Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle in the company of like-minded people and with few permanent ties. It involves musical, literary or spiritual pursuits. In this context, Bohemians may or may not be wanderers, adventurers, or vagabonds; this use of the word bohemian first appeared in the English language in the 19th century to describe the non-traditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished artists, journalists and actors in major European cities. Bohemians were associated with unorthodox or anti-establishment political or social viewpoints, which were expressed through free love, and—in some cases—voluntary poverty. A more economically privileged, wealthy, or aristocratic bohemian circle is sometimes referred to as haute bohème; the term bohemianism emerged in France in the early 19th century when artists and creators began to concentrate in the lower-rent, lower class, Romani neighborhoods. Bohémien was a common term for the Romani people of France, who were mistakenly thought to have reached France in the 15th century via Bohemia.
Literary bohemians were associated in the French imagination with roving Romani people, outsiders apart from conventional society and untroubled by its disapproval. The term carries a connotation of arcane enlightenment, carries a less intended, pejorative connotation of carelessness about personal hygiene and marital fidelity; the title character in Carmen, a French opera set in the Spanish city of Seville, is referred to as a "bohémienne" in Meilhac and Halévy's libretto. Her signature aria declares love itself to be a "gypsy child", going where it pleases and obeying no laws; the term bohemian has come to be commonly accepted in our day as the description of a certain kind of literary gypsy, no matter in what language he speaks, or what city he inhabits.... A Bohemian is an artist or "littérateur" who, consciously or unconsciously, secedes from conventionality in life and in art. Henri Murger's collection of short stories "Scènes de la Vie de Bohème", published in 1845, was written to glorify and legitimize Bohemia.
Murger's collection formed the basis of Giacomo Puccini's opera La bohème. In England, bohemian in this sense was popularised in William Makepeace Thackeray's novel, Vanity Fair, published in 1848. Public perceptions of the alternative lifestyles led by artists were further molded by George du Maurier's romanticized best-selling novel of Bohemian culture Trilby; the novel outlines the fortunes of three expatriate English artists, their Irish model, two colourful Central European musicians, in the artist quarter of Paris. In Spanish literature, the Bohemian impulse can be seen in Ramón del Valle-Inclán's play Luces de Bohemia, published in 1920. In his song La Bohème, Charles Aznavour described the Bohemian lifestyle in Montmartre; the film Moulin Rouge! reflects the Bohemian lifestyle in Montmartre at the turn of the 20th century. In the 1850s, aesthetic bohemians began arriving in the United States. In New York City in 1857, a group of 15 to 20 young, cultured journalists flourished as self-described bohemians until the American Civil War began in 1861.
This group gathered at a German bar on Broadway called Pfaff's beer cellar. Members included their leader Henry Clapp, Jr. Ada Clare, Walt Whitman, Fitz Hugh Ludlow, actress Adah Isaacs Menken. Similar groups in other cities were broken up as well by the Civil War and reporters spread out to report on the conflict. During the war, correspondents began to assume the title bohemian, newspapermen in general took up the moniker. Bohemian became synonymous with newspaper writer. In 1866, war correspondent Junius Henri Browne, who wrote for the New York Tribune and Harper's Magazine, described bohemian journalists such as he was, as well as the few carefree women and lighthearted men he encountered during the war years. San Francisco journalist Bret Harte first wrote as "The Bohemian" in The Golden Era in 1861, with this persona taking part in many satirical doings, the lot published in his book Bohemian Papers in 1867. Harte wrote, "Bohemia has never been located geographically, but any clear day when the sun is going down, if you mount Telegraph Hill, you shall see its pleasant valleys and cloud-capped hills glittering in the West..."Mark Twain included himself and Charles Warren Stoddard in the bohemian category in 1867.
