The Oregonian is a daily newspaper based in Portland, United States, owned by Advance Publications. It is the oldest continuously published newspaper on the U. S. west coast, founded as a weekly by Thomas J. Dryer on December 4, 1850, published daily since 1861, it is the largest newspaper in Oregon and the second largest in the Pacific Northwest by circulation. It is one of the few newspapers with a statewide focus in the United States; the Sunday edition is published under the title The Sunday Oregonian. The regular edition was published under the title The Morning Oregonian from 1861 until 1937; the Oregonian received the 2001 Pulitzer Prize for Public Service, the only gold medal annually awarded by the organization. The paper's staff or individual writers have received seven other Pulitzer Prizes, most the award for Editorial Writing in 2014; the Oregonian is home-delivered throughout Multnomah, Washington and Yamhill counties in Oregon and Clark County, Washington four days a week. Although some independent dealers do deliver the newspaper outside that area, in 2006 it ceased to be available in far eastern Oregon and the southern Oregon Coast and, starting in December 2008, "increasing newsprint and distribution costs" caused the paper to stop delivery to all areas south of Albany.
One year prior to the incorporation of the tiny town of Portland, Oregon, in 1851, prospective leaders of the new community determined to establish a local newspaper—an institution, seen as a prerequisite for urban growth. Chief among these pioneer community organizers seeking establishment of a Portland press were Col. W. W. Chapman and prominent local businessman Henry W. Corbett. In the fall of 1850 Chapman and Corbett traveled to San Francisco, at the time far and away the largest city on the West Coast of the United States, in search of an editor interested in and capable of producing a weekly newspaper in Portland. There the pair met Thomas J. Dryer, a transplanted New Yorker, an energetic writer with both printing equipment and previous experience in the production of a small circulation community newspaper in his native Ulster County, New York. Dryer's press was transported to Portland and it was there on December 4, 1850 that the first issue of The Weekly Oregonian found its readers.
Each weekly issue consisted of four pages, printed six columns wide. Little attention was paid to current news events, with the bulk of the paper's content devoted to political themes and biographical commentary; the paper took a staunch political line supportive of the Whig Party—an orientation which soon brought it into conflict with The Statesman, a Democratic paper launched at Oregon City not long after The Weekly Oregonian's debut. A loud and bitter rivalry between the competing news organs ensued. Henry Pittock became the owner in 1861 as compensation for unpaid wages, he began publishing the paper daily, except Sundays. Pittock's goal was to focus more on news than the bully pulpit established by Dryer, he ordered a new press in December 1860 and arranged for the news to be sent by telegraph to Redding, California by stagecoach to Jacksonville, by pony express to Portland. From 1866 to 1872 Harvey W. Scott was the editor. Henry W. Corbett bought the paper from a cash-poor Pittock in October 1872 and placed William Lair Hill as editor.
Scott, fired by Corbett for supporting Ben Holladay's candidates, became editor of Holladay's rival Bulletin newspaper. The paper went bankrupt around 1874. Corbett sold The Oregonian back to Pittock in 1877, marking a return of Scott to the paper's editorial helm. A part-owner of the paper, Scott would remain as editor-in-chief until shortly before his death in 1910. One of the journalists who began his career on The Oregonian during this time period was James J. Montague who took over and wrote the column "Slings & Arrows" until he was hired away by William Randolph Hearst in 1902. In 1881, the first Sunday Oregonian was published; the paper became known as the voice of business-oriented Republicans, as evidenced by consistent endorsement of Republican candidates for president in every federal election before 1992. The paper's offices and presses were housed in a two-story building at the intersection of First Street and Morrison Street, but in 1892 the paper moved into a new nine-story building at 6th and Alder streets.
