Pangolins or scaly anteaters are mammals of the order Pholidota. The one extant family, has three genera: Manis, which comprises four species living in Asia; these species range in size from 30 to 100 cm. A number of extinct pangolin species are known. Pangolins have protective keratin scales covering their skin, they live depending on the species. Pangolins are nocturnal, their diet consists of ants and termites, which they capture using their long tongues, they tend to be solitary animals, meeting only to mate and produce a litter of one to three offspring, which are raised for about two years. Pangolins are threatened by poaching and heavy deforestation of their natural habitats, are the most trafficked mammals in the world. Of the eight species of pangolin, four are listed as vulnerable, two are listed as endangered, two are listed as critically endangered on the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List of Threatened Species; the name pangolin comes from the Malay word pengguling, meaning "one who rolls up".
However, the modern name in Standard Malay is tenggiling. The etymologies of the three generic names Manis and Smutsia are sometimes misunderstood. Carl Linnaeus invented the Neo-Latin generic name Manis as a feminine singular form of the Latin masculine plural Manes, the Ancient Roman name for a type of spirit, after the animal's strange appearance. Constantine Rafinesque formed the Neo-Latin generic name Phataginus from the French term phatagin, adopted by Count Buffon after the reported local name phatagin or phatagen used in the East Indies; the British naturalist John Edward Gray named Smutsia for the South African naturalist Johannes Smuts, the first South African to do a treatise on mammals in 1832. The physical appearance of a pangolin is marked by large hardened overlapping plate-like scales, which are soft on newborn pangolins, but harden as the animal matures, they are made of keratin, the same material from which human fingernails and tetrapod claws are made, are structurally and compositionally different from the scales of reptiles.
The pangolin's scaled body is comparable in appearance to a pine cone. It can curl up into a ball when threatened, with its overlapping scales acting as armor, while it protects its face by tucking it under its tail; the scales are sharp. Pangolins can emit a noxious-smelling chemical from glands near the anus, similar to the spray of a skunk, they have short legs, with sharp claws which they use for burrowing into ant and termite mounds, climbing. The tongues of pangolins are long and – like those of the giant anteater and the tube-lipped nectar bat – the root of the tongue is not attached to the hyoid bone, but is in the thorax between the sternum and the trachea. Large pangolins can extend their tongues as much as 40 cm, with a diameter of only 0.5 cm. Most pangolins are nocturnal animals; the long-tailed pangolin is active by day, while other species of pangolins spend most of the daytime sleeping, curled up into a ball. They are considered to be secretive creatures. Arboreal pangolins live in hollow trees, whereas the ground-dwelling species dig tunnels underground, to a depth of 3.5 m.
Some pangolins walk with their front claws bent under the foot pad, although they use the entire foot pad on their rear limbs. Furthermore, some may walk a few steps bipedally. Pangolins are good swimmers. Pangolins are insectivorous. Most of their diet consists of various species of ants and termites and may be supplemented by other insects larvae, they are somewhat particular and tend to consume only one or two species of insects when many species are available to them. A pangolin can consume 140 to 200 g of insects per day. Pangolins are an important regulator of termite populations in their natural habitats. Pangolins have a poor sense of vision, so they rely on smell and hearing. Pangolins lack teeth, therefore they have evolved other physical characteristics to help them eat ants and termites, their skeletal structure is sturdy and they have strong front legs that are useful for tearing into termite mounds. They use their powerful front claws to dig into trees and vegetation to find prey proceed to use their long tongues to probe inside the insect tunnels and to retrieve their prey.
The structure of their tongue and stomach is key to aiding pangolins in obtaining and digesting insects. Their saliva is sticky, causing ants and termites to stick to their long tongues when they are hunting through insect tunnels. Without teeth, pangolins lack the ability to chew; this part of their stomach is called the gizzard, it is covered in keratinous spines. These spines further aid in digestion of the pangolin's prey; some species, such as the tree pangolin, use their strong, prehensile tails to hang from tree branches and
Activism consists of efforts to promote, direct, or intervene in social, economic, or environmental reform with the desire to make changes in society. Forms of activism range from mandate building in the community, petitioning elected officials, running or contributing to a political campaign, preferential patronage of businesses, demonstrative forms of activism like rallies, street marches, sit-ins, or hunger strikes. Activism may be performed on a day-to-day basis in a wide variety of ways, including through the creation of art, computer hacking, or in how one chooses to spend their money. For example, the refusal to buy clothes or other merchandise from a company as a protest against the exploitation of workers by that company could be considered an expression of activism. However, the most visible and impactful activism comes in the form of collective action, in which numerous individuals coordinate an act of protest together in order to make a bigger impact. Collective action, purposeful and sustained over a period of time becomes known as a social movement.