By 1872, when a group of journalists and artists who gathered for cultural pursuits in San Francisco were casting about for a name, the term bohemian became the main choice, the Bohemian Club was born. Club members who were established and successful, pillars of their community, respectable family men, redefined their own form of bohemianism to include people like them who were bons vivants and appreciators of the fine arts. Club member and poet George Sterling responded to this redefinition: Any good mixer of convivial habits considers he has a right to be called a bohemian. But, not a valid claim. There are two elements, at least; the first is addiction to one or more of the Seven Arts. Other factors suggest themselves: for instance, I like to think of my Bohemians as young, as radical in their outlook on art and life. Despite his views, Sterling associated with the Bohemian Club, caroused with artist and industrialist alike at the B
Tübingen is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated 30 km south of the state capital, Stuttgart, on a ridge between the Neckar and Ammer rivers; as of 2014 about one in three people living in Tübingen is a student. North of the city lies the Schönbuch, a densely wooded nature park; the Swabian Alb mountains rise about 13 km to the southeast of Tübingen. The Ammer and Steinlach rivers discharge into the Neckar river, which flows right through the town, just south of the medieval old town in an easterly direction. Large parts of the city are hilly, with the Schlossberg and the Österberg in the city centre and the Schnarrenberg and Herrlesberg, among others, rising adjacent to the inner city; the highest point is at about 500 m above sea level near Bebenhausen in the Schönbuch forest, while the lowest point is 305 m in the town's eastern Neckar valley. Nearby the Botanical Gardens of the city's university, in a small forest called Elysium, lies the geographical centre of the state of Baden-Württemberg.
Tübingen is the capital of an eponymous district and an eponymous administrative region, before 1973 called Südwürttemberg-Hohenzollern. Tübingen is, with nearby Reutlingen, one of the two centre cities of the Neckar-Alb region. Administratively, it is not part of the Stuttgart Region, bordering it to the west. However, the city and northern parts of its district can be regarded as belonging to that region in a wider regional and cultural context; the area was first settled in the 12th millennium BC. The Romans left some traces here in AD 85. Tübingen itself dates from the 7th century, when the region was populated by the Alamanni; some argue that the Battle of Solicinium was fought at Spitzberg, a mountain in Tübingen, in AD 367, although there is no evidence for this. Tübingen first appears in official records in 1191, the local castle, Hohentübingen, has records going back to 1078 when it was besieged by Henry IV, king of Germany, its name transcribed in Medieval Latin as Tuingia and Twingia.
From 1146, Count Hugo V was promoted to count palatine, as Hugo I, establishing Tübingen as the capital of a County Palatine of Tübingen. By 1231, Tübingen was a civitas indicating recognition of a court system. In 1262, an Augustinian monastery was established by Pope Alexander IV in Tübingen, in 1272, a Franciscan monastery followed; the latter existed until Duke Ulrich of Würtemmberg disestablished it in 1535 in course of the Protestant Reformation, which the Duchy of Württemberg followed. In 1300, a Latin school was founded. In 1342, the county palatine was sold to Ulrich III, Count of Württemberg and incorporated into the County of Württemberg. Between 1470 and 1483, St. George's Collegiate Church was built; the collegiate church offices provided the opportunity for what soon afterwards became the most significant event in Tübingen's history: the founding of the Eberhard Karls University by Duke Eberhard im Bart of Württemberg in 1477, thus making it one of the oldest universities in Central Europe.
It became soon renowned as one of the most influential places of learning in the Holy Roman Empire for theology. Today, the university is still the biggest source of income for the residents of the city and one of the biggest universities in Germany with more than 22,000 students. Between 1622 and 1625, the Catholic League occupied Lutheran Württemberg in the course of the Thirty Years' War. In the summer of 1631, the city was raided. In 1635/36 the city was hit by the Plague. In 1638, Swedish troops conquered Tübingen. Towards the end of the war, French troops occupied the city from 1647 until 1649. In 1789, parts of the old town burned down, but were rebuilt in the original style. In 1798 the Allgemeine Zeitung, a leading newspaper in early 19th-century Germany, was founded in Tübingen by Johann Friedrich Cotta. From 1807 until 1843, the poet Friedrich Hölderlin lived in Tübingen in a tower overlooking the Neckar. In the Nazi era, the Tübingen Synagogue was burned in the Kristallnacht on November 9, 1938.
The Second World War left the city unscathed because of the peace initiative of a local doctor, Theodor Dobler. It became part of the French occupational zone. From 1946 to 1952, Tübingen was the capital of the newly formed state of Württemberg-Hohenzollern, before the state of Baden-Württemberg was created by merging Baden, Württemberg-Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern; the French troops had a garrison stationed in the south of the city until the end of the Cold War in the 1990s. In the 1960s, Tübingen was one of the centres of the German student movement and the Protests of 1968 and has since shaped left and green political views; some radicalized Tübingen students supported the leftist Rote Armee Fraktion terrorist group, with active member Gudrun Ensslin, a local and a Tübingen student from 1960 to 1963, joining the group in 1968. Although noticing such things today is impossible, as as the 1950s, Tübingen was a socioeconomically divided city, with poor local farmers and tradesmen living along the Stadtgraben and students and academics residing around the Alte Aula and the Burse, the old university buildings.