The new building was, the same as its predecessor, called the Oregonian Building. It included a clock tower at one corner, the building's overall height of 194 to 196 feet made it the tallest structure in Portland, a distinction it retained until the completion of the Yeon Building in 1911, it contained about 100,000 square feet of floor space, including the basement but not the tower. The newspaper did not move again until 1948; the 1892 building was demolished in 1950. Following the death of Harvey Scott in 1910, the paper's editor-in-chief was Edgar B. Piper, managing editor. Piper remained editor until his death in 1928. In 1922, The Morning Oregonian launched Oregon's first commercial radio station. Five years KGW affiliated with NBC; the newspaper purchased a second station, KEX, in 1933, from NBC subsidiary Northwest Broadcasting Co. In 1944, KEX was sold to Inc.. The Oregonian launched KGW-FM, the Northwest's first FM station, in 1946, known today as KKRZ. KGW and KGW-FM were sold to King Broadcasting Co in 1953.
In 1937, The Morning Oregonian shortened its name to The Oregonian. Two years associate editor Ronald G. Callvert rec
Electric power transmission
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation. The interconnected lines which facilitate this movement are known as a transmission network; this is distinct from the local wiring between high-voltage substations and customers, referred to as electric power distribution. The combined transmission and distribution network is known as the "power grid" in North America, or just "the grid". In the United Kingdom, Myanmar and New Zealand, the network is known as the "National Grid". A wide area synchronous grid known as an "interconnection" in North America, directly connects a large number of generators delivering AC power with the same relative frequency to a large number of consumers. For example, there are four major interconnections in North America. In Europe one large grid connects most of continental Europe. Transmission and distribution lines were owned by the same company, but starting in the 1990s, many countries have liberalized the regulation of the electricity market in ways that have led to the separation of the electricity transmission business from the distribution business.
Most transmission lines are high-voltage three-phase alternating current, although single phase AC is sometimes used in railway electrification systems. High-voltage direct-current technology is used for greater efficiency over long distances. HVDC technology is used in submarine power cables, in the interchange of power between grids that are not mutually synchronized. HVDC links are used to stabilize large power distribution networks where sudden new loads, or blackouts, in one part of a network can result in synchronization problems and cascading failures. Electricity is transmitted at high voltages to reduce the energy loss which occurs in long-distance transmission. Power is transmitted through overhead power lines. Underground power transmission has a higher installation cost and greater operational limitations, but reduced maintenance costs. Underground transmission is sometimes used in environmentally sensitive locations. A lack of electrical energy storage facilities in transmission systems leads to a key limitation.
Electrical energy must be generated at the same rate. A sophisticated control system is required to ensure that the power generation closely matches the demand. If the demand for power exceeds supply, the imbalance can cause generation plant and transmission equipment to automatically disconnect or shut down to prevent damage. In the worst case, this may lead to a cascading series of a major regional blackout. Examples include the US Northeast blackouts of 1965, 1977, 2003, major blackouts in other US regions in 1996 and 2011. Electric transmission networks are interconnected into regional and continent wide networks to reduce the risk of such a failure by providing multiple redundant, alternative routes for power to flow should such shut downs occur. Transmission companies determine the maximum reliable capacity of each line to ensure that spare capacity is available in the event of a failure in another part of the network. High-voltage overhead conductors are not covered by insulation; the conductor material is nearly always an aluminum alloy, made into several strands and reinforced with steel strands.
Copper was sometimes used for overhead transmission, but aluminum is lighter, yields only marginally reduced performance and costs much less. Overhead conductors are a commodity supplied by several companies worldwide. Improved conductor material and shapes are used to allow increased capacity and modernize transmission circuits. Conductor sizes range from 12 mm2 with varying resistance and current-carrying capacity. For normal AC lines thicker wires would lead to a small increase in capacity due to the skin effect; because of this current limitation, multiple parallel cables are used when higher capacity is needed. Bundle conductors are used at high voltages to reduce energy loss caused by corona discharge. Today, transmission-level voltages are considered to be 110 kV and above. Lower voltages, such as 66 kV and 33 kV, are considered subtransmission voltages, but are used on long lines with light loads. Voltages less than 33 kV are used for distribution. Voltages above 765 kV are considered extra high voltage and require different designs compared to equipment used at lower voltages.
