Willem de Kooning

Willem de Kooning was a Dutch-American abstract expressionist artist. He was born in Rotterdam and moved to the United States in 1926, becoming an American citizen in 1962. In 1943, he married painter Elaine Fried. In the years after World War II, de Kooning painted in a style that came to be referred to as abstract expressionism or "action painting", was part of a group of artists that came to be known as the New York School. Other painters in this group included Jackson Pollock, Elaine de Kooning, Lee Krasner, Franz Kline, Arshile Gorky, Mark Rothko, Hans Hofmann, Nell Blaine, Adolph Gottlieb, Anne Ryan, Robert Motherwell, Philip Guston, Clyfford Still, Richard Pousette-Dart. De Kooning's retrospective held at MoMa in 2011–2012, made him one of the most well known artists of the 20th century. Willem de Kooning was born in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, on April 24, 1904, his parents, Leendert de Kooning and Cornelia Nobel, were divorced in 1907, de Kooning lived first with his father and with his mother.

He became an apprentice in a firm of commercial artists. Until 1924 he attended evening classes at the Academie van Beeldende Kunsten en Technische Wetenschappen, now the Willem de Kooning Academie. In 1926 de Kooning travelled to the United States as a stowaway on the Shelley, a British freighter bound for Argentina, on August 15 landed at Newport News, Virginia, he stayed at the Dutch Seamen's Home in Hoboken, New Jersey, found work as a house-painter. In 1927 he moved to Manhattan, he supported himself with jobs in house-painting and commercial art. De Kooning began painting in his free time and in 1928 he joined the art colony at Woodstock, New York, he began to meet some of the modernist artists active in Manhattan. Among them were the American Stuart Davis, the Armenian Arshile Gorky and the Russian John Graham, whom de Kooning collectively called the "Three Musketeers".:98 Gorky, whom de Kooning first met at the home of Misha Reznikoff, became a close friend and, for at least ten years, an important influence.:100 Balcomb Greene said that "de Kooning worshipped Gorky".

None of them were executed, but a sketch for one was included in New Horizons in American Art at the Museum of Modern Art, his first group show. Starting in 1937, when De Kooning had to leave the Federal Art Project because he did not have American citizenship, he began to work full-time as an artist, earning income from commissions and by giving lessons; that year de Kooning was assigned to a portion of the mural Medicine for the Hall of Pharmacy at the 1939 World's Fair in New York, which drew the attention of critics, the images themselves so new and distinct from the era of American realism. De Kooning met Elaine Fried, at the American Artists School in New York, she was 14 years his junior. Thus was to begin a lifelong partnership affected by alcoholism, lack of money, love affairs and separations, they were married on December 9, 1943. De Kooning worked on his first series of portrait paintings: standing or sedentary men like Two Men Standing and Seated Figure combining with self-portraits as with Portrait with Imaginary Brother.

At this time, de Kooning's work borrowed from Gorky's surrealist imagery and was influenced by Picasso. This changed only when de Kooning met the younger painter Franz Kline, working with the figurative style of American realism and had been drawn to monochrome. Kline, who died young, was one of de Kooning's closest artist friends. Kline's influence is evident in de Kooning's calligraphic black images of this period. In the late 1950s, de Kooning's work shifted away from the figurative work of the women and began to display an interest in more abstract, less representational imagery, he became a US citizen on 13 March 1962, in the following year moved from Broadway to a small house in East Hampton, a house which Elaine's brother Peter Fried had sold to him two years before. He built a studio near by, lived in the house to the end of his life, it was revealed that, toward the end of his life, de Kooning had begun to lose his memory in the late 1980s and had been suffering from Alzheimer's disease for some time.

This revelation has initiated considerable debate among scholars and critics about how responsible de Kooning was for the creation of his late work. Succumbing to the progression of his disease, de Kooning painted his final works in 1991, he was cremated. Elaine had admired Willem's artwork before meeting him. After meeting, he began to instruct her in painting, they painted in Willem's loft at 143 West 21st Street, he was known for his harsh criticism of her work, "sternly requiring that she draw and redraw a figure or still life and insisting on fine, clear linear definition supported by modulated shading." He destroyed many of her drawings, but this "impelled Elaine to strive for both precision and grace


The family with sequence similarity 43 member A gene known as. Three transcripts have been identified, two protein coding isoforms, a non-coding transcript. Molecular weight of 45.8 kdal in the unphosphorylated state and isoelectric point of 6.1. Located on the long arm of Chromosome 3 at 3q29, FAM43A consists of 2,493 bases; the FAM43A gene has been identified in cDNA screening as a possible cancer development and progression candidate gene. Unpublished data from Zhang et al. indicates that FAM43A could possess tumor suppressor function however the direct interaction is unknown. As well as playing a role in cancer development, FAM43A has been identified as a possible autism spectrum disorder candidate gene, with mutations within the upstream single nucleotide polymorphism rs789859 correlating with the presentation of ASD and learning disorder; the 2014 study completed by Baron-Cohen et al. involved the screening of 906 K SNPs within the genome to identify possible candidate genes, with FAM43A being the closest gene to the polymorphism.

