Willamette River

The Willamette River is a major tributary of the Columbia River, accounting for 12 to 15 percent of the Columbia's flow. The Willamette's main stem is 187 miles long, lying in northwestern Oregon in the United States. Flowing northward between the Oregon Coast Range and the Cascade Range, the river and its tributaries form the Willamette Valley, a basin that contains two-thirds of Oregon's population, including the state capital and the state's largest city, which surrounds the Willamette's mouth at the Columbia. Created by plate tectonics about 35 million years ago and subsequently altered by volcanism and erosion, the river's drainage basin was modified by the Missoula Floods at the end of the most recent ice age. Humans began living in the watershed over 10,000 years ago. There were once many tribal villages along the lower river and in the area around its mouth on the Columbia. Indigenous peoples lived throughout the upper reaches of the basin as well. Rich with sediments deposited by flooding and fed by prolific rainfall on the western side of the Cascades, the Willamette Valley is one of the most fertile agricultural regions in North America, was thus the destination of many 19th-century pioneers traveling west along the Oregon Trail.

The river was an important transportation route in the 19th century, although Willamette Falls, just upstream from Portland, was a major barrier to boat traffic. In the 21st century, major highways follow the river, roads cross the main stem on 30 different bridges. In addition to sharing some of those, more than half a dozen bridges not open to motorized vehicles provide separate crossings for bicycles and pedestrians, several others are for rail traffic. There are ferries that convey cars, motorcycles and pedestrians across the river for a fare and provided river conditions permit, they are the Buena Vista Ferry between Marion County and Polk County south of Independence and Salem, the Wheatland Ferry between Marion County and Polk County north of Salem and Keizer, Canby Ferry in Clackamas County north of Canby. Since 1900, more than 15 large dams and many smaller ones have been built in the Willamette's drainage basin, 13 of which are operated by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers; the dams are used to produce hydroelectricity, to maintain reservoirs for recreation, to prevent flooding.

The river and its tributaries support 60 fish species, including many species of salmon and trout. Part of the Willamette Floodplain was established as a National Natural Landmark in 1987 and the river was named as one of 14 American Heritage Rivers in 1998; the upper tributaries of the Willamette originate in the mountains south and southeast of Eugene, Oregon. Formed by the confluence of the Middle Fork Willamette River and the Coast Fork Willamette River near Springfield, the main stem Willamette meanders north for 187 miles to the Columbia River; the river's two most significant course deviations occur at Newberg, where it turns east, about 18 miles downstream from Newberg, where it turns north again. Near its mouth north of downtown Portland, the river splits into two channels that flow around Sauvie Island. Used for navigation purposes, these channels are managed by the U. S. federal government. The main channel, 40 feet deep and varies in width from 600 to 1,900 feet, enters the Columbia about 101 miles from the larger river's mouth on the Pacific Ocean.

The channel forms the primary navigational conduit for Portland's harbor and riverside industrial areas. The smaller Multnomah Channel, a distributary, is 21 miles long, about 600 feet wide, 40 feet deep, it ends about 14.5 miles further downstream on the Columbia, near St. Helens in Columbia County. Proposals have been made for deepening the Multnomah Channel to 43 feet in conjunction with 103.5 miles of tandem-maintained navigation on the Columbia River. Between the 1850s and the 1960s, channel-straightening and flood control projects, as well as agricultural and urban encroachment, cut the length of the river between the McKenzie River confluence and Harrisburg by 65 percent; the river was shortened by 40 percent in the stretch between Harrisburg and Albany. Interstate 5 and three branches of Oregon Route 99 are the two major highways that follow the river for its entire length. Communities along the main stem include Eugene in Lane County. Significant tributaries from source to mouth include the Middle and Coast forks and the McKenzie, Long Tom, Calapooia, Luckiamute, Molalla and Clackamas rivers.

Beginning at 438 feet above sea level, the main stem descends 428 feet between source and mouth, or about 2.3 feet per mile. The gradient is steeper from the source to Albany than it is from Albany to Oregon City. At Willamette Falls, between West Linn and Oregon City, the river plunges about 40 feet. For the rest of its course, the river is low-gradient and is affected by Pacific Ocean tidal effects from the Columbia; the main stem of the Willamette varies in width from about 330 to 660 feet. With an average f

Reality principle

In Freudian psychology and psychoanalysis, the reality principle is the ability of the mind to assess the reality of the external world, to act upon it accordingly, as opposed to acting on the pleasure principle. Allowing the individual to defer instant gratification, the reality principle is the governing principle of the actions taken by the ego, after its slow development from a "pleasure-ego" into a "reality-ego": it may be compared to the triumph of reason over passion, head over heart, rational over emotional mind. Freud argued that “an ego thus educated has become ‘reasonable’. In his introductory lectures of 1915, at the University of Vienna, Freud popularized the concept of the unconscious as the largest and most influential part of the mind, including those drives and motives humans are forced to deny except in disguised form. In the 23rd lecture, Freud discussed the conflict between the realm of "Phantasy" and the reality principle, comparing the former to a nature reserve, he argued however that “there is a path that leads back from phantasy to reality - the path, that is, of art”.

Jonathan Lear has argued that there was in fact an ethical dimension to Freud's concept of the reality principle, in that it was opposed to a neurotically distorted world-view. In infancy and early childhood, the Id governs behavior predominantly by obeying the pleasure principle. Maturity is the slow process of learning to endure the pain of deferred gratification as and when reality requires it – a process Freud saw as fostered by education and educators; the result is the mature mind's ability to avoid instant gratification in favor of long-term satisfaction. In order to do so, the reality principle does not ignore the id, but strives instead to satisfy its desires in balanced and appropriate ways, through awareness of and adjustment to environmental demands; the manner in which it moderates the pleasure principle and assures satisfaction of instinctual needs is by weighing the costs and benefits of an action before deciding to act upon or ignore an impulse. The reality principle forces the mind to consider the risks and outcomes of various decisions.