Since overhead transmission wires depend on air for insulation, the design of these lines requires minimum clearances to be observed to maintain safety. Adverse weather conditions, such as high wind and low temperatures, can lead to power outages. Wind speeds as low as 23 knots can permit conductors to encroach operating clearances, resulting in a flashover and loss of supply. Oscillatory motion of the physical line can be termed gallop or flutter depending on the frequency and amplitude of oscillation. Electric power can be transmitted by underground power cables instead of overhead power lines. Underground cables take up less right-of-way than overhead lines, have lower visibility, are less affected by bad weather. However, costs of insulated cable and excavation are much higher
The Willamette River is a major tributary of the Columbia River, accounting for 12 to 15 percent of the Columbia's flow. The Willamette's main stem is 187 miles long, lying in northwestern Oregon in the United States. Flowing northward between the Oregon Coast Range and the Cascade Range, the river and its tributaries form the Willamette Valley, a basin that contains two-thirds of Oregon's population, including the state capital and the state's largest city, which surrounds the Willamette's mouth at the Columbia. Created by plate tectonics about 35 million years ago and subsequently altered by volcanism and erosion, the river's drainage basin was modified by the Missoula Floods at the end of the most recent ice age. Humans began living in the watershed over 10,000 years ago. There were once many tribal villages along the lower river and in the area around its mouth on the Columbia. Indigenous peoples lived throughout the upper reaches of the basin as well. Rich with sediments deposited by flooding and fed by prolific rainfall on the western side of the Cascades, the Willamette Valley is one of the most fertile agricultural regions in North America, was thus the destination of many 19th-century pioneers traveling west along the Oregon Trail.
The river was an important transportation route in the 19th century, although Willamette Falls, just upstream from Portland, was a major barrier to boat traffic. In the 21st century, major highways follow the river, roads cross it on more than 50 bridges. Since 1900, more than 15 large dams and many smaller ones have been built in the Willamette's drainage basin, 13 of which are operated by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the dams are used to produce hydroelectricity, to maintain reservoirs for recreation, to prevent flooding. The river and its tributaries support 60 fish species, including many species of salmon and trout. Part of the Willamette Floodplain was established as a National Natural Landmark in 1987 and the river was named as one of 14 American Heritage Rivers in 1998; the upper tributaries of the Willamette originate in the mountains south and southeast of Eugene, Oregon. Formed by the confluence of the Middle Fork Willamette River and the Coast Fork Willamette River near Springfield, the main stem Willamette meanders north for 187 miles to the Columbia River.
The river's two most significant course deviations occur at Newberg, where it turns east, about 18 miles downstream from Newberg, where it turns north again. Near its mouth north of downtown Portland, the river splits into two channels that flow around Sauvie Island. Used for navigation purposes, these channels are managed by the U. S. federal government. The main channel, 40 feet deep and varies in width from 600 to 1,900 feet, enters the Columbia about 101 miles from the larger river's mouth on the Pacific Ocean; the channel forms the primary navigational conduit for Portland's harbor and riverside industrial areas. The smaller Multnomah Channel, a distributary, is 21 miles long, about 600 feet wide, 40 feet deep, it ends about 14.5 miles further downstream on the Columbia, near St. Helens in Columbia County. Proposals have been made for deepening the Multnomah Channel to 43 feet in conjunction with 103.5 miles of tandem-maintained navigation on the Columbia River. Between the 1850s and the 1960s, channel-straightening and flood control projects, as well as agricultural and urban encroachment, cut the length of the river between the McKenzie River confluence and Harrisburg by 65 percent.
The river was shortened by 40 percent in the stretch between Harrisburg and Albany. Interstate 5 and three branches of Oregon Route 99 are the two major highways that follow the river for its entire length. Communities along the main stem include Eugene in Lane County. Significant tributaries from source to mouth include the Middle and Coast forks and the McKenzie, Long Tom, Calapooia, Luckiamute, Molalla and Clackamas rivers. Beginning at 438 feet above sea level, the main stem descends 428 feet between source and mouth, or about 2.3 feet per mile. The gradient is steeper from the source to Albany than it is from Albany to Oregon City. At Willamette Falls, between West Linn and Oregon City, the river plunges about 40 feet. For the rest of its course, the river is low-gradient and is affected by Pacific Ocean tidal effects from the Columbia; the main stem of the Willamette varies in width from about 330 to 660 feet. With an average flow at the mouth of about 37,400 cubic feet per second, the Willamette ranks 19th in volume among rivers in the United States and contributes 12 to 15 percent of the total flow of the Columbia River.
