Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
Tau Kappa Epsilon
Tau Kappa Epsilon known as TKE or Teke, is a social college fraternity founded on January 10, 1899, at Illinois Wesleyan University. The organization has chapters throughout the United States and Canada, making it an international organization; as of fall 2017 there were colonies. In 1928 TKE became one of the first fraternities to ban hazing, has adopted a racially inclusive policy for membership. On January 10, 1899, Charles Roy Atkinson, Clarence Arthur Mayer, James Carson McNutt, Joseph Lorenzo Settles, Owen Ison Truitt met at 504 East Locust Street in Bloomington, Illinois to draw up the first constitution for a new fraternity at Illinois Wesleyan University; the purpose of the new organization was to be an "aid to college men in mental and social development". The founders sought to be a different organization than the other fraternities at the time by establishing a fraternity where membership would be based on personal worth and character rather than wealth, rank, or honor. Mental development would be emphasized by the study of classic literature at weekly meetings, thus the new fraternity became known as the Knights of Classic Lore.
The first public announcement of the Knights of Classic Lore appeared in the February 1, 1899 issue of the Argus, the student publication of Illinois Wesleyan University. During formation, the Knights of Classic Lore were trying to get the Illinois Epsilon chapter of Phi Delta Theta restored. Prominent Phi Delt alumnus Richard Henry Little became a persistent sponsor for the Knights to petition Phi Delta Theta for a charter; the Knights first petitioned Phi Delta Theta at its 1902 convention in New York, but efforts were unsuccessful. After renting rooms at several locations beginning in the spring of 1899, the Knights of Classic Lore acquired its first fraternity house, known as The Wilder Mansion, in September 1902. With the acquisition of the new house, the Knights adopted the name Tau Kappa Epsilon; the change in name was expected to create a better impression in future petitions to Phi Delta Theta. The second petition was presented at the Indianapolis convention of 1904, but it was withdrawn in an effort to gain unanimous support of all chapters in Phi Delta Theta's Zeta Province, which included Colorado, Iowa, Nebraska and Wisconsin.
If this support was achieved the charter would be granted to the group without any action from the convention. The Knights of Classic Lore gained the support of all Phi Delta Theta groups in the province, except for Wisconsin Alpha, Illinois Beta, Missouri Alpha; the Knights in turn unsuccessfully presented the petition at the 1906 convention in Washington, D. C. During the continuing struggle for acceptance from Phi Delta Theta, TKE continued to grow stronger in its own existence. In late 1907, TKE was preparing to petition Phi Delta Theta once again at the 1908 convention when an event took place that would forever change the course of history for the fraternity. At the annual initiation banquet on October 19, 1907, speeches were made that both advocated and questioned the continued petitioning of Phi Delta Theta. At the banquet, Wallace G. McCauley delivered a blistering speech known as "Opportunity Out of Defeat"; the powerful address called for an abandonment of the petitioning initiative and a new campaign to make TKE into a national fraternity itself.
While there was some opposition at the time, the movement took hold, by 1908, TKE was well on its way to becoming a national fraternity in its own right. The speech was published in the first issue of The Teke in January 1908, by November of that year, work was beginning on a new constitution. At the chapter meeting held on Monday, February 15, 1909, the new constitution became official; the first Conclave of the Grand Chapter of the new national fraternity of Tau Kappa Epsilon convened on February 17, 1909. In 1909, TKE approached the Chi Rho Sigma Fraternity at Millikin University. There were no national fraternities at Millikin at this time, TKE had just established its intentions to become a national fraternity. Representatives from TKE presented their case, after thorough consideration, Chi Rho Sigma voted to accept TKE's offer. On April 17, 1909, Chi Rho Sigma was installed as the Beta Chapter of TKE. In November 1911, the Beta Rho Delta Fraternity was founded at the University of Illinois.
ΒΡΔ petitioned Tau Kappa Epsilon in January 1912, they were installed as the Gamma Chapter of TKE on February 3, 1912. Following the installation of the Gamma Chapter, The Teke magazine noted that the triangle was completed; the geographic location of TKE's first three chapters form a perfect equilateral triangle. The equilateral triangle was at that time, continues to be, the primary symbol of Tau Kappa Epsilon; the national fraternity Sigma Mu Sigma merged with TKE in March 1935. The merger resulted in the new Alpha-Pi Chapter of TKE at George Washington University and additional members for the Gamma Chapter at the University of Illinois and the Alpha-Zeta Chapter at Purdue University. Prior to 1939, TKE chapters were installed. In 1939, a colonization process was established to promote expansion and to ensure that potential chapters met all necessary requirements prior to installation; the first two TKE colonies were the Eta Colony at the University of Kansas and the Chi Beta Colony at the University of Missouri.