FAM43A and paralog FAM43B comprise a specific gene family, share structural homology with the low-density lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein. Orthologs were identified in Mammalia, Actinopterygii, Hemichordata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda and Arthropoda. No orthologs were identified beyond invertebrate species. FAM43A and paralog FAM43B comprise a specific gene family who share structural homology with the low-density lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein. A distant homolog was identified using NCBI protein BLAST, low density lipoprotein receptor adaptor protein 1-like in. However, when the sequence LOC111863195 was compared to Homo sapiens, it was discovered that the homolog mapped to chromosome 1, making it an ortholog of the paralog FAM43B; the fact that FAM43A protein cannot be traced back any further in evolutionary history than invertebrates indicates that this could be the point that FAM43A and paralog FAM43B diverged 797 million years ago. FAM43A protein is expressed in the mouth, vascular system and ear.

Significant expression noted in the adipose tissue, umbilical cord, bone, with highest expression in the infant developmental stage. Expression is upregulated in head and neck tumor and bladder carcinoma, suggesting an oncogenic function. FAM43A expression is upregulated in Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and triple negative breast cancer cell lines Hs578T. FAM43A expression map of Mus musculus brain indicated differential expression in the cortex, corpus callosum, hypothalamus; the primary function of the corpus callosum is to innervate and connect the two hemispheres of the brain. The corpus callosum integrates motor and cognitive performance between the cortical region in one hemisphere with its target in the other hemisphere; the hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system through the pituitary gland. 3q29 microdeletion syndrome is caused by interstitial deletions of 3q29, mediated by nonallelic homologous recombination between low-copy repeats resulting in a common deletion.

3q29 microdeletion syndrome is marked by the loss of 1.6 million base pairs, including 5 known genes and 17 unknown transcripts. Genes phosphate and cytidyltransferase 1, choline alpha, P21 activated kinase 2, melanotransferrin, discs large MAGUK scaffold protein 1, 3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase 1 have been confirmed and another 7 genes have been implicated with incomplete cDNAs, the remaining hypothetical genes are yet to be confirmed experimentally. Presentation of 3q29 microdeletion syndrome has shown increased risk for schizophrenia. Gene neighbors PAK2 and DLG1 have been implicated due to interaction with neuroligin and the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1. In 2015, Guida et al identified a novel mutation proximal to the 3q29 microdeletion region that correlated with presentation of oculo auriculo vertebral spectrum. Research of Robertson et al. revealed the presence of FAM43A mRNA in the fetal cochlea and association with development of normal hearing function. These findings indicate that variation in FAM43A could be responsible for the development of OAVS.

Transcription factor binding can be seen below within the FAM43A promoter region, searches were completed on the 500 bp preceding the start codon. MicroRNA binding sites were identified and compared to species conservation of FAM43A to determine 3' untranslated region stem loop structures as depicted to the right. FAM43 is predicted to be a nuclear protein, to identify function and function for LDL receptor adaptor protein was completed. Conserved residues Y52 and S93 are highlighted in the structure of LDLrP to the right. Three phosphorylation sites were identified with conservation between human and mouse genotypes at T112-p, S114-p, T-379-p; the translated protein contains a primary and secondary nuclear localization signal and has a predicted GPI-linkage site at D407, a Caspase 3 and 7 cleavage site from amino acids 404-408 indicating possible translocation from the cell membrane to the nucleus. Direct interaction with SRPK2, Serine/arginine-rich protein-specific kinase, wh

Nushki District

Nushki. District is one of the districts of Pakistan; the administration of the Nushki district was taken over from the Khan of Kalat by the Indian government in 1896, was leased from him on a perpetual quit rent in 1899. In 1998,Nushki had a total population of 98,000. During the 1998 census, 92% of the population reported their first language as Brahvi/Balochi, while 4.8% opted for Pashto. The following tribes are found in the district:{{columns-list|colwidth=15em| Mengal Badini Jalamdini Mohammad Hassani Sarparah Syed Barech Mandai Pirkani Sasoli Sumalani Rodeni Yallanzai Hassanzai District Gazetteer 1905 1998 District census report of Chagai. Census publication. 38. Islamabad: Population Census Organization, Statistics Division, Government of Pakistan. 1999. Nushki District Development Profile Nushki District at