Activists have used literature, including pamphlets and books to disseminate their messages and attempt to persuade their readers of the justice of their cause. Research has now begun to explore how contemporary activist groups use social media to facilitate civic engagement and collective action combining politics with technology; the Online Etymology Dictionary records the English words "activism" and "activist" as in use in the political sense from the year 1920 or 1915 respectively. The history of the word activism traces back to earlier understandings of collective behavior and social action; as late as 1969 activism was defined as "the policy or practice of doing things with decision and energy", without regard to a political signification, whereas social action was defined as "organized action taken by a group to improve social conditions", without regard to normative status. Following the surge of so-called "new social movements" in the United States in the 1960's, a new understanding of activism emerged as a rational and acceptable democratic option of protest or appeal.
However, the history of the existence of revolt through organized or unified protest in recorded history dates back to the slave revolts of the 1st century BC in the Roman Empire, where under the leadership of former gladiator Spartacus 6,000 slaves rebelled and were crucified from Capua to Rome in what became known as the Third Servile War. In English history, the Peasant's Revolt erupted in response to the imposition of a poll tax, has been paralleled by other rebellions and revolutions in Hungary and more for example, Hong Kong. In 1930 under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi thousands of protesting Indians participated in the Salt March as a protest against the oppressive taxes of their government, resulting in the imprisonment of 60,000 people and eventual independence for their nation. In nations throughout Asia and South America, the prominence of activism organized by social movements and under the leadership of civil activists or social revolutionaries has pushed for increasing national self-reliance or, in some parts of the developing world, collectivist communist or socialist organization and affiliation.
Activism has had major impacts on Western societies as well over the past century through social movements such as the Labour movement, the Women's Rights movement, the civil rights movement. Activists can function in a number of roles, including judicial, environmental and design. Most activism has focused on creating substantive changes in the policy or practice of a government or industry; some activists try to persuade people to change their behavior directly, rather than to persuade governments to change laws. For example, the cooperative movement seeks to build new institutions which conform to cooperative principles, does not lobby or protest politically. Other activists try to persuade people or government policy to remain the same, in an effort to counter change. Activism is not always an activity performed by those; the term activist may apply broadly to anyone who engages in activism, or be more narrowly limited to those who choose political or social activism as a vocation or characteristic practice.
Judicial activism involves the efforts of public officials. Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. - American historian, public intellectual, social critic - introduced the term "judicial activism" in a January 1946 Fortune magazine article titled "The Supreme Court: 1947". Activists can be public watchdogs and whistle blowers, attempting to understand all the actions of every form of government that acts in the name of the people and hold it accountable to oversight and transparency. Activism involves an engaged citizenry. Environmental activism takes quite a few forms: the protection of nature or the natural environment driven by a utilitarian conservation ethic or a nature oriented preservationist ethic the protection of the human environment (by pollution prevention or the protection of cultural heritage or quality of life the conservation of depletable natural resources the protection of the function of critical earth system elements or processes such as the climate; the power of Internet activism came into a global lens with the Arab Spring protests starting in late 2010.
People living in the Middle East and North African countries that were experiencing revolutions used social networking to communicate information about protests, including videos recorded on smart phones
A peccary is a medium-sized pig-like hoofed mammal of the family Tayassuidae. They are found in the southwestern area of North America. Peccaries measure between 90 and 130 cm in length, a full-grown adult weighs about 20 to 40 kg. Peccaries, native to the Americas, are confused with the pig family that originated in Afro-Eurasia, since some domestic pigs brought by European settlers have escaped over the years and their descendants are now feral "razorback" hogs in many parts of the US. Herds of peccary were maintained by the ancient Maya to be used ritually and for food. In many countries in the developing world, they are kept as pets, in addition to being raised on farms as a source of food; the word peccary is derived from paquira. In Portuguese, a peccary is called porco-do-mato, queixada, or tajaçu, among other names. A peccary is a medium-sized animal, with a strong resemblance to a pig. Like a pig, it has a snout ending in a cartilaginous disc, eyes that are small relative to its head. Like a pig, it uses only the middle two digits for walking, unlike pigs, the other toes may be altogether absent.
