source of the river Pader 30 kilometres east of Lippstadt and 50 kilometres south of Bielefeld on the Pader.
The hills of the Eggegebirge are located east of the city. The city of Paderborn consists of the following Stadtteile: Paderborn has a population of over 144,000, of which 10% are students at the local university. Additionally, about 10,000 members or relatives of members of the British armed forces live within Westfalen Garrison, but are not included in the nominal population size. 60% of the population are Catholics, 20% Lutherans and 20% "other". Paderborn is the headquarters of the former Nixdorf Computer AG, acquired by Siemens in the early 1990s and known as Siemens-Nixdorf for about 10 years; the company is now known as Wincor Nixdorf, still located in Paderborn, but Siemens retains a considerable presence in the city. Many other information technology companies as well as industrial enterprises are located in Paderborn, too: Benteler AG Claas Deutsche Bahn AG dSPACE GmbH Flextronics Fujitsu Technology Solutions Orga Systems GmbH Secure Computing Corporation Siemens AG Zuken Paderborn is home of the "Paderborner" brewery, which has belonged to the Warsteiner group since 1990.
Paderborn has the largest computer museum in the de: Heinz Nixdorf MuseumsForum. From 2001 to 2005 it hosted the RoboCup German Open; the town supports the Nordwestdeutsche Philharmonie for regular symphony concerts in the Paderhalle. The city is known today for its exhibitions in three museums: the Kaiserpfalz, The Diocesian Museum and the Art Museum - Städtische Galerie. Paderborn is a sister city with: Le Mans, France since 1967, traditionally since 836 Bolton, United Kingdom, since 1975 Belleville, Illinois, U. S. since 1990 Pamplona, since 1992 Przemyśl, since 1993 Debrecen, since 1994 Qingdao, since 2003 Paderborn is nationally known as a center for American Sports. The local baseball team, the Paderborn Untouchables, has won many German championships; the local American Football team, the Paderborn Dolphins, has enjoyed considerable success. In 2006 the Paderborn Baskets, the home basketball team of the city was promoted to the Bundesliga. In the past, the Paderborn Baskets played multiple seasons in the Basketball Bundesliga.
They reached the playoffs in the 2008-09 season. SC Paderborn 07 is a German football club based in Paderborn. Promoted from the 2. Bundesliga due to a successful 2013/2014 campaign, the team advanced to the Bundesliga, Germany's top flight, but remained there for just one year; the club was formed out of the 1985 merger of FC Paderborn and TuS Schloß Neuhaus as TuS Paderborn-Neuhaus and took on its current, shorter name in 1997. The Neuhaus club was founded in 1907 as SV 07 Neuhaus, joined by the local side TuS 1910 Sennelager to become TuS Schloss Neuhaus in 1970; the Neuhaus and Paderborn teams played as tier III sides for most of their histories, as has the unified club. Today Paderborn plays. Paderborn is located at the Autobahn A 33, which connects Paderborn to the Autobahn A 2 in the north and the Autobahn A 44 in the south; the main station is a regular stop for the InterCity on the Hamm–Warburg line and several local trains. The Paderborn Lippstadt Airport connects Paderborn to the bigger German airports and offers flights to many locations in Europe.
There is a bus shuttle between the airport and the Paderbo
The wolf known as the grey/gray wolf or timber wolf, is a canine native to the wilderness and remote areas of Eurasia and North America. It is the largest extant member of its family, with males averaging 43 -- females 36 -- 38.5 kg. It is distinguished from other Canis species by its larger size and less pointed features on the ears and muzzle, its winter fur is long and bushy and predominantly a mottled gray in color, although nearly pure white and brown to black occur. Mammal Species of the World, a standard reference work in zoology, recognises 38 subspecies of C. lupus. The gray wolf is the second most specialized member of the genus Canis, after the Ethiopian wolf, as demonstrated by its morphological adaptations to hunting large prey, its more gregarious nature, its advanced expressive behavior, it is nonetheless related enough to smaller Canis species, such as the coyote, golden jackal, to produce fertile hybrids. It is the only species of Canis to have a range encompassing both Eurasia and North America, originated in Eurasia during the Pleistocene, colonizing North America on at least three separate occasions during the Rancholabrean.
It is a social animal, travelling in nuclear families consisting of a mated pair, accompanied by the pair's adult offspring. The gray wolf is an apex predator throughout its range, with only humans and tigers posing a serious threat to it, it feeds on large ungulates, though it eats smaller animals, livestock and garbage. A seven-year-old wolf is considered to be old, the maximum lifespan is about 16 years; the global gray wolf population is estimated to be 300,000. The gray wolf is one of the world's best-known and most-researched animals, with more books written about it than any other wildlife species, it has a long history of association with humans, having been despised and hunted in most pastoral communities because of its attacks on livestock, while conversely being respected in some agrarian and hunter-gatherer societies. Although the fear of wolves is pervasive in many human societies, the majority of recorded attacks on people have been attributed to animals suffering from rabies. Non-rabid wolves have attacked and killed people children, but this is rare, as wolves are few, live away from people, have developed a fear of humans from hunters and shepherds.
The English'wolf' stems from the Old English wulf, itself thought to be derived from the Proto-Germanic *wulfaz. The Latin lupus is a Sabine loanword. Both derive from the Proto-Indo-European root * lukwos; the species Canis lupus was first recorded by Carl Linnaeus in his publication Systema Naturae in 1758, with the Latin classification translating into the English words "dog wolf". The 37 subspecies of Canis lupus are listed under the designated common name of "wolf" in Mammal Species of the World, published in 2005; the nominate subspecies is the Eurasian wolf known as the common wolf. The subspecies includes the domestic dog, eastern wolf and red wolf, but lists C. l. italicus as a synonym of C. l. lupus. However, the classification of several as either species or subspecies has been challenged; the evolution of the wolf occurred over a geologic time scale of at least 300,000 years. The gray wolf Canis lupus is a adaptable species, able to exist in a range of environments and which possesses a wide distribution across the Holarctic.
