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The WikiWikiWeb is the first-ever wiki, or user-editable website. It was launched on 25 March 1995 by its inventor, programmer Ward Cunningham, to accompany the Portland Pattern Repository website discussing software design patterns; the name WikiWikiWeb also applied to the wiki software that operated the website, written in the Perl programming language and renamed to "WikiBase". The site is referred to by its users as "Wiki", a convention established among users of the early network of wiki sites that followed was that using the word with a capitalized W referred to the original site; the software and website were developed in 1994 by Cunningham in order to make the exchange of ideas between programmers easier. The concept was based on the ideas developed in HyperCard stacks that Cunningham built in the late 1980s. On March 25, 1995, he installed the software on Cunningham came up with the name WikiWikiWeb because he remembered a Honolulu International Airport counter employee who told him to take the Wiki Wiki Shuttle, a shuttle bus line that runs between the airport's terminals.

"Wiki Wiki" is a reduplication of "wiki", a Hawaiian language word for "quick". Cunningham's idea was to make WikiWikiWeb's pages editable by its users, so he thought about calling it "QuickWeb", but changed his mind and dubbed it "WikiWikiWeb"; as of May 2015, the WikiWikiWeb's WelcomeVisitors page contained the following description: Welcome to WikiWikiWeb known as Ward's wiki or just Wiki. A lot of people had their first wiki experience here; this community consists of many people. We always accept newcomers with valuable contributions. If you haven't used a wiki before, be prepared for a bit of CultureShock; the beauty of Wiki is in the freedom and power it offers. This site's primary focus is PeopleProjectsAndPatterns in SoftwareDevelopment. However, it is more than just an InformalHistoryOfProgrammingIdeas, it started there. All Wiki content is WorkInProgress. Most of all, this is a forum where people share ideas! It changes as people go. Much of the information here is subjective. If you are looking for a dedicated reference site, try WikiPedia.

Hyperlinks between pages on WikiWikiWeb are created by joining capitalized words together, a technique referred to as camel case. This convention of wiki markup formatting is still followed by some more recent wiki software, whereas others, such as the MediaWiki software that powers Wikipedia, allow links without camel case. In December 2014, WikiWikiWeb came under the attack of vandals, is now in a read-only state. On February 1, 2015 Cunningham announced that the Wiki had been rewritten as a single-page application and migrated to the new Federated Wiki. History of wikis WikiWikiWeb WikiWikiWeb via Wayback Machine The WikiBase software The WikiBase Software via Wayback Machine Wiki design principles WikiWikiWeb Wiki Design Principles via Wayback Machine The history of WikiWikiWeb, including comments by Ward Cunningham The History of WikiWikiWeb via Wayback Machine Correspondence on the Etymology of Wiki — Ward Cunningham Cunningham & Cunningham, Inc. Another use of the term "wiki wiki"

Strangers (2007 Hindi film)

Strangers is 2007 Hindi film directed by Aanand L. Rai and starring Jimmy Sheirgill, Kay Kay Menon, Nandana Sen, Sonali Kulkarni, it is an adaptation of the 1951 Alfred Hitchcock film Strangers on a Train, based on the novel Strangers on a Train by Patricia Highsmith. Rahul, a flop writer, Sanjeev Rai, a management professional giant, are travelling in business class compartment of train in England from Southampton to London; the claustrophobia of closed space and fact that they both are Indians binds them in chatting. The chatting gets more and more personal and they both learn that they are not happy with their married lives. Rai is living a miserable life. After his son's death, his wife Nandini is in state of madness. Rahul is not respected by his wife Preity after crash of his ambitious career as writer. Rahul and Sanjeev Rai come to a mutual conclusion that the only way to get out of their painful life is to kill each other's wife, but what happens thereafter? Jimmy Sheirgill as "Rahul" Kay Kay Menon as "Sanjeev Rai" Nandana Sen as "Preity", wife of Rahul Sonali Kulkarni as "Nandini", wife of Sanjeev in a special appearance Kitu Gidwani as a publisher in a guest role Natalie Hatcher as Frances, Preity's friend Mark Von as Peter, Frances's husband This is first film by Anand Rai as director.