The Willamette's flow varies season to season, averaging about 8,200 cubic feet per second in August to more than 79,000 cubic feet per second in December. The U. S. Geological Survey operates five stream gauges along the river, at Harrisburg, Albany and Portland; the average discharge at the lowermost gauge, near the Morrison Bridge in Portland, was 33,220 cubic feet per second
Lady Washington is a ship name shared by at least four different 80-100 ton-class Sloop-of-war and merchant sailing vessels during two different time periods. The original harassed British shipping. Post war, the vessel was used as a merchant trading vessel in the Pacific. A somewhat updated modern replica was created in 1989; the replica has appeared in numerous films and television shows, standing in as other real or fictional ships. The original Lady Washington, or more Washington, was a 90-ton brig, her early history is documented in the Massachusetts Soldiers and Sailors of the Revolutionary War as well as other documents. As part of the Columbia Expedition, she left Boston Harbor on October 1, 1787, she sailed around Cape Horn and participated in the maritime fur trade with the coastal Native Americans in the Pacific Northwest and in tea and porcelain across the Pacific in China. She was the first American-flagged vessel to round Cape Horn, she was the first recorded vessel to make landfall on the Oregon coast near Oregon.
John Meares claimed. Named in honor of Martha Washington, she was captained during the American Revolutionary War by Naler Hatch, post war by Robert Gray, John Kendrick, former captain of her larger sailing partner, Columbia Rediviva and commander of the expedition. At the end of the first trading season, Kendrick ordered Gray to sail Columbia to China, while Kendrick took command of Lady Washington. Under the command of Kendrick, she was refitted in Macau as a brigantine. Lady Washington became the first American vessel to reach Japan in an unsuccessful attempt to move some unsold pelts. Lady Washington remained in the Pacific trade and foundered in the Philippines in 1797, she was lost at the mouth of the Mestizo River, near Vigan, northwest Luzon in July 1797. A ship replica of Lady Washington was built in Aberdeen, United States in time for the 1989 Washington State Centennial celebrations. Aberdeen is located on Grays Harbor, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean named for Robert Gray, the man who entered the harbor under sail for the first time as master of Columbia.
Named "Washington State's Tall Ship Ambassador", as well as the State Ship, the new Lady Washington is operated by a professional and volunteer crew under the auspices of the Grays Harbor Historical Seaport Authority. She sails up and down the Pacific coast in pair with Hawaiian Chieftain, educating students in the history of merchant trading, life of common sailors, responsibilities of the ship's officers; the current replica's mainmast is rigged with a topgallant sail and topsail above a gaff mainsail, as based on the post-Macau refit configuration. Old World terminology refers to this sail plan as brigantine, New World terminology refers to this as a brig. Lady Washington has appeared in various films, portraying HMS Interceptor in the film Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl and the brig Enterprise, a namesake of the Starship Enterprise, on the holodeck in Star Trek Generations, she provided the basis for the RLS Legacy in the Disney animated feature Treasure Planet. She transported Chinese immigrants to America in the IMAX film The Great American West.
On television, the ship played a prominent role in the miniseries Blackbeard, has appeared in the music video for rapper Macklemore's Can't Hold Us and as Captain Hook's ship the Jolly Roger on Once Upon a Time. The ship is the central visual element for Christian music group For KING & COUNTRY in their music video Burn the Ships. USS Lady Washington Grays Harbor Historical Seaport Authority, Lady Washington's operating organization Maritime Heritage Network, an online directory of maritime history resources in the Pacific Northwest
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of a world fur market in the early modern period, furs of boreal and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most valued; the trade stimulated the exploration and colonization of Siberia, northern North America, the South Shetland and South Sandwich Islands. Today the importance of the fur trade has diminished. Animal rights organizations oppose the fur trade, citing that animals are brutally killed and sometimes skinned alive. Fur has been replaced in some clothing by synthetic imitations, for example, as in ruffs on hoods of parkas. Before the European colonization of the Americas, Russia was a major supplier of fur pelts to Western Europe and parts of Asia, its trade developed in the Early Middle Ages, first through exchanges at posts around the Baltic and Black seas. The main trading market destination was the German city of Leipzig. Kievan Russia, the first Russian State, was the first supplier of the Russian Fur Trade.