Tau Kappa Epsilon expanded for the first time into the Deep South region of the United States in 1946. This expansion was made possible when Alpha Lambda Tau, a small predominantly Southern national fraternity, announced its dissolution. Five of Alpha Lambda Tau's eight active chapters affiliated with TKE, resulting in new TKE ch
Donald D. Clayton
Donald Delbert Clayton is an American astrophysicist whose most visible achievement was the prediction from nucleosynthesis theory that supernovae are intensely radioactive. That earned Clayton the NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal for “theoretical astrophysics related to the formation of elements in the explosions of stars and to the observable products of these explosions”. Supernovae thereafter became the most important stellar events in astronomy owing to their profoundly radioactive nature. Not only did Clayton discover radioactive nucleosynthesis during explosive silicon burning in stars but he predicted a new type of astronomy based on it, namely the associated gamma-ray line radiation emitted by matter ejected from supernovae; that paper was selected as one of the fifty most influential papers in astronomy during the twentieth century for the Centennial Volume of the American Astronomical Society. He gathered support from influential astronomers and physicists for a new NASA budget item for a gamma-ray-observatory satellite, achieving successful funding for Compton Gamma Ray Observatory.
With his focus on radioactive supernova gas Clayton discovered a new chemical pathway causing carbon dust to condense there by a process, activated by the radioactivity. Clayton's foundational ideas for five original subfields of astrophysics are detailed in Section 5 below, they are: nucleosynthesis, the assembly within stars of the atomic nuclei of the common chemical elements by nuclear reactions occurring therein. He named those stardust, each containing isotopically identifiable radioactive atoms of the host stars. Clayton launched these original ideas from research positions at California Institute of Technology, Rice University, Cambridge University, Max-Plank Institute for Nuclear Physics, Durham University and Clemson University during an international academic career spanning six decades. Clayton authored four books for the public: a novel, The Joshua Factor, is a parable of the origin of mankind utilizing the mystery of solar neutrinos. Clayton has published on the web Photo Archive for the History of Nuclear Astrophysics from his personal photographs and his researched captions recording photographic history during his research in nuclear astrophysics, a contribution to the history of science.
Fellow, American Academy of Arts and Sciences NASA Exceptional Scientific Achievement Medal Leonard Medal of the Meteoritical Society NASA Public Service Group Achievement Award for the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Team on NASA's Compton Gamma Ray Observatory Jesse Beams Medal of the American Physical Society South Carolina Governor's Award for Excellence in Science Alexander von Humboldt Award sponsored by Max Planck Institut für Kernphysik, Heidelberg Author of one of the 50 most influential research papers of the 20th century selected by American Astronomical Society and author in the AAS Centennial VolumeClayton was elected to Phi Beta Kappa during his third year as a student at Southern Methodist University. He was awarded many supporting fellowships: National Science Foundation Predoctoral Fellow. K.. In 1993 Clayton was named Distinguished Alumnus of Southern Methodist University, thirty-seven years after his BS degree there. Clayton was born on March 18, 1935 in a modest rented duplex on Walnut Street in Shenandoah, Iowa while his parents were temporarily away from both family farms near Fontanelle seeking work during the Great Depression.
Clayton spent much of his early childhood on those farms and has rhapsodized over his love of the farm. Clayton attended public school in Texas after his father's new job as co-pilot for Braniff Airlines moved the family to Dallas in 1939, his parents purchased a home in the renowned Highland Park school system, providing him excellent education. He graduated third in his 1953 class of 92 students from Highland Park High School. Becoming the first among his entire Iowa relations to seek post-high-school education, Clayton matriculated at Southern Methodist University and excelled in physics and mathematics, graduating summa cum laude in 1956. At the urging of his SMU professors, he applied as a physics research student to California Institute of Technology, which he attended bearing a National Science Foundation Predoctoral Fellowship. In the 1957 nuclear physics course at Caltech Clayton learned from William Alfred Fowler about a new theory that the chemical elements had been assembled within the stars by nuclear reactions occurring there.