Its stomach is not ruminating, although it has three chambers, is more complex than those of pigs. Peccaries are omnivores, will eat insects and small animals, although their preferred foods consist of roots, seeds and cacti—particularly prickly pear. Pigs and peccaries can tusk. In European pigs, the tusk is long and curves around on itself, whereas in peccaries, the tusk is short and straight; the jaws and tusks of peccaries are adapted for crushing hard seeds and slicing into plant roots, they use their tusks for defending against predators. The dental formula for peccaries is: 188.8.131.52.1.3.3 By rubbing the tusks together, they can make a chattering noise that warns potential predators to stay away. In recent years in northwestern Bolivia near Madidi National Park, large groups of peccaries have been reported to have injured or killed people. Peccaries are social animals, form herds. Over 100 individuals have been recorded for a single herd of white-lipped peccaries, but collared and Chacoan peccaries form smaller groups.
Such social behavior seems to have been the situation in extinct peccaries, as well. The discovered giant peccary of Brazil appears to be less social living in pairs. Peccaries rely on their social structure to defend territory, protect against predators, regulate temperature, interact socially. Peccaries have scent glands below each eye and another on their backs, though these are believed to be rudimentary in P. maximus. They use the scent to mark herd territories, they mark other herd members with these scent glands by rubbing one against another. The pungent odor allows peccaries to recognize other members of their herd, despite their myopic vision; the odor is strong enough to be detected by humans, which earns the peccary the nickname of "skunk pig". Three living species of peccaries are found from the Southwestern United States through Central America and into South America and Trinidad; the collared peccary or "musk hog", referring to the animal's scent glands, occurs from the Southwestern United States into South America and the island of Trinidad.
The coat consists of wiry peppered black and brown hair with a lighter colored "collar" circling the shoulders. They bear young year-round, but most between November and March, with the average litter size consisting of two to three piglets, they are found from arid scrublands to humid tropical rain forests. The collared peccary is well-adapted to habitat disturbed by humans requiring sufficient cover, they can be found in agricultural land throughout their range. Notable populations exist in the suburbs of Phoenix and Tucson, where they feed on ornamental plants and other cultivated vegetation. There are urban populations as far north as Prescott, where they have been known to fill a niche similar to raccoons and other urban scavengers. In Arizona they are called "javelinas". Collared peccaries are found in bands of 8 to 15 animals of various ages, they defend themselves if they otherwise tend to ignore humans. A second species, the white-lipped peccary, is found in rainforests of Central and South America, but known from a wide range of other habitats such as dry forests, mangrove and dry xerophytic areas.
The third species, the Chacoan peccary, is the closest living relative to the extinct Platygonus pearcei. It is found in the dry shrub habitat or Chaco of Paraguay and Argentina; the Chacoan peccary has the distinction of having been first described based on fossils and was thought to be an extinct species. In 1975, the animal was discovered in the Chaco region of Paraguay; the species was well known to the native people. A fourth as yet unconfirmed species, the giant peccary, was described from the Brazilian Amazon and north Bolivia by Dutch biologist Marc van Roosmalen. Though recently discovered, it has been known to the local Tupi people as caitetu munde, which means "great peccary which lives in pairs". Thought to be the largest extant peccary, it can grow to 1.2 m in length. Its pelage is compl
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish. Fish are caught in the wild. Techniques for catching fish include hand gathering, netting and trapping. “Fishing” may include catching aquatic animals other than fish, such as molluscs, cephalopods and echinoderms. The term is not applied to catching farmed fish, or to aquatic mammals, such as whales where the term whaling is more appropriate. In addition to being caught to be eaten, fish are caught as recreational pastimes. Fishing tournaments are held, caught fish are sometimes kept as preserved or living trophies; when bioblitzes occur, fish are caught and released. According to the United Nations FAO statistics, the total number of commercial fishermen and fish farmers is estimated to be 38 million. Fisheries and aquaculture provide direct and indirect employment to over 500 million people in developing countries. In 2005, the worldwide per capita consumption of fish captured from wild fisheries was 14.4 kilograms, with an additional 7.4 kilograms harvested from fish farms.
