Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel was a German field marshal during the Nazi era who served as Chief of the Armed Forces High Command during World War II. In this capacity, Keitel signed a number of criminal orders and directives that led to a war of unprecedented brutality and criminality. Keitel's rise to the Wehrmacht high command began with his appointment as the head of the Armed Forces Office at the Reich Ministry of War in 1935. After Hitler took command of the Wehrmacht in 1938, he replaced the ministry with the OKW, with Keitel as its chief. Keitel was reviled among his military colleagues as Hitler's habitual "yes-man". After the war, Keitel was indicted by the International Military Tribunal in Nuremberg as one of the "major war criminals", he was found guilty on all counts of the indictment: crimes against humanity, crimes against peace, criminal conspiracy, war crimes. Keitel was sentenced to death and executed by hanging in 1946. Keitel was born in the village of Helmscherode near Gandersheim in the Duchy of Germany.
The eldest son of Carl Keitel, a middle-class landowner, his wife Apollonia Vissering, he planned to take over his family's estates after completing his education at a gymnasium but this foundered on his father's resistance. Instead, he embarked on a military career in 1901; as a commoner, he did not join the cavalry, but a field artillery regiment in Wolfenbüttel, serving as adjutant from 1908. On 18 April 1909, Keitel married Lisa Fontaine, a wealthy landowner's daughter at Wülfel near Hanover. During World War I, Keitel served on the Western Front and took part in the fighting in Flanders, where he was wounded. After being promoted to captain, Keitel was posted to the staff of an infantry division in 1915. After the war, Keitel was retained in the newly created Reichswehr of the Weimar Republic and played a part in organizing the paramilitary Freikorps units on the Polish border. In 1924, Keitel was transferred to the Ministry of the Reichswehr in Berlin, serving with the Truppenamt, the post-Versailles disguised German General Staff.
Three years he returned to field command. Now a lieutenant-colonel, Keitel was again assigned to the Ministry of War in 1929 and was soon promoted to Head of the Organizational Department, a post he held until Adolf Hitler took power in 1933. Playing a vital role in the German re-armament, he traveled at least once to the Soviet Union to inspect secret Reichswehr training camps. In the autumn of 1932, he suffered double pneumonia. Shortly after his recovery, in October 1933, Keitel was appointed as deputy commander of the 3rd Infantry Division. In 1935, at the recommendation of General Werner von Fritsch, Keitel was promoted to the rank of major general and appointed chief of the Reich Ministry of War's Armed Forces Office, which oversaw the army and air force. After assuming office, Keitel was promoted to lieutenant general on 1 January 1936. On 21 January 1938, Keitel received evidence revealing that the wife of his superior, War Minister Werner von Blomberg, was a former prostitute. Upon reviewing this information, Keitel suggested that the dossier be forwarded to Hitler's deputy, Hermann Göring, who used it to bring about Blomberg's resignation.
Hitler took command of the Wehrmacht in 1938 and replaced the War Ministry with the Supreme Command of the Armed Forces, with Keitel as its chief. As a result of his appointment, Keitel assumed the responsibilities of Germany's War Minister. Soon after his promotion, Keitel convinced Hitler to appoint Walther von Brauchitsch as Commander-in-Chief of the Army, replacing von Fritsch, he became a full general in November 1938. Field Marshal Ewald von Kleist labelled Keitel as nothing more than a "stupid follower of Hitler" because of his servile "yes man" attitude with regard to Hitler, his sycophancy was well known in the army, he acquired the nickname'Lakeitel', a pun which derives from the combination of lakai and his surname. Hermann Göring's description of Keitel as having "a sergeant's mind inside a field marshal's body" was a feeling expressed among his peers, he had been promoted because of his craven willingness to function as Hitler's mouthpiece. Keitel was predisposed to manipulation because of his limited nervous disposition.
On one occasion, Burkhart Müller-Hillebrand asked who Keitel was: upon finding out he became horrified at his own failure to salute his superior. Franz Halder, told him: "Don't worry, it's only Keitel". German officers bypassed him and went directly to Hitler; the planning for Operation Barbarossa, the 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union, was begun tentatively by Halder with the redeployment of the 18th Army into an offensive position against the Soviet Union. On 31 July 1940, Hitler held a major conference that included Keitel, Alfred Jodl, Erich Raeder and Hans Jeschonnek which further discussed the invasion; the participants did not object to the invasion. Hitler asked for war studies to be completed and Georg Thomas was given the task of completing two studies on economic matters; the first study by Thomas rubber supplies. Keitel bluntly dismissed the problems; this influenced Thomas' second study which offered a glowing recommendation for the invasion based upon fabricated economic benefits.
Fulton Hill is a neighborhood located in the East End of Richmond, Virginia. The name is used for the area stretching from Gillies Creek to the Richmond city limits; the Greater Fulton Hill Civic Association includes Fulton Bottom, part of Montrose Heights and part of Rocketts. Fulton Hill is south of Church Hill and Shockoe Bottom, north of Varina, east of the James River, west of Sandston; the zip code is 23231. This Richmond neighborhood was named for Irish-born James Alexander Fulton, who married Eliza Mayo about 1800 and built a large estate atop current day Powhatan Park. In the 17th century the park was once home to Powhatan Village consisting of twelve dwellings. Tradition holds that Christopher Newport and John Smith first met with Parahunt, Powhatan's son, in May 1607 at this point. In the early 18th century, a ferry was established from a property at the bottom owned by Robert Rocketts to connect the north and south sides of the James River. A neighborhood of low-slung, single-story homes emerged here after the Civil War, the area was annexed by Richmond from Henrico County in 1905.