There, hanging on the Cottahaus, a sign commemorates Goethe's stay of a few weeks while visiting his publisher. The Ge
A fairy tale, wonder tale, magic tale, or Märchen is a folklore genre that takes the form of a short story. Such stories feature entities such as dwarfs, elves, giants, goblins, mermaids, talking animals, unicorns, or witches, magic or enchantments. In most cultures, there is no clear line separating myth from fairy tale. Fairy tales may be distinguished from other folk narratives such as legends and explicit moral tales, including beast fables; the term is used for stories with origins in European tradition and, at least in recent centuries relates to children's literature. In less technical contexts, the term is used to describe something blessed with unusual happiness, as in "fairy-tale ending" or "fairy-tale romance". Colloquially, the term "fairy tale" or "fairy story" can mean any far-fetched story or tall tale. Legends are perceived as real. However, unlike legends and epics, fairy tales do not contain more than superficial references to religion and to actual places and events. Fairy tales occur both in literary form.
Many of today's fairy tales have evolved from centuries-old stories that have appeared, with variations, in multiple cultures around the world. The history of the fairy tale is difficult to trace because only the literary forms can survive. Still, according to researchers at universities in Durham and Lisbon, such stories may date back thousands of years, some to the Bronze Age more than 6,500 years ago. Fairy tales, works derived from fairy tales, are still written today. Folklorists have classified fairy tales in various ways; the Aarne-Thompson classification system and the morphological analysis of Vladimir Propp are among the most notable. Other folklorists have interpreted the tales' significance, but no school has been definitively established for the meaning of the tales; some folklorists prefer to use the German term Märchen or "wonder tale" to refer to the genre over fairy tale, a practice given weight by the definition of Thompson in his 1977 edition of The Folktale: "a tale of some length involving a succession of motifs or episodes.
It moves in an unreal world without definite locality or definite creatures and is filled with the marvellous. In this never-never land, humble heroes kill adversaries, succeed to kingdoms and marry princesses." The characters and motifs of fairy tales are simple and archetypal: princesses and goose-girls. Although the fairy tale is a distinct genre within the larger category of folktale, the definition that marks a work as a fairy tale is a source of considerable dispute; the term itself comes from the translation of Madame D'Aulnoy's Conte de fées, first used in her collection in 1697. Common parlance conflates fairy tales with beast fables and other folktales, scholars differ on the degree to which the presence of fairies and/or mythical beings should be taken as a differentiator. Vladimir Propp, in his Morphology of the Folktale, criticized the common distinction between "fairy tales" and "animal tales" on the grounds that many tales contained both fantastic elements and animals. To select works for his analysis, Propp used all Russian folktales classified as a folklore Aarne-Thompson 300-749 – in a cataloguing system that made such a distinction – to gain a clear set of tales.
His own analysis identified fairy tales by their plot elements, but that in itself has been criticized, as the analysis does not lend itself to tales that do not involve a quest, furthermore, the same plot elements are found in non-fairy tale works. Were I asked, what is a fairytale? I should reply, Read Undine:, a fairytale... of all fairytales I know, I think Undine the most beautiful. As Stith Thompson points out, talking animals and the presence of magic seem to be more common to the fairy tale than fairies themselves. However, the mere presence of animals that talk does not make a tale a fairy tale when the animal is a mask on a human face, as in fables. In his essay "On Fairy-Stories", J. R. R. Tolkien agreed with the exclusion of "fairies" from the definition, defining fairy tales as stories about the adventures of men in Faërie, the land of fairies, fairytale princes and princesses, dwarves and not only other magical species but many other marvels. However, the same essay excludes tales that are considered fairy tales, citing as an example The Monkey's Heart, which Andrew Lang included in The Lilac Fairy Book.