Fishing is an ancient practice that dates back to at least the beginning of the Upper Paleolithic period about 40,000 years ago. Isotopic analysis of the skeletal remains of Tianyuan man, a 40,000-year-old modern human from eastern Asia, has shown that he consumed freshwater fish. Archaeology features such as shell middens, discarded fish bones, cave paintings show that sea foods were important for survival and consumed in significant quantities. Fishing in Africa is evident early on in human history. Neanderthals were fishing by about 200,000 BC to have a source of food for their families and to trade or sell. People could have developed basketry for fish traps, spinning and early forms of knitting in order to make fishing nets to be able to catch more fish in larger quantities. During this period, most people lived a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and were, of necessity on the move. However, where there are early examples of permanent settlements such as those at Lepenski Vir, they are always associated with fishing as a major source of food.
The British dogger was an early type of sailing trawler from the 17th century, but the modern fishing trawler was developed in the 19th century, at the English fishing port of Brixham. By the early 19th century, the fishermen at Brixham needed to expand their fishing area further than before due to the ongoing depletion of stocks, occurring in the overfished waters of South Devon; the Brixham trawler that evolved there was of a sleek build and had a tall gaff rig, which gave the vessel sufficient speed to make long distance trips out to the fishing grounds in the ocean. They were sufficiently robust to be able to tow large trawls in deep water; the great trawling fleet that built up at Brixham, earned the village the title of'Mother of Deep-Sea Fisheries'. This revolutionary design made large scale trawling in the ocean possible for the first time, resulting in a massive migration of fishermen from the ports in the South of England, to villages further north, such as Scarborough, Grimsby and Yarmouth, that were points of access to the large fishing grounds in the Atlantic Ocean.
The small village of Grimsby grew to become the largest fishing port in the world by the mid 19th century. An Act of Parliament was first obtained in 1796, which authorised the construction of new quays and dredging of the Haven to make it deeper, it was only in the 1846, with the tremendous expansion in the fishing industry, that the Grimsby Dock Company was formed. The foundation stone for the Royal Dock was laid by Albert the Prince consort in 1849; the dock covered 25 acres and was formally opened by Queen Victoria in 1854 as the first modern fishing port. The elegant Brixham trawler spread across the world. By the end of the 19th century, there were over 3,000 fishing trawlers in commission in Britain, with 1,000 at Grimsby; these trawlers were sold to fishermen including from the Netherlands and Scandinavia. Twelve trawlers went on to form the nucleus of the German fishing fleet; the earliest steam powered fishing boats first appeared in the 1870s and used the trawl system of fishing as well as lines and drift nets.
These were large boats 80–90 feet in length with a beam of around 20 feet. They travelled at 9 -- 11 knots; the earliest purpose built fishing vessels were designed and made by David Allan in Leith, Scotland in March 1875, when he converted a drifter to steam power. In 1877, he built. Steam trawlers were introduced at Hull in the 1880s. In 1890 it was estimated; the steam drifter was not used in the herring fishery until 1897. The last sailing fishing trawler was built in 1925 in Grimsby. Trawler designs adapted as the way they were powered changed from sail to coal-fired steam by World War I to diesel and turbines by the end of World War II. In 1931, the first powered drum was created by Laurie Jarelainen; the drum was a circular device, set to the side of the boat and would draw in the nets. Since World War II, radio navigation aids and fish finders have been used; the first trawlers fished over the side, rather than over the stern. The first purpose built stern trawler was Fairtry built in 1953 at Scotland.
The ship was much larger than any other trawlers in operation and inaugurated the era of the'super trawler'. As the ship pulled its nets over the stern, it could lift out a much greater haul of up to 60 tons; the ship served as a basis for the expansion of'su
Chiang Mai sometimes written as "Chiengmai" or "Chiangmai" is the largest city in northern Thailand. It is the capital of Chiang Mai Province and was a former capital of the kingdom of Lan Na, which became the Kingdom of Chiang Mai, a tributary state of Siam from 1774 to 1899, the seat of princely rulers until 1939, it is 700 km north of Bangkok near the highest mountains in the country. The city sits astride the Ping River, a major tributary of the Chao Phraya River. Chiang Mai means "New City" and was so named because it became the new capital of Lan Na when it was founded in 1296, succeeding Chiang Rai, the former capital founded in 1262, its ceremonial full name is Nopburi Si-Nakhonping Chiangmai which means Chiangmai, Ping's City of the Nine referring the ancient nine Lannese tribes in this area. In May 2006 Chiang Mai was the site of the Chiang Mai Initiative, concluded between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and the "ASEAN+3" countries. Chiang Mai was one of three Thai cities contending for Thailand's bid to host the World Expo 2020.