He was captivated for life by that idea. Clayton completed his
California Institute of Technology
The California Institute of Technology is a private doctorate-granting research university in Pasadena, California. Known for its strength in natural science and engineering, Caltech is ranked as one of the world's top-ten universities. Although founded as a preparatory and vocational school by Amos G. Throop in 1891, the college attracted influential scientists such as George Ellery Hale, Arthur Amos Noyes and Robert Andrews Millikan in the early 20th century; the vocational and preparatory schools were disbanded and spun off in 1910 and the college assumed its present name in 1921. In 1934, Caltech was elected to the Association of American Universities and the antecedents of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which Caltech continues to manage and operate, were established between 1936 and 1943 under Theodore von Kármán; the university is one among a small group of institutes of technology in the United States, devoted to the instruction of pure and applied sciences. Caltech has six academic divisions with strong emphasis on science and engineering, managing $332 million in 2011 in sponsored research.
Its 124-acre primary campus is located 11 mi northeast of downtown Los Angeles. First-year students are required to live on campus and 95% of undergraduates remain in the on-campus House System at Caltech. Although Caltech has a strong tradition of practical jokes and pranks, student life is governed by an honor code which allows faculty to assign take-home examinations; the Caltech Beavers compete in 13 intercollegiate sports in the NCAA Division III's Southern California Intercollegiate Athletic Conference. As of October 2018, Caltech alumni and researchers include 73 Nobel Laureates, 4 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners. In addition, there are 53 non-emeritus faculty members who have been elected to one of the United States National Academies, 4 Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force and 71 have won the United States National Medal of Technology. Numerous faculty members are associated with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute as well as NASA. According to a 2015 Pomona College study, Caltech ranked number one in the U.
S. for the percentage of its graduates who go on to earn a PhD. Caltech started as a vocational school founded in Pasadena in 1891 by local businessman and politician Amos G. Throop; the school was known successively as Throop University, Throop Polytechnic Institute and Throop College of Technology before acquiring its current name in 1920. The vocational school was disbanded and the preparatory program was split off to form an independent Polytechnic School in 1907. At a time when scientific research in the United States was still in its infancy, George Ellery Hale, a solar astronomer from the University of Chicago, founded the Mount Wilson Observatory in 1904, he joined Throop's board of trustees in 1907, soon began developing it and the whole of Pasadena into a major scientific and cultural destination. He engineered the appointment of James A. B. Scherer, a literary scholar untutored in science but a capable administrator and fund raiser, to Throop's presidency in 1908. Scherer persuaded retired businessman and trustee Charles W. Gates to donate $25,000 in seed money to build Gates Laboratory, the first science building on campus.
In 1910, Throop moved to its current site. Arthur Fleming donated the land for the permanent campus site. Theodore Roosevelt delivered an address at Throop Institute on March 21, 1911, he declared: I want to see institutions like Throop turn out ninety-nine of every hundred students as men who are to do given pieces of industrial work better than any one else can do them. In the same year, a bill was introduced in the California Legislature calling for the establishment of a publicly funded "California Institute of Technology", with an initial budget of a million dollars, ten times the budget of Throop at the time; the board of trustees offered to turn Throop over to the state, but the presidents of Stanford University and the University of California lobbied to defeat the bill, which allowed Throop to develop as the only scientific research-oriented education institute in southern California, public or private, until the onset of the World War II necessitated the broader development of research-based science education.
The promise of Throop attracted physical chemist Arthur Amos Noyes from MIT to develop the institution and assist in establishing it as a center for science and technology. With the onset of World War I, Hale organized the National Research Council to coordinate and support scientific work on military problems. While he supported the idea of federal appropriations for science, he took exception to a federal bill that would have funded engineering research at land-grant colleges, instead sought to raise a $1 million national research fund from private sources. To that end, as Hale wrote in The New York Times: Throop College of Technology, in Pasadena California has afforded a striking illustration of one way in which the Research Council can secure co-operation and advance scientific investigation; this institution, with its able investigators and excellent research laboratories, could be of great service in any broad scheme of cooperation. President S
A chemical element is a species of atom having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei. For example, the atomic number of oxygen is 8, so the element oxygen consists of all atoms which have 8 protons. 118 elements have been identified, of which the first 94 occur on Earth with the remaining 24 being synthetic elements. There are 80 elements that have at least one stable isotope and 38 that have radionuclides, which decay over time into other elements. Iron is the most abundant element making up Earth, while oxygen is the most common element in the Earth's crust. Chemical elements constitute all of the ordinary matter of the universe; however astronomical observations suggest that ordinary observable matter makes up only about 15% of the matter in the universe: the remainder is dark matter. The two lightest elements and helium, were formed in the Big Bang and are the most common elements in the universe; the next three elements were formed by cosmic ray spallation, are thus rarer than heavier elements.