Steven Swann Jones identified the presence of magic as the feature by which fairy tales can be distinguished from other sorts of folktales. Davidson and Chaudri identify "transformation" as the key feature of the genre. From a psychological point of view, Jean Chiriac argued for the necessity of the fantastic in these narratives. In terms of aesthetic values, Italo Calvino cited the fairy tale as a prime example of "quickness" in literature, b
Romanticism in Scotland
Romanticism in Scotland was an artistic and intellectual movement that developed between the late eighteenth and the early nineteenth centuries. It was part of the wider European Romantic movement, a reaction against the Age of Enlightenment, emphasising individual and emotional responses, moving beyond Renaissance and Classicist models to the Middle Ages. In the arts, Romanticism manifested itself in literature and drama in the adoption of the mythical bard Ossian, the exploration of national poetry in the work of Robert Burns and in the historical novels of Walter Scott. Scott had a major impact on the development of a national Scottish drama. Art was influenced by Ossian and a new view of the Highlands as the location of a wild and dramatic landscape. Scott profoundly affected architecture through his re-building of Abbotsford House in the early nineteenth century, which set off the boom in the Scots Baronial revival. In music, Burns was part of an attempt to produce a canon of Scottish song, which resulted in a cross fertilisation of Scottish and continental classical music, with romantic music becoming dominant in Scotland into the twentieth century.
Intellectually and figures like Thomas Carlyle played a part in the development of historiography and the idea of the historical imagination. Romanticism influenced science the life sciences, geology and astronomy, giving Scotland a prominence in these areas that continued into the late nineteenth century. Scottish philosophy was dominated by Scottish Common Sense Realism, which shared some characteristics with Romanticism and was a major influence on the development of Transcendentalism. Scott played a major part in defining Scottish and British politics, helping to create a romanticised view of Scotland and the Highlands that fundamentally changed Scottish national identity. Romanticism began to subside as a movement in the 1830s, but it continued to affect areas such as music until the early twentieth century, it had a lasting impact on the nature of Scottish identity and outside perceptions of Scotland. Romanticism was a complex artistic and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the eighteenth century in western Europe, gained strength during and after the Industrial and French Revolutions.
It was a revolt against the political norms of the Age of Enlightenment which rationalised nature, was embodied most in the visual arts and literature, but influenced historiography and the natural sciences. Romanticism has been seen as "the revival of the life and thought of the Middle Ages", reaching beyond Rationalist and Classicist models to elevate medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived to be authentically medieval, in an attempt to escape the confines of population growth, urban sprawl and industrialism, embracing the exotic and distant, it is associated with political revolutions, beginning with those in Americana and France and movements for independence in Poland and Greece. It is thought to incorporate an emotional assertion of the self and of individual experience along with a sense of the infinite and sublime. In art there was a stress on landscape and a spiritual correspondence with nature, it has been described by Margaret Drabble as "an unending revolt against classical form, conservative morality, authoritarian government, personal insincerity, human moderation".
Although after union with England in 1707 Scotland adopted English language and wider cultural norms, its literature developed a distinct national identity and began to enjoy an international reputation. Allan Ramsay laid the foundations of a reawakening of interest in older Scottish literature, as well as leading the trend for pastoral poetry, helping to develop the Habbie stanza as a poetic form. James Macpherson was the first Scottish poet to gain an international reputation. Claiming to have found poetry written by the ancient bard Ossian, he published translations that acquired international popularity, being proclaimed as a Celtic equivalent of the Classical epics. Fingal, written in 1762, was speedily translated into many European languages, its appreciation of natural beauty and treatment of the ancient legend has been credited more than any single work with bringing about the Romantic movement in European, in German literature, through its influence on Johann Gottfried von Herder and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
It was popularised in France by figures that included Napoleon. It became clear that the poems were not direct translations from the Gaelic, but flowery adaptations made to suit the aesthetic expectations of his audience. Robert Burns and Walter Scott were influenced by the Ossian cycle. Burns, an Ayrshire poet and lyricist, is regarded as the national poet of Scotland and a major influence on the Romantic movement, his poem "Auld Lang Syne" is sung at Hogmanay, "Scots Wha Hae" served for a long time as an unofficial national anthem of the country. Scott began as a poet and collected and published Scottish ballads, his first prose work, Waverley in 1814, is called the first historical novel. It launched a successful career, with other historical novels such as Rob Roy, The Heart of Midlothian and Ivanhoe. Scott did more than any other figure to define and popularise Scottish cultural identity in the nineteenth century. Other major literary figures connected with Romanticism include the poets and novelists James Hogg, Allan Cunningham an
Little Muck (German fairy tale)
The story of Little Muck is a fairy tale written by Wilhelm Hauff. It was published in 1826 in a collection of fairy tales and tells the story of an outsider called Little Muck; the fairy tale is embedded in a frame story called "The Caravan": the participants of a caravan tell each other stories, as they do not want to get bored. One of the participants is a young businessman called Muley, he tells the story of Little Muck. As a child, Muley knew a small outsider called Little Muck, who lived in his home town Nicea in Turkey. Little Muck lived alone in a house, which he left. Due to his misshapen figure and his unsuitable clothing Muley and his friends always made fun of him. One day, they were mean to him. Thereupon Muley’s father gave him 50 blows with a pipe stem. After the first 25 blows he told him the following story: Muck’s father Mukrah was a well-respected, but poor man, who lived as lonely as his son, he was ashamed of Muck’s misshapen figure and therefore he did not allow him any kind of education.
