Lobbying, persuasion, or interest representation is the act of attempting to influence the actions, policies, or decisions of officials in their daily life, most legislators or members of regulatory agencies. Lobbying is done by many types of people and organized groups, including individuals in the private sector, fellow legislators or government officials, or advocacy groups. Lobbyists may be among a legislator's constituencies, meaning a voter or bloc of voters within their electoral district. Professional lobbyists are people whose business is trying to influence legislation, regulation, or other government decisions, actions, or policies on behalf of a group or individual who hires them. Individuals and nonprofit organizations can lobby as an act of volunteering or as a small part of their normal job. Governments define and regulate organized group lobbying that has become influential; the ethics and morals involved with lobbying are complicated. Lobbying can, at times, be spoken of with contempt, when the implication is that people with inordinate socioeconomic power are corrupting the law in order to serve their own interests.
When people who have a duty to act on behalf of others, such as elected officials with a duty to serve their constituents' interests or more broadly the public good, can benefit by shaping the law to serve the interests of some private parties, a conflict of interest exists. Many critiques of lobbying point to the potential for conflicts of interest to lead to agent misdirection or the intentional failure of an agent with a duty to serve an employer, client, or constituent to perform those duties; the failure of government officials to serve the public interest as a consequence of lobbying by special interests who provide benefits to the official is an example of agent misdirection. In a report carried by the BBC, an OED lexicographer has shown that "lobbying" finds its roots in the gathering of Members of Parliament and peers in the hallways of the UK Houses of Parliament before and after parliamentary debates where members of the public can meet their representatives. One story held that the term originated at the Willard Hotel in Washington, DC, where it was used by President Ulysses S. Grant to describe the political advocates who frequented the hotel's lobby to access Grant—who was there in the evenings to enjoy a cigar and brandy—and would try to buy the president drinks in an attempt to influence his political decisions.
Although the term may have gained more widespread currency in Washington, D. C. by virtue of this practice during the Grant Administration, the OED cites numerous documented uses of the word well before Grant's presidency, including use in Pennsylvania as early as 1808. The term "lobbying" appeared in print as early as 1820: Other letters from Washington affirm, that members of the Senate, when the compromise question was to be taken in the House, were not only "lobbying about the Representatives' Chamber" but active in endeavoring to intimidate certain weak representatives by insulting threats to dissolve the Union. Dictionary definitions:'Lobbying' is a form of advocacy with the intention of influencing decisions made by the government by individuals or more by lobby groups. A'lobbyist' is a person who tries to influence legislation on behalf of a special interest or a member of a lobby. Governments define and regulate organized group lobbying as part of laws to prevent political corruption and by establishing transparency about possible influences by public lobby registers.
Lobby groups may concentrate their efforts on the legislatures, where laws are created, but may use the judicial branch to advance their causes. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, for example, filed suits in state and federal courts in the 1950s to challenge segregation laws, their efforts resulted in the Supreme Court declaring such laws unconstitutional. Lobbyists may use a legal device known as amicus curiae briefs to try to influence court cases. Briefs are written documents filed with a court by parties to a lawsuit. Amici curiae briefs are briefs filed by groups who are not parties to a suit; these briefs are entered into the court records, give additional background on the matter being decided upon. Advocacy groups use these briefs both to promote their positions; the lobbying industry is affected by the revolving door concept, a movement of personnel between roles as legislators and regulators and roles in the industries affected by legislation and regulation, as the main asset for a lobbyist is contacts with and influence on government officials.
This climate is attractive for ex-government officials. It can mean substantial monetary rewards for lobbying firms, government projects and contracts worth in the hundreds of millions for those they represent; the international standards for the regulation of lobbying were introduced at four international organizations and supranational associations: 1) the European Union. In pre-modern political systems, royal courts provided incidental opportunities for gaining the ear of monarchs and their councillors. Nowadays, lobying has taken a more drastic position as big corporations pressure politicians to help them gain more benefit. Lobying has become a big part of the world economy as big companies corrupt regulations. Kellogg School of Manag
Woodlawn Cemetery (Bronx, New York)
Woodlawn Cemetery is one of the largest cemeteries in New York City and a designated National Historic Landmark. Located in Woodlawn, New York City, it has the character of a rural cemetery. Woodlawn Cemetery opened during the Civil War in 1863, in what was southern Westchester County, in an area, annexed to New York City in 1874, it is notable in part as the final resting place of some great figures in the American arts, such as authors Countee Cullen, Nellie Bly, Herman Melville, musicians Irving Berlin, Miles Davis, Duke Ellington, W. C. Handy, Max Roach and husband and wife magicians Alexander Herrmann and Adelaide Herrmann. Holly Woodlawn, after changing her name to such, falsely told people she was the heiress to Woodlawn Cemetery; the Cemetery is the resting place for more than 300,000 people. Built on rolling hills, its tree-lined roads lead to some unique memorials, some designed by famous American architects: McKim, Mead & White, John Russell Pope, James Gamble Rogers, Cass Gilbert, Carrère and Hastings, Sir Edwin Lutyens, Beatrix Jones Farrand, John La Farge.