Russia exported raw furs, consisting in most cases of the pelts of martens, wolves, foxes and hares. Between the 16th and 18th centuries, Russians began to settle in Siberia, a region rich in many mammal fur species, such as Arctic fox, sable, sea otter and stoat. In a search for the prized sea otter pelts, first used in China, for the northern fur seal, the Russian Empire expanded into North America, notably Alaska. From the 17th through the second half of the 19th century, Russia was the world's largest supplier of fur; the fur trade played a vital role in the development of Siberia, the Russian Far East and the Russian colonization of the Americas. As recognition of the importance of the trade to the Siberian economy, the sable is a regional symbol of the Ural Sverdlovsk Oblast and the Siberian Novosibirsk and Irkutsk Oblasts of Russia; the European discovery of North America, with its vast forests and wildlife the beaver, led to the continent becoming a major supplier in the 17th century of fur pelts for the fur felt hat and fur trimming and garment trades of Europe.
Fur was relied on to make warm clothing, a critical consideration prior to the organization of coal distribution for heating. Portugal and Spain played major roles in fur trading after the 15th century with their business in fur hats. From as early as the 10th century and boyars of Novgorod had exploited the fur resources "beyond the portage", a watershed at the White Lake that represents the door to the entire northwestern part of Eurasia, they began by establishing trading posts along the Volga and Vychegda river networks and requiring the Komi people to give them furs as tribute. Novgorod, the chief fur-trade center prospered as the easternmost trading post of the Hanseatic League. Novgorodians expanded farther east and north, coming into contact with the Pechora people of the Pechora River valley and the Yugra people residing near the Urals. Both of these native tribes offered more resistance than the Komi, killing many Russian tribute-collectors throughout the tenth and eleventh centuries.
As Muscovy gained more power in the 15th century and proceeded in the "gathering of the Russian lands", the Muscovite state began to rival the Novgorodians in the North. During the 15th century Moscow began subjugating many native tribes. One strategy involved exploiting antagonisms between tribes, notably the Komi and Yugra, by recruiting men of one tribe to fight in an army against the other tribe. Campaigns against native tribes in Siberia remained insignificant until they began on a much larger scale in 1483 and 1499. Besides the Novgorodians and the indigenes, Muscovites had to contend with the various Muslim Tatar khanates to the east of Muscovy. In 1552 Ivan IV, the Tsar of All the Russias, took a significant step towards securing Russian hegemony in Siberia when he sent a large army to attack the Kazan Tartars and ended up obtaining the territory from the Volga to the Ural Mountains. At this point the phrase "ruler of Obdor and all Siberian lands" became part of the title of the Tsar in Moscow.
So, problems ensued after 1558 when Ivan IV sent Grigory Stroganov to colonize land on the Kama and to subjugate and enserf the Komi living there. The Stroganov family soon came into conflict with the Khan of Sibir. Ivan told the Stroganovs to hire Cossack mercenaries to protect the new settlement from the Tatars. From ca 1581 the band of Cossacks led by Yermak Timofeyevich fought many battles that culminated in a Tartar victory and the temporary end to Russian occupation in the area. In 1584 Ivan’s son Fyodor sent military governors and soldiers to reclaim Yermak conquests and to annex the land held by the Khanate of Sibir. Similar skirmishes with Tartars took place across Siberia. Russian conquerors treated the natives of Siberia as exploited enemies who were inferior to them; as they penetrated deeper into Siberia, traders built outposts or winter lodges called zimovya where they lived and collected fur tribute from native tribes. By 1620 Russia dominated the land from the Urals eastward to the Yenisey valley and to the Altai Mountains in the south, comprising about 1.25 million square miles of land.