Studies of modern gray wolves have identified distinct sub-populations that live in close proximity to each other. This variation in sub-populations is linked to differences in habitat – precipitation, temperature and prey specialization – which affect cranio-dental plasticity; the archaeological and paleontological records show gray wolf continuous presence for at least the last 300,000 years. This continuous presence contrasts with genomic analyses, which suggest that all modern wolves and dogs descend from a common ancestral wolf population that existed as as 20,000 years ago; these analyses indicate a population bottleneck, followed by a rapid radiation from an ancestral population at a time during, or just after, the Last Glacial Maximum. However, the geographic origin of this radiation is not known. In 2018, whole genome sequencing was used to compare members of the genus Canis, along with the dhole and the African hunting dog. There is evidence of gene flow between African golden wolves, golden jackals, gray wolves.
One African golden wolf from the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula showed high admixture with the Middle Eastern gray wolves and dogs, highlighting the role of the land bridge between the African and Eurasian continents in canid evolution. There was evidence of gene flow between golden jackals and Middle Eastern wolves, less so with European and Asian wolves, least with North American wolves; the study proposes that the golden jackal ancestry found in North American wolves may have occurred before the divergence of the Eurasian and North American gray wolves. The study indicates that the common ancestor of the coyote and gray wolf has genetically admixed with a ghost population of an extinct unidentified canid; the canid is genetically close to the dhole and has evolved after the divergence of the African hunting dog from the other canid species. The basal position of the coyote compared to the wolf is proposed to be due to the coyote retaining more of the mitochondrial genome of this unknown canid.
In 2013, a genetic study found that the wolf population in Europe was divided along a north-south axis and formed five major clusters. Three clusters were identified occupying southern and
A church building or church house simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities for Christian worship services. The term is used by Christians to refer to the physical buildings where they worship, but it is sometimes used to refer to buildings of other religions. In traditional Christian architecture, the church is arranged in the shape of a Christian cross; when viewed from plan view the longest part of a cross is represented by the aisle and the junction of the cross is located at the altar area. Towers or domes are added with the intention of directing the eye of the viewer towards the heavens and inspiring visitors. Modern church buildings have a variety of architectural layouts; the earliest identified Christian church building was a house church founded between 233 and 256. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches were erected across Western Europe. A cathedral is a church building Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, or Oriental Orthodox, housing a cathedra, the formal name for the seat or throne of a presiding bishop.
In Greek, the adjective kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón means "belonging, or pertaining, to a Kyrios", the usage was adopted by early Christians of the Eastern Mediterranean with regard to anything pertaining to the Lord Jesus Christ: hence "Kyriakós oíkos", "Kyriakē", or "Kyriakē proseukhē". In standard Greek usage, the older word "ecclesia" was retained to signify both a specific edifice of Christian worship, the overall community of the faithful; this usage was retained in Latin and the languages derived from Latin, as well as in the Celtic languages and in Turkish. In the Germanic and some Slavic languages, the word kyriak-ós/-ē/-ón was adopted instead and derivatives formed thereof. In Old English the sequence of derivation started as "cirice" Middle English "churche", "church" in its current pronunciation. German Kirche, Scots kirk, Russian церковь, etc. are all derived. According to the New Testament, the earliest Christians did not build church buildings. Instead, they synagogues; the earliest archeologically identified Christian church is a house church, the Dura-Europos church, founded between 233 and 256.
In the second half of the 3rd century AD, the first purpose-built halls for Christian worship began to be constructed. Although many of these were destroyed early in the next century during the Diocletianic Persecution larger and more elaborate church buildings began to appear during the reign of the Emperor Constantine the Great. From the 11th through the 14th centuries, a wave of building of cathedrals and smaller parish churches occurred across Western Europe. In addition to being a place of worship, the cathedral or the parish church was used by the community in other ways, it could serve as a hall for banquets. Mystery plays were sometimes performed in cathedrals, cathedrals might be used for fairs; the church could be used as a place to store grain. Between 1000 and 1200 the romanesque style became popular across Europe. While the name of the romanesque era refers to the tradition of Roman architecture, it was a West- and Central European trend. Romanesque buildings appear rather compact.
Typical features are circular arches, octagonal towers and cushion capitals on the pillars. In the early romanesque era, coffering on the ceiling was fashionable, while in the same era, groined vault was more popular; the rooms became the motivs of sculptures became more epic. The Gothic style emerged around 1140 in spread through all of Europe; the gothic buildings were less compact than they had been in the romanesque era and contained symbolic and allegoric features. For the first time, pointed arches, rib vaults and buttresses were used, with the result that massive walls were not longer needed to stabilise the building. Due to that advantage, the area of the windows became bigger, which resulted in a brighter and more friendly atmosphere inside the church; the nave so did the pillars and the church steeple. The amibition to test out the limits of the architectural possibilities resulted in the collapse of several towers. In Germany and the Netherlands, but in Spain, it became popular to build hall churches, in which every vault has the same height.
Cathedrals were built in a lavish way, as in the romanesque era. Examples for that are the Notre-Dame de Paris and the Notre-Dame de Reims in France, but the San Francesco d’Assisi in Palermo, the Salisbury Cathedral and the Wool Church in Lavenham, England. Many gothic churches contain features from the romanesque era; some of the most well-known gothic churches stayed unfinished for hundreds of years, after the gothic style was not popular anymore. About half of the Cologne Cathedral was for example build in the 19th century. In the 15th and 16th century, the change in e