The cemetery contains seven Commonwealth war graves – six British and Canadian servicemen of World War I and an airman of the Royal Canadian Air Force of World War II. In 2011, Woodlawn Cemetery was designated a National Historic Landmark, since it shows the transition from the rural cemetery popular at the time of its establishment to the more orderly 20th-century cemetery style; as of 2007, plot prices at Woodlawn were reported as $200 per square foot, $4,800 for a gravesite for two, up to $1.5 million for land to build a family mausoleum. Woodlawn was the destination for many human remains disinterred from cemeteries in more densely populated parts of New York City: Rutgers Street church graves were moved to Woodlawn. Most graves were re-interred with a stated date of December 20, 1866 into the Rutgers Plot, lots 147-170. West Farms Dutch Reformed Church, at Boone Avenue and 172nd Street in The Bronx, had most of its graves moved to Woodlawn Cemetery in 1867 and interred in the Rutgers Plot, Lots 214-221.
Bensonia Cemetery known as "Morrisania Cemetery", was a Native American burial ground. The graves were moved to Woodlawn Cemetery with a stated date of April 21, 1871 and re-interred into Lot 3. Public School #138, in The Bronx, is now on the site. Harlem Church Yard cemetery internees were moved to Woodlawn. Most graves were re-interred with a stated date of August 1, 1871 into the Sycamore Plot, lots 1061–1080. Nagle Cemetery remains were moved in November–December 1926 and reinterred in Primrose Plot, Lot 16150. Identities of those interred are unknown; the Dyckman-Nagle Burying Ground, West 212th Street at 9th Avenue, in the Borough of Manhattan, was established in 1677 and contained 417 plots. In 1905, the remains, with the exception of Staats Morris Dyckman and his family, were removed. By 1927, the Dyckman graves were moved to Woodlawn Cemetery; the former Dutch colonial-era cemetery is now a 207th Street subway train yard. The fictional cemetery of the Synagogue in Brooklyn in the film Once Upon a Time in America is located here, renamed "Riverdale Cemetery".
List of cemeteries in the United States List of mausolea List of National Historic Landmarks in New York City Rural Cemetery Act Woodlawn Official Page Woodlawn Cemetery at Find a Grave Photographs of graves of famous persons in Woodlawn Woodlawn Cemetery Records are held by the Drawings and Archives Department of the Avery Architectural and Fine Arts Library, Columbia University
New York University School of Law
The New York University School of Law is the law school of New York University. Established in 1835, it is the oldest law school in New York City; the school offers J. D. LL. M. and J. S. D. degrees in law, is located in Greenwich Village, in Lower Manhattan. NYU Law is regarded as one of the most selective law schools in the world, it is ranked the 4th best law school in the world by Shanghai's Academic Ranking of World Universities by subject Law. NYU Law is consistently ranked in the top 5 by the QS World University Rankings. U. S. News & World Report ranks NYU Law 6th in the nation and has ranked the law school as high as 4th in recent years. Nationally, it is ranked 1st in the country in both international law and tax law by U. S. News & World Report. NYU Law boasts the best overall faculty in the U. S. according to a recent study, with leading renowned experts in all fields of law. NYU Law is well known for its strength in public interest law. According to New York University School of Law's 2013 ABA-required disclosures, 93.7% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, J.
D.-required employment nine months after graduation. NYU Law publishes ten student-edited law journals, including the NYU Law Review; the journals appear below in the order of their founding: New York University Law Review NYU Annual Survey of American Law NYU Journal of International Law and Politics Review of Law & Social Change Moot Court Board New York University Environmental Law Journal Journal of Legislation & Public Policy Journal of Law & Liberty Journal of Law & Business Journal of Intellectual Property & Entertainment LawThe law school's Root-