Formation of elements with from 6 to 26 protons occurred and continues to occur in main sequence stars via stellar nucleosynthesis. The high abundance of oxygen and iron on Earth reflects their common production in such stars. Elements with greater than 26 protons are formed by supernova nucleosynthesis in supernovae, when they explode, blast these elements as supernova remnants far into space, where they may become incorporated into planets when they are formed; the term "element" is used for atoms with a given number of protons as well as for a pure chemical substance consisting of a single element. For the second meaning, the terms "elementary substance" and "simple substance" have been suggested, but they have not gained much acceptance in English chemical literature, whereas in some other languages their equivalent is used. A single element can form multiple substances differing in their structure; when different elements are chemically combined, with the atoms held together by chemical bonds, they form chemical compounds.
Only a minority of elements are found uncombined as pure minerals. Among the more common of such native elements are copper, gold and sulfur. All but a few of the most inert elements, such as noble gases and noble metals, are found on Earth in chemically combined form, as chemical compounds. While about 32 of the chemical elements occur on Earth in native uncombined forms, most of these occur as mixtures. For example, atmospheric air is a mixture of nitrogen and argon, native solid elements occur in alloys, such as that of iron and nickel; the history of the discovery and use of the elements began with primitive human societies that found native elements like carbon, sulfur and gold. Civilizations extracted elemental copper, tin and iron from their ores by smelting, using charcoal. Alchemists and chemists subsequently identified many more; the properties of the chemical elements are summarized in the periodic table, which organizes the elements by increasing atomic number into rows in which the columns share recurring physical and chemical properties.
Save for unstable radioactive elements with short half-lives, all of the elements are available industrially, most of them in low degrees of impurities. The lightest chemical elements are hydrogen and helium, both created by Big Bang nucleosynthesis during the first 20 minutes of the universe in a ratio of around 3:1 by mass, along with tiny traces of the next two elements and beryllium. All other elements found in nature were made by various natural methods of nucleosynthesis. On Earth, small amounts of new atoms are produced in nucleogenic reactions, or in cosmogenic processes, such as cosmic ray spallation. New atoms are naturally produced on Earth as radiogenic daughter isotopes of ongoing radioactive decay processes such as alpha decay, beta decay, spontaneous fission, cluster decay, other rarer modes of decay. Of the 94 occurring elements, those with atomic numbers 1 through 82 each have at least one stable isotope. Isotopes considered stable are those. Elements with atomic numbers 83 through 94 are unstable to the point that radioactive decay of all isotopes can be detected.
Some of these elements, notably bismuth and uranium, have one or more isotopes with half-lives long enough to survive as remnants of the explosive stellar nucleosynthesis that produced the heavy metals before the formation of our Solar System. At over 1.9×1019 years, over a billion times longer than the current estimated age of the universe, bismuth-209 has the longest known alpha decay half-life of any occurring element, is always considered on par with the 80 stable elements. The heaviest elements undergo radioactive decay with half-lives so short that they are not found in nature and must be synthesized; as of 2010, there are 118 known elements (in this context, "known" means observed well enough from just a few de
National Medal of Science
The National Medal of Science is an honor bestowed by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social sciences, chemistry, engineering and physics. The twelve member presidential Committee on the National Medal of Science is responsible for selecting award recipients and is administered by the National Science Foundation; the National Medal of Science was established on August 25, 1959, by an act of the Congress of the United States under Pub. L. 86–209. The medal was to honor scientists in the fields of the "physical, mathematical, or engineering sciences"; the Committee on the National Medal of Science was established on August 23, 1961, by executive order 10961 of President John F. Kennedy. On January 7, 1979, the American Association for the Advancement of Science passed a resolution proposing that the medal be expanded to include the social and behavioral sciences.
In response, Senator Ted Kennedy introduced the Science and Technology Equal Opportunities Act into the Senate on March 7, 1979, expanding the medal to include these scientific disciplines as well. President Jimmy Carter's signature enacted this change as Public Law 96-516 on December 12, 1980. In 1992, the National Science Foundation signed a letter of agreement with the National Science and Technology Medals Foundation that made the National Science and Technology Medals Foundation the metaorganization over both the National Medal of Science and the similar National Medal of Technology; the first National Medal of Science was awarded on February 18, 1963, for the year 1962 by President John F. Kennedy to Theodore von Kármán for his work at the Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory; the citation accompanying von Kármán's award reads: For his leadership in the science and engineering basic to aeronautics. The first woman to receive a National Medal of Science was Barbara McClintock, awarded for her work on plant genetics in 1970.