Furs would become Russia's largest source of wealth during the seventeenth centuries. Keeping up with the advances of Western Europe required significant capital and Russia did not have sources of gold and silver, but it did have furs, which became known as "soft gold" and provided Russia with hard cur
Northwestern United States
The Northwestern United States is an informal geographic region of the United States. The region includes the states of Oregon and Idaho—and Montana and Wyoming; some sources include Southeast Alaska in the Northwest. The related but distinct term "Pacific Northwest" excludes areas from the Rockies eastward; the Northwestern United States is a subportion of the Western United States. In contrast, states included in the neighboring regions and Utah are not considered part of both regions. Like the southwestern United States, the Northwest definition has moved westward over time; the current area includes the old Oregon Territory. The region is similar to Federal Region X, which comprises Oregon, Washington and Alaska, it is home to over 14.2 million people. Some of the fastest growing cities in this region and in the nation include Seattle, Bellevue, Vancouver, Pasco, Portland, Salem, Boise and Billings; as the United States' westward expansion, the country's western border shifted westward, so did the location of the Northwestern and Southwestern United States.
In the early years of the United States, newly colonized lands lying west of the Allegheny Mountains were detached from Virginia and given the name Northwest Territory. During the decades that followed, the Northwest Territory covered much of the Great Lakes region east of the Mississippi River; as of 2016, the Northwestern states have a cumulative population of 14,297,316, with Oregon and Washington accounting for 77% of the entire five-state region's population. As of 2016, there are 25 metropolitan statistical areas in the Northwest with populations of 100,000 or more, none of which are in Wyoming. Since adjacent metropolitan areas function as one combined agglomeration, the U. S. Census Bureau additionally defines nine combined statistical areas across the Northwest, eight of which having populations of 100,000 or more. Lavender, David. Land of Giants: The Drive to the Pacific Northwest, 1750- 1950 online Schwantes, Carlos; the Pacific Northwest: An Interpretive History online Warren, Sidney.
Farthest Frontier: The Pacific Northwest online Winther, Oscar Osburn. The great northwest: a history
The Pacific lamprey is an anadromous parasitic lamprey from the Pacific Coast of North America and Asia. It is a member of the Petromyzontidae family; the Pacific lamprey is known as the three-tooth lamprey and tridentate lamprey. Pacific lampreys grow to about 80 cm as adults, they are semelparous. They have elongated bodies with two dorsal fins arising far back on the body; the anal fins are rudimentary and the lower lobe of the caudal fin is larger than the upper lobe and both lobes are continuous with the dorsal fin and the anal fin. Adults living in the sea are a bluish-black or greenish colour above and pale below, but those in fresh water are brown; this species is distinguished by having three sharp teeth on the supraoral bar above the mouth and three sharp points on each lateral plate. Although the adult and juvenile stages are more noticeable, lampreys spend the majority of their lives as larvae. Ammocoetes live in fresh water for many years. Ammocoetes are filter feeders that draw overlying water into burrows they dig into soft bottom substrates.
After the larval period, the ammocoetes undergo metamorphosis and take on the juvenile/adult body morphology. Juveniles/adults have a jawless, sucker-like mouth that allows them to become parasitic on other fish and sperm whales, attaching themselves with their suckers and feeding on blood and body fluids; the adults live at least one to two years in the ocean and return to fresh water to spawn. Whether Pacific lampreys return to their natal streams or seek spawning areas based on other cues is not known, they spawn in similar habitat to Pacific salmon and trout. Lampreys construct a nest in small gravel and females can lay over 100,000 eggs, which are fertilized externally by the male. After spawning, the adults die within four days. Like salmon, the Pacific lamprey does not feed while migrating to spawn. Pacific lampreys are an important ceremonial food for Native American tribes in the Columbia River basin and the Yurok people of the Klamath River Wiyot people of the Eel River in northern California.
Pacific lamprey numbers in the Columbia River have declined with the construction of the Columbia River hydropower system. No harvest opportunity for Native Americans remains in the Columbia River and its tributaries except for a small annual harvest at Willamette Falls on the Willamette River; the Yurok and Wiyot snag lampreys in the surf at the mouth of the Klamath River at night, using hand-carved wooden "hooks". It is dangerous work. Lamprey facts