By the 1960s, the area at the base of the hill bordering Gilies Creek was home to low and middle income African Americans. The housing stock was regarded as rather shabby, after severe flood damage in the early 1970s, many residents took Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Act money and relocated elsewhere in the city; the entire Fulton Bottom community was demolished, marking Richmond's only neighborhood-wide urban renewal slum clearance. Residents were promised rehabilitation and new construction, but the space once occupied by Fulton lay empty for a full decade before construction of moderate-income housing began. Many regard the failure to replace the razed housing in Fulton as one of the central failures of the city's urban renewal plans; the area above the floodplain is an intact urban neighborhood, with a working class character and population. The area is seeing renovation and rehabilitation on the upswing after years of neglect, thanks in large part to dedicated community action to tackle criminal activity, to rising property prices in other parts of the city.
Fulton Hill's population is African American, but an increasing number of white residents have purchased homes in the neighborhood in recent years, making the neighborhood one of Richmond's most diverse. Neighborhood businesses, most of which are located along Williamsburg Road, include a Bank of America branch, several convenience stores and service stations, a Family Dollar store, Top Shelf Smoke shop and the popular Krispies Fried Chicken restaurant, it includes longtime community nonprofit The Neighborhood Resource Center Fulton is home to the east coast hub for Stone Brewing. Fulton Hill has a large stock of early-20th-century vernacular homes 1- and 1 1⁄2-story bungalows, but including a number of trendy Sears Catalog homes and several semi-detached Federal rows that date to the earlier years of settlement; the neighborhood is home to Richmond National Cemetery, a veteran's cemetery dating to the Civil War with 9,322 interments. An album by the band Alabama Thunderpussy is named "Fulton Hill" after the community.
Historic Richmond Foundation Richmond Neighborhoods Guide The Neighborhood Resource Center of Greater Fulton Hill Greater Fulton News
The RFU Senior Vase is a rugby union national knockout cup competition in England run by the Rugby Football Union, competed for since the 2006–07 season. It is contested for by teams at level 8 of the English rugby union system, with only 1st XV sides being allowed to enter; the competition is a national one but is split into regions until the semi-finals with the final being held at Twickenham Stadium in London. As of 2018-19 it is the fourth most prestigious national club cup competition in England behind the Premiership Rugby Cup, RFU Championship Cup and RFU Intermediate Cup; the Senior Vase was introduced by the RFU during the 2006–07 season, was competed for by English level 8 clubs. The original competition sponsors were EDF Energy, who had just taken over the sponsorship of national cup competitions from previous sponsors Powergen, although since the 2009–10 season there has been no sponsor. At the time of its inception it was the fourth most important competition in English rugby union behind the Anglo-Welsh Cup, National Trophy and Intermediate Cup but ahead of the Junior Vase.
The finals for the Intermediate Cup, Senior Vase and Junior Vase are played at the end of each season at Twickenham Stadium, with games all taking place on the same specified date throughout the day. The rounds are contested on a regional basis between the four regional unions until the semi-finals, where the winner of each region enters the national competition, with the winner of each semi-final meeting at the final at Twickenham Stadium; each region has a different qualification method and at the end of this qualification there are four regional champions who play in the national semi-finals the ground being one of the semi-finalist's home. The semi-finals pairings are South East against South West and Midlands against North; the format for northern teams involved in the RFU Senior Vase is a league-cup hybrid with each county union in the region selecting one representative each. The first stage features a mini league with clubs from Cheshire and Lancashire meeting in one pool and clubs from Durham County and Yorkshire, meeting in the other, each side playing 2 games each.
The winners of each group meet in the north final to determine who goes forward to the national semi-finals. The competition involves representative teams from the following level 8 leagues: Cumbria 2 Durham/Northumberland 2 South Lancs/Cheshire 2 Yorkshire 2 The format for Midlands teams involved in the RFU Senior Vase is a direct knockout cup with a 1st round, 2nd round, 3rd round, semi-finals and final, with all sides from the eligible leagues taking part; the winner of the final goes forward to the Senior Vase national semi-finals. The competition involves all teams from the following level 8 leagues: Midlands 3 West Midlands 3 West Midlands 3 East Midlands 3 East As with the Midlands the format for London and South East teams involved in the RFU Senior Vase is a direct knockout cup with a 1st round, 2nd round, 3rd round, semi-finals and final, with all eligible teams taking part; the winner of the final goes forward to the Senior Vase national semi-finals. The competition involves all teams from the following level 8 leagues: London 3 Eastern Counties London 3 Essex London 3 North West London 3 South East London 3 South West The format for the south-west teams is more complex with different methods of qualification decided on by the county unions that they represent.
Clubs that are affiliated with Dorset & Wilts and Gloucestershire play in county based knock-out competitions first. The winners of the Dorset & Wilts competition plays in the Southern Counties semi-finals against representatives from Berkshire and Oxfordshire, while the Gloucestershire winners play in the South West Counties semi-finals against representative from Cornwall and Somerset, with the winners meeting in a regional final; the Southern Counties and South West Counties winners meet to determine qualification for the national semi-finals. Teams involved are from the following level 8 leagues: Berks/Bucks & Oxon Premier Dorset & Wilts 1 North Dorset & Wilts 1 South Gloucester Premier Tribute Cornwall/Devon Tribute Somerset Premier South West London & South East North Midlands Anglo-Welsh Cup EDF Energy Trophy Premiership Rugby Cup RFU Championship Cup RFU Intermediate Cup RFU Junior Vase Rugby union in England RFU