Although Public Law 86-209 provides for 20 recipients of the medal per year, it is typical for 8–15 accomplished scientists and engineers to receive this distinction each year. There have been a number of years; those years include: 1985, 1984, 1980, 1978, 1977, 1972 and 1971. The awards ceremony is organized by the Office of Technology Policy, it is presided by the sitting United States president. Each year the National Science Foundation sends out a call to the scientific community for the nomination of new candidates for the National Medal of Science. Individuals are nominated by their peers with each nomination requiring three letters of support from individuals in science and technology. Nominations are sent to the Committee of the National Medal of Science, a board composed of fourteen presidential appointees comprising twelve scientists, two ex officio members—the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy and the president of the National Academy of Sciences. According to the Committee, successful candidates must be U.
S. citizens or permanent residents who are applying for U. S. citizenship, who have done work of outstanding merit or that has had a major impact on scientific thought in their field. The Committee values those who promote the general advancement of science and individuals who have influenced science education, although these traits are less important than groundbreaking or thought-provoking research; the nomination of a candidate is effective for three years. The Committee makes their recommendations to the President for the final awarding decision; the National Medal of Science depicts Man, surrounded by earth and sky, contemplating and struggling to understand Nature. The crystal in his hand represents the universal order and suggests the basic unit of living things; the formula being outlined in the sand symbolizes scientific abstraction. National Medal of Arts National Medal of Technology and Innovation National Science Foundation Searchable Database of National Medal of Science Recipients National Science & Technology Medals Foundation Using the National Medal of Science to recognize advances in psychology
Steven E. Koonin
Steven E. "Steve" Koonin is a theoretical physicist and Director of the Center for Urban Science and Progress at New York University. He is a professor in the Department of Civil and Urban Engineering at NYU's Tandon School of Engineering. Koonin received his Bachelor of Science from Caltech and his Ph. D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1975, Koonin joined the faculty of the California Institute of Technology as an Assistant Professor of Theoretical Physics, served as the Institute's provost from 1995 to 2004. In 2004, Koonin joined BP as their Chief Scientist where he was responsible for guiding the company’s long-range technology strategy in alternative and renewable energy sources. In 2009, he was appointed the U. S. Department of Energy’s second Senate-confirmed Under Secretary for Science serving from May 19, 2009 through November 18, 2011, he left that post in November 2011 for a position at the Institute for Defense Analyses. On April 23, 2012, Koonin was named director of NYU's Center for Urban Progress.
He has served on numerous advisory bodies for the National Science Foundation, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy and its various national laboratories, such as the JASON defense advisory group, which he has chaired. Koonin's research interests have included theoretical nuclear, many-body, computational physics, nuclear astrophysics, global environmental science. In "Climate Science Is Not Settled," a 2014 essay published in the Wall Street Journal, Koonin wrote that "We are far from the knowledge needed to make good climate policy," and that "The impact today of human activity appears to be comparable to the intrinsic, natural variability of the climate system itself." Koonin criticized the use of results from climate modelling to support the "scientific consensus" about climate change, noting that, among other problems, "The models differ in their descriptions of the past century's global average surface temperature by more than three times the entire warming recorded during that time."
Regarding climate sensitivity, Koonin wrote that "Today's best estimate of the sensitivity is no different, no more certain, than it was 30 years ago. And this is despite an heroic research effort costing billions of dollars."In 2017 Koonin urged interested parties to a drill-down debate with an article, "A ‘Red Team’ Exercise Would Strengthen Climate Science." In support of such an approach, he wrote: "The public is unaware of the intense debates within climate science. At a recent national laboratory meeting, I observed more than 100 active government and university researchers challenge one another as they strove to separate human impacts from the climate’s natural variability. At issue were not nuances but fundamental aspects of our understanding, such as the apparent—and unexpected—slowing of global sea-level rise over the past two decades." In early 2018 Koonin was selected by physicist William Happer to create a committee to scrutinize the science underlying the National Climate Assessment and form a skeptical but credible second opinion to send to the private National Academy of Sciences for review.
Computational Physics, Fortran version, ISBN 978-0-201-38623-3