When Mukrah died, his relatives inherited everything. Muck only got a suit with a wide belt, a coat, a turban and a knife, his father was tall and thus Little Muck cut off the legs and sleeves of the wide trousers without changing the width. Afterwards he left his home town to seek his fortune. Shortly afterwards Muck found an accommodation and a new job in another town: he had to take care of the cats and dogs of a mysterious woman called Miss Ahavzi. One day Muck entered a forbidden room in Miss Ahavzi's house and accidentally destroyed an expensive bowl, he took two items of this room and decided to flee, as he did not get his wages and was punished for no reason. These two items had, as it turned out, magical powers: With the pair of slippers, he could not only walk faster than any other person, but fly to any place he wanted, and the walking stick showed. The king was impressed by Muck's magic slippers, thus offered him a position as a courier, which made the other servants jealous of him.
With the help of his magic walking stick, Muck discovered a forgotten treasure in the palace garden one day. As he wanted to make new friends, he distributed all the gold. However, he was sent to prison. At that time the official punishment for stealing royal property was death. However, Little Muck could save his life by telling the king more about the magic power of the slippers and the walking stick. Thereupon the king tried on the slippers, but as Muck did not show the king how to stop the slippers, the latter ran and ran until he passed out, he was angry, confiscated the magic items and chased Muck away. After an eight-hour march, Little Muck reached the border of a small country. By chance, he discovered two fig trees in a forest. With the help of the figs he could retaliate: the first variety of figs caused the growth of huge donkey ears and a long nose. Dressed up as a salesman Little Muck smuggled the first variety of figs on the king's table. Shortly afterwards he dressed up as a scholar and offered the king the second variety of figs as a remedy for his and his royal court’s deformities.
After proving the effectiveness of his cure, the King led Muck into the treasury, where he should choose a reward. He snatched his magic items and revealed his identity. With the help of his magic slippers Little Muck flew back home and left the disloyal king with his deformed face behind. Since he lived in his home town in great prosperity, but lonely as he despised other people. "Muck became wise through experience and therefore he deserves admiration instead of mockery", Muley's father ended his narrative and spared his son the remaining half of the blows. Muley told Muck's story to his friends, who were impressed by the story of Muck's life. From this day forth they bowed before him whenever they saw him; the father tries to explain to his son. Little Muck is still a respected man with his grotesque appearance, he remains an outsider, which marks a great difference to other fairy tale figures with magic items. Though the fairy tale takes place in the Orient, the ruling system described here is to be understood as criticism of the countries of the German Confederation: due to its small size, Little Muck is able to leave the country on foot within eight hours, he does not have to make use of his magic slippers.
Similar to the Duke in "Dwarf Nose", the King is an incompetent ruler: after being tricked by his courtiers he seizes the magical items and expels Little Muck from the country. The latter takes revenge by using the figs. Due to the hierarchy, the King eats most of them, is thus punished harder, because Little Muck refuses to give him the curing variety of figs. Based on this tale and his comrades become better people, thus the fairy tale is a parable about the desired impact of literature. 1944: Der kleine Muck 1953: Die Geschichte vom kleinen Muck 1921: Little Muck 1938: Little Muk 1971: Little Muck 1975: Muk-Skorokhod 1983: The Adventures of the Little Muk
Romanticism was an artistic, literary and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850. Romanticism was characterized by its emphasis on emotion and individualism as well as glorification of all the past and nature, preferring the medieval rather than the classical, it was a reaction to the Industrial Revolution, the aristocratic social and political norms of the Age of Enlightenment, the scientific rationalization of nature—all components of modernity. It was embodied most in the visual arts and literature, but had a major impact on historiography, the social sciences, the natural sciences, it had a significant and complex effect on politics, with romantic thinkers influencing liberalism, radicalism and nationalism. The movement emphasized intense emotion as an authentic source of aesthetic experience, placing new emphasis on such emotions as apprehension and terror, awe—especially that experienced in confronting the new aesthetic categories of the sublimity and beauty of nature.