The ego does not strive to eradicate urges, but instead it temporarily halts the discharge of the id's energy until a more suitable and realistic time and place can be found. This necessary process of delay is accomplished through the so-called secondary process. An example of the reality principle at work is a person, dieting, but chooses not to give into hunger cravings, he or she knows that satisfying their unhealthy cravings, thus satisfying the pleasure principle, provides only short-term empty satisfaction that thwarts the objective of the diet. While some of Freud's ideas may be faulty and others not testable, he was a peerless observer of the human condition, enough of what he proposed concerning the reality principle, manifests itself in daily life. Rebellion against the constraints of the reality principle, in favour of a belief in infantile omnipotence, appears as a feature of all neurotic behavior - something seen most overtly in the actions of gamblers. Psychosis can be seen as the result of the suspension of the reality principle, while sleep and dreaming offer a'normal' everyday example of its decommissioning.

Susan Isaacs argued however that reality thinking in fact depended on the support of unconscious phantasy, rather than being opposed to it. Jacques Lacan maintained that the field of reality required the support of the imaginary world of phantasy for its maintenance; the ego psychologists have come to see the perception of reality as taking place through the medium of a greater or lesser veil of infantile fantasy. The reality principle increases its scope in the wake of puberty, expanding the range and maturity of the choices the individual makes. Adolescents are no longer children who must succumb to every need, but potential young adults with the ability to defer gratification in favor of more suitable circumstances. What is dominant in the mind is no longer only what is pleasurable, but what is real if it happens to be disagreeable. A further change in the reality principle from adolescence to adulthood can be a critical transition in its consolidation. In the new reality principle, the individual must find themselves to be represented as a strong presence within their own mind and making reasoned decisions, instead of being perceived.

It is the culmination of the way in which an adolescent learns to experience oneself in the context of their external reality. Both the reality principle and pleasure principle pursue personal gratification, but the crucial difference between the two is that the reality principle is more focused on the long-term and is more goal-oriented while the pleasure principle disregards everything except for the immediate fulfillment of its desires; the reality principle and pleasure principle are two competing concepts established by Freud. The pleasure principle is the psychoanalytic concept based on the pleasure drive of the id in which people seek pleasure and avoid suffering in order to satisfy their biological and psychological needs; as people mature, the id's pleasure-seeking is modified by the reality principle. As it succeeds in establishing its dominance as a regulatory principle over the id, the search for satisfaction does not take the most direct routes, but instead postp

Grand Hotel (album)

Grand Hotel is the sixth studio album by Procol Harum. Released in 1973, it signalled a change of direction for the band. Guitarist Dave Ball who had joined the band for their live album the previous year left shortly after the photo shoot for the proposed album's cover to be replaced by Mick Grabham. Grabham's head was superimposed on the back cover of the album on Ball's body. Although the band had gone through significant personnel changes in previous years, the band would enter its most stable phase with this line up; the album reached No. 21 on the Billboard album charts. It peaked at # 4 in Denmark. Although "Grand Hotel" appears on the surface to be a concept album, the "concept", according to lyricist Keith Reid, doesn't extend beyond the title tune; the single "A Souvenir of London" was banned by the BBC for its reference to venereal disease in the lyrics of the song. Reid claimed that the song was inspired by a visit to a souvenir shop near George Martin's Air Studios. "Almost every album has had at least one comic song...and this one was a bit tongue in cheek" Reid stated as part of an interview for the 2009 CD reissue.

Reviewing for Rolling Stone in 1973, Bud Scoppa called Grand Hotel a "confused and uneven transitional album" and "a collection of overblown production jobs that, at their worst, approach self-parody, simpler, less grandiose tracks that suggest Procol Harum may yet find a way out of the corner they have worked themselves into." Village Voice critic Robert Christgau noted the split in musical identity: "For years, these guys have vacillated between a menu of grits that ain't groceries and larks' tongues in aspic. Despite their current white-tie conceit, they still haven't decided."In a retrospective review, AllMusic's James A. Gardner gave the album three-and-a-half out of five stars and said the replacement of the band's original guitarist Robin Trower with the "capable powerful, but not nearly as distinctive" Mick Grabham resulted in a greater reliance on "ornate arrangements than guitar riffs, making this somewhat more dignified than either of their previous studio albums and Broken Barricades."

In 2009 Salvo reissued the CD remastered by Nick Robbins. Vocalist/keyboardist/composer Gary Brooker and lyricist Keith Reid supplemented the original CD with two bonus tracks. Both were "raw" tracks. "Bringing Home The Bacon" one of the bonus tracks is the only one to feature former guitarist Dave Ball. The 2009 reissue featured an essay by Patrick Humphries and was reissued in a cardboard sleeve. All songs written by Keith Reid. Procol HarumGary Brooker – vocals, piano Mick Grabham – guitar Chris Coppingorgan Alan Cartwrightbass guitar B. J. Wilsondrums Keith Reid – lyricswith: Christiane Legrand - vocals The Pahene Recorder Ensemble - guest appearance TechnicalJohn Punter - engineer Spencer Zahn - artwork, design Jeffrey Weisel - photography, drawings in internal booklet United Kingdom-Silver Douglas Adams came up with the idea for The Restaurant at the End of the Universe while listening to the title track. –'s page on this album