Ayutthaya was chosen by the Thai Parliament to register for the international competition. In early December 2017, Chiang Mai was awarded the UNESCO title of Creative City. In 2015, Chiang Mai was on the tentative list for UNESCO World Heritage inscription. Chiang Mai was one of two tourist destinations in Thailand on TripAdvisor's 2014 list of "25 Best Destinations in the World", where it stands at number 24. Chiang Mai's historic importance is derived from its close proximity to the Ping River and major trading routes. While the city of Chiang Mai only covers most parts of the Mueang Chiang Mai District, with a population of 160,000, the city's sprawl extends into several neighboring districts; the Chiang Mai metropolitan area has a population of nearly one million people, more than half the total of Chiang Mai Province. The city is subdivided into four khwaeng: Nakhon Ping, Srivijaya and Kawila; the first three are on the west bank of the Ping River, Kawila is on the east bank. Nakhon Ping District includes the northern part of the city.
Srivijaya and Kawila consist of the western and eastern parts, respectively. The city center—within the city walls—is within Srivijaya ward; the Ping River, one of the main tributaries of the Chao Phraya River, originates at Doi Thuai, in the mountains of the Daen Lao Range in Chiang Dao District. The river, the largest in the region, runs from north to south, forming a river basin east of Chiang Mai. Mae Ping River served as the route of trade and communication between Chiang Mai and its controlled states in Lanna, as well as the outside world. Mangrai founded Chiang Mai in 1294 or 1296 on the site of an older city of the Lawa people called Wiang Nopburi. Gordon Young, in his 1962 book The Hill tribes of Northern Thailand, mentions how a Wa chieftain in British Burma told him that the Wa, a people who are related to the Lawa, once lived in the Chiang Mai valley in "sizeable cities". Chiang Mai succeeded Chiang Rai as the capital of Lan Na. Pha Yu enlarged and fortified the city, built Wat Phra Singh in honor of his father Kham Fu.
The ruler was known as the chao. The city was surrounded by a moat and a defensive wall since nearby Taungoo Dynasty of the Bamar people was a constant threat, as were the armies of the Mongol Empire, which only decades earlier had conquered most of Yunnan, in 1292 overran the bordering Dai kingdom of Chiang Hung. With the decline of Lan Na, the city lost importance and was occupied by the Taungoo in 1556. Chiang Mai formally became part of the Thonburi Kingdom in 1775 by an agreement with Chao Kavila, after the Thonburi king Taksin helped drive out the Taungoo Bamar; because of Taungoo counterattacks, Chiang Mai was abandoned between 1776 and 1791. Lampang served as the capital of what remained of Lan Na. Chiang Mai slowly grew in cultural and economic importance to its current status as the unofficial capital of Northern Thailand, second in importance only to Bangkok; the modern municipality dates to a sanitary district, created in 1915. It was upgraded to a municipality on 29 March 1935, as published in the Royal Gazette, Book No. 52 section 80.
First covering just 17.5 km2, the city was enlarged to 40.2 km2 on 5 April 1983. "... Chiang Mai represents the prime diamond on the crown of Thailand, the crown cannot be sparkle and beauteous without the diamond..." The city emblem shows the stupa at Wat Phra That Doi Suthep in its center. Below it are clouds representing the moderate climate in the mountains of northern Thailand. There is a nāga, the mythical snake said to be the source of the Ping River, rice stalks, which refer to the fertility of the land. Chiang Mai has a tropical savanna climate, tempered by the low latitude and moderate elevation, with warm to hot weather year-round, though nighttime conditions during the dry season can be cool and much lower than daytime highs; the maximum temperature recorded was 42.4 °C in May 2005. Cold and hot weather effects occur but cold effects last longer than hot effects and contribute to higher cold related motility risk among old people aged more than 85 years. A continuing environmental issue in Chiang Mai is the incidence of air pollution that occurs every year towards the end of the dry season between February and April.
In 1996, speaking at the Fourth International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement conference—held in Chiang Mai that year—the Go
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t