It elevated folk art and ancient custom to something noble, but spontaneity as a desirable characteristic. In contrast to the Rationalism and Classicism of the Enlightenment, Romanticism revived medievalism and elements of art and narrative perceived as authentically medieval in an attempt to escape population growth, early urban sprawl, industrialism. Although the movement was rooted in the German Sturm und Drang movement, which preferred intuition and emotion to the rationalism of the Enlightenment, the events and ideologies of the French Revolution were proximate factors. Romanticism assigned a high value to the achievements of "heroic" individualists and artists, whose examples, it maintained, would raise the quality of society, it promoted the individual imagination as a critical authority allowed of freedom from classical notions of form in art. There was a strong recourse to historical and natural inevitability, a Zeitgeist, in the representation of its ideas. In the second half of the 19th century, Realism was offered as a polar opposite to Romanticism.
The decline of Romanticism during this time was associated with multiple processes, including social and political changes and the spread of nationalism. The nature of Romanticism may be approached from the primary importance of the free expression of the feelings of the artist; the importance the Romantics placed on emotion is summed up in the remark of the German painter Caspar David Friedrich, "the artist's feeling is his law". To William Wordsworth, poetry should begin as "the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings", which the poet "recollect in tranquility", evoking a new but corresponding emotion the poet can mold into art. To express these feelings, it was considered the content of art had to come from the imagination of the artist, with as little interference as possible from "artificial" rules dictating what a work should consist of. Samuel Taylor Coleridge and others believed there were natural laws the imagination—at least of a good creative artist—would unconsciously follow through artistic inspiration if left alone.
As well as rules, the influence of models from other works was considered to impede the creator's own imagination, so that originality was essential. The concept of the genius, or artist, able to produce his own original work through this process of creation from nothingness, is key to Romanticism, to be derivative was the worst sin; this idea is called "romantic originality". Translator and prominent Romantic August Wilhelm Schlegel argued in his Lectures on Dramatic Arts and Letters that the most phenomenal power of human nature is its capacity to divide and diverge into opposite directions. Not essential to Romanticism, but so widespread as to be normative, was a strong belief and interest in the importance of nature; this in the effect of nature upon the artist when he is surrounded by it, preferably alone. In contrast to the very social art of the Enlightenment, Romantics were distrustful of the human world, tended to believe a close connection with nature was mentally and morally healthy.
Romantic art addressed its audiences with what was intended to be felt as the personal voice of the artist. So, in literature, "much of romantic poetry invited the reader to identify the protagonists with the poets themselves". According to Isaiah Berlin, Romanticism embodied "a new and restless spirit, seeking violently to burst through old and cramping forms, a nervous preoccupation with perpetually changing inner states of consciousness, a longing for the unbounded and the indefinable, for perpetual movement and change, an effort to return to the forgotten sources of life, a passionate effort at self-assertion both individual and collective, a search after means of expressing an unappeasable yearning for unattainable goals"; the group of words with the root "Roman" in the various European languages, such as "romance" and "Romanesque", has a complicated history, but by the middle of the 18th century "romantic" in English and romantique in French were both in common use as adjectives of praise for natural phenomena such as views and sunsets, in a sense close to modern English usage but without the amorous connotation.
The application of the term to literature first became common in Germany, where the circle around the Schlegel brothers, critics August and Friedrich, began to speak of romantische Poesie in the 1790s, contrasting it with "classic" but in terms of spirit rather than dating. Friedrich Schlegel wrote in his Dialogue on Poetry, "I seek and find the romantic among th
Lichtenstein Castle (Württemberg)
Lichtenstein Castle is a owned tourist attraction built in Gothic Revival style and located in the Swabian Jura of southern Germany. It was designed by Carl Alexander Heideloff and has been described as the "fairy tale castle of Württemberg." It overlooks the Echaz valley near Reutlingen in the state of Baden-Württemberg. The modern castle was inspired by the novel Lichtenstein by Wilhelm Hauff and was built in 1840–1842; the ruins of the medieval castle that inspired the novel are a few hundred meters away. The name Lichtenstein translates as "shining stone." The castle is located on an escarpment. It is in the Reutlingen district and has an altitude of 817 metres. and about 250 metres above the Echaz river, a small tributary of the Neckar river. The ruins of Lichtenstein Castle's medieval predecessor, the Burg Alt-Lichtenstein, lies 500 metres away. Beginning around 1100, a castle belonging to a family of ministerials of the counts of Achalm and counts of Württemberg, was located on the escarpment above the source of the river Echaz.