Earlier Anand Rai has worked as associate director for the 2000 Hindi film Anjaane directed by Ravi Rai. The English translation of the Hindi word "anjaane" is "strangers". Strangers on IMDb

Francisco de Navarra y Hualde

Francisco de Navarra y Hualde was a Roman Catholic prelate who served as Archbishop of Valencia, Bishop of Badajoz, Bishop of Ciudad Rodrigo in emperor Charles V's Spain. Francisco de Navarra y Hualde was born in Tafalla, Kingdom of Navarre, in 1498, he was the son of Pedro, Marshall of Navarre, a lady from Tafalla surnamed Hualde. As a young man he was affected by the conquest of Navarre. Following the pardons decreed by the emperor Charles V that paved the ground to the end of the Siege of Hondarribia, he was appointed prior of Roncesvalles removed from Navarre. On May 22, 1542, Pope Paul III appointed him Bishop of Ciudad Rodrigo. On December 14, 1545, he was appointed by Bishop of Badajoz. On May 4, 1556, Pope Paul IV appointed him Archbishop of Valencia and he was installed on Jun 22, 1556, he served as Bishop of Badajoz until his death on April 16, 1563. While bishop, he was the principal co-consecrator of Archbishop of Valencia. He, along with his fellow Navarrese Martin Azpilcueta, defended Bartolome Carranza against the charges of Spanish Inquisition and the intent of King Philip II starting 1558.

Cheney, David M. "Archdiocese of Valencia". Retrieved June 16, 2018. Chow, Gabriel. "Metropolitan Archdiocese of Valencia". Retrieved June 16, 2018. Cheney, David M. "Archdiocese of Mérida–Badajoz". Retrieved June 16, 2018. Chow, Gabriel. "Metropolitan Archdiocese of Mérida–Badajoz". Retrieved June 16, 2018. Cheney, David M. "Diocese of Ciudad Rodrigo". Retrieved June 16, 2018. Chow, Gabriel. "Diocese of Ciudad Rodrigo". Retrieved June 16, 2018

History of biotechnology

Biotechnology is the application of scientific and engineering principles to the processing of materials by biological agents to provide goods and services. From its inception, biotechnology has maintained a close relationship with society. Although now most associated with the development of drugs biotechnology has been principally associated with food, addressing such issues as malnutrition and famine; the history of biotechnology begins with zymotechnology, which commenced with a focus on brewing techniques for beer. By World War I, zymotechnology would expand to tackle larger industrial issues, the potential of industrial fermentation gave rise to biotechnology. However, both the single-cell protein and gasohol projects failed to progress due to varying issues including public resistance, a changing economic scene, shifts in political power, yet the formation of a new field, genetic engineering, would soon bring biotechnology to the forefront of science in society, the intimate relationship between the scientific community, the public, the government would ensue.

These debates gained exposure in 1975 at the Asilomar Conference, where Joshua Lederberg was the most outspoken supporter for this emerging field in biotechnology. By as early as 1978, with the development of synthetic human insulin, Lederberg's claims would prove valid, the biotechnology industry grew rapidly; each new scientific advance became a media event designed to capture public support, by the 1980s, biotechnology grew into a promising real industry. In 1988, only five proteins from genetically engineered cells had been approved as drugs by the United States Food and Drug Administration, but this number would skyrocket to over 125 by the end of the 1990s; the field of genetic engineering remains a heated topic of discussion in today's society with the advent of gene therapy, stem cell research and genetically modified food. While it seems only natural nowadays to link pharmaceutical drugs as solutions to health and societal problems, this relationship of biotechnology serving social needs began centuries ago.

Biotechnology arose from the field of zymotechnology or zymurgy, which began as a search for a better understanding of industrial fermentation beer. Beer was an important industrial, not just social, commodity. In late 19th-century Germany, brewing contributed as much to the gross national product as steel, taxes on alcohol proved to be significant sources of revenue to the government. In the 1860s, institutes and remunerative consultancies were dedicated to the technology of brewing; the most famous was the private Carlsberg Institute, founded in 1875, which employed Emil Christian Hansen, who pioneered the pure yeast process for the reliable production of consistent beer. Less well known were private consultancies. One of these, the Zymotechnic Institute, was established in Chicago by the German-born chemist John Ewald Siebel; the heyday and expansion of zymotechnology came in World War I in response to industrial needs to support the war. Max Delbrück grew yeast on an immense scale during the war to meet 60 percent of Germany's animal feed needs.

Compounds of another fermentation product, lactic acid, made up for a lack of hydraulic fluid, glycerol. On the Allied side the Russian chemist Chaim Weizmann used starch to eliminate Britain's shortage of acetone, a key raw material for cordite, by fermenting maize to acetone; the industrial potential of fermentation was outgrowing its traditional home in brewing, "zymotechnology" soon gave way to "biotechnology." With food shortages spreading and resources fading, some dreamed of a new industrial solution. The Hungarian Károly Ereky coined the word "biotechnology" in Hungary during 1919 to describe a technology based on converting raw materials into a more useful product, he built a slaughterhouse for a thousand pigs and a fattening farm with space for 50,000 pigs, raising over 100,000 pigs a year. The enterprise was enormous, becoming one of the largest and most profitable meat and fat operations in the world. In a book entitled Biotechnologie, Ereky further developed a theme that would be reiterated through the 20th century: biotechnology could provide solutions to societal crises, such as food and energy shortages.

For Ereky, the term "biotechnologie" indicated the process by which raw materials could be biologically upgraded into useful products. This catchword spread after the First World War, as "biotechnology" entered German dictionaries and was taken up abroad by business-hungry private consultancies as far away as the United States. In Chicago, for example, the coming of prohibition at the end of World War I encouraged biological industries to create opportunities for new fermentation products, in particular a market for nonalcoholic drinks. Emil Siebel, the son of the founder of the Zymotechnic Institute, broke away from his father's company to establish his own called the "Bureau of Biotechnology," which offered expertise in fermented nonalcoholic drinks; the belief that the needs of an industrial society could be met by fermenting agricultural waste was an important ingredient of the "chemurgic movement." Fermentation-based processes generated products of ever-growing utility. In the 1940s, penicillin was the most dramatic.

While it was discovered in England, it was produced industrially in the U. S. using a deep fermentation process developed in Peoria, Illinois. The enormous profits and the public expectations penicillin engendered caused a radical shift in the standing of the pharmaceutical industry. Doctors used the phrase "miracle drug", the historian of its wartime use, David Adams, has suggested that to the public penicillin represented the perfect health that went togethe


Ashiyana was a popular 1997 Pakistani drama series, aired on the Pakistan Television network in 1997. The Story is about orphan siblings and the challenges they face in their life. Despite all their struggles they manage to make their home into a house full of life; the series highlighted the struggle between those living in rural Pakistan who wish to emigrate abroad in the desire for a better life. Qavi Khan as Wajid Khan Irfan Khoosat as Chaudhary Rehmat Waseem Abbas as Nouman Seemi Zaidi as Sapna Maria Wasti as Saima M. Zubair as Bhai Uncle Javed Kodu as Babu Kashif Mehmood as Saif Shazib Mirza as Chaudhary Nazeer Sanam Nazi as Babi Aunty Aamna Ahmed as Narmeen Mahazaib as Billo Zia Khan as Sajid Azhar Zaheer as Waqar Uncle Amanat Chann as Chand Chacha Tufail as Chacha Karmo Atiq as Atiq Tahir Noushad as Rafiq Touqeer Ahmed as Dumb Man Imran Islam as Aamir Atif Mehmood as Bantoo Semal Rehan as Gurya Furqan Latif as Waleed Nadia Saeed as Alia Najma Wasti as Raheela Abdulla as Jabbar Mechanic Anita Kamfiar as Aya AmmaRage Music Band Salman Ali Cristopher Ahmer

Wellie wanging

Welly throwing known as welly hoying, welly wanging and boot throwing, is a sport in which competitors are required to throw a Wellington boot as far as possible. The sport appears to have originated in the West Country of England in the 1970s, became a popular activity at village fêtes and fundraising events across Britain; the sport is now played in many different countries, including Australia, Finland, Ireland, New Zealand and Russia. Depending on local custom, different rules are applied to the sport. In parts of Somerset, for example, the boot is filled with water before being thrown; some competitions allow a run up before releasing the boot, while others require the throw to be made from a standing position—which may be enforced by making the thrower stand in an empty dustbin. In Welbury, North Yorkshire, the size of the boot thrown must be large enough to comfortably fit the thrower. Other competitions specify the size of the manufacturer. A number of associations have been formed to govern the sport, including the International Boot Throwing Association, the World Welly Wanging Association, the World Welly Throwing Association, the World Wellington Boot Throwing Association and the New Zealand Boot Throwing Association.

The first world record throw recognised by Guinness World Records was 52.73 metres, set by Tony Rodgers in Wiltshire, UK, in 1978, using a size 8 Dunlop "Challenger" boot. The current world records are 63.98 metres for men, set by Teppo Luoma, 40.87 metres for women, set by Sari Tirkkon. British folk sports Shoe tossing Gumboot Day World Black Pudding Throwing Championships International Boot Throwing Association Welly Wanging World Championships in Upperthong Article on welly wanging as fund raiser