The castle and its denizens, the lords of Lichtenstein, were not friendly with the Free Imperial City of Reutlingen and were thus under frequent attack. The old castle was destroyed twice, once during the imperial civil war of 1311 and again by the citizens of Reutlingen sometime between 1377 and 1381. A new castle was built in 1390 some 500 metres from the ruins of the old one; the site selected was the same as that of the current structure. It was one of the most impressive fortifications of the Late Middle Ages. Despite such features as early casemates that made it nearly unassailable, the castle ceased to be the ducal seat in 1567 and fell into disrepair. During the Thirty Years' War, it was taken over by the Tyrolean line of the Habsburgs following the death of the last member of the Lichtenstein family in 1687 during the Great Turkish War; the coat of arms of their family, a pair of golden angel wings on a blue background, is still displayed in the Great Hall of the castle. In 1802, King Frederick I of Württemberg came into possession of the castle, dismantled it to its foundations and replaced it with a hunting lodge.
As a consequence of 19th-century Romanticism, medieval virtues like chivalry became popular among the elites. Parallel to this, medieval architecture Gothic style, returned to public attention in Germany with the unfinished Cologne Cathedral, leading to the rise of Gothic Revival architecture. Other notable examples of this romantic infatuation with medieval structures and architecture are the Votive Church of Vienna and Neuschwanstein Castle in Bavaria; this nostalgic longing for the medieval past, spurred on by the works of authors such as Hugh Walpole, Sir Walter Scott, John Ruskin, meant that architectural had once again turned from the Classical to the Gothic style of architecture. In 1826, German poet and patriot Wilhelm Hauff published his book Lichtenstein, in which the castle, the book's namesake, played a major role. Hauff's novel was inspired by the historical romances of Walter Scott, some of which Hauff reviewed and wrote a parody about. King Frederick's cousin, Count Wilhelm von Urach, a German patriot, interested in medieval history and architecture, was so inspired by the book that he purchased the estate — at that time another crumbling ruin in the Swabian Jura — from the king in 1837, after negotiations for the purchase with the resident groundskeeper Philipp Freiherr von Hügel and his successor.
Desiring an accurate emulation of a medieval castle to live in and house his substantial collection of medieval arts and armor, Wilhelm recruited architect and restorationist Carl Alexander Heideloff after turning down designs by Württemberg court painter Franz Seraph Stirnbrand and Christian Wilhelm von Faber du Faur – designs that differed from today's structure. Construction of the New Lichtenstein Castle was managed by Johann Georg Rupp; this structure, its design influenced by Count Wilhelm, used the ancient foundations of the castle of 1390, stood up to three stories tall, with a curtain wall and courtyard to complete the castle complex. A barbican and a sprawling outer bailey, complete with corner bastions and turrets, was constructed in 1857. Following this, the castle was decorated within and without by Nuremberg painter and architect Georg Eberlein; the most important works in the castle are "Death of the Virgin Mary" by Michael Wolgemut and two altar panels by an unknown Austrian artist called the "Master of Lichtenstein."The castle was completed in 1842, the king was present for its inauguration ceremony.
In 1869, it became the official residence of the dukes of Urach. After the Revolution of 1848, then-Count Wilhelm became the first duke of Urach. A passionate artillery officer, he desired to improve the defenses of his castle and so began to build pre-outwork caponiers in the style of the imperial Fortress of Ulm and a trench along the fortress to deter attack, he had cannons placed in the bastions on the walls. From 1898 to 1901 the two buildings left of the main gate, the Ducal Palace and the old groundskeepers house, were constructed and expanded respectively. A motion to build a cableway up to the castle in 1911 was rejected because it was believed it would ruin the beauty of the castle; the castle was damaged during World War II, but efforts to restore the castle began in the immediate aftermath of the war. Once again, thanks to local non-profit organizations like the Wüstenrot Foundation and Community Fund for the Preservation of Lichtenstein Castle, the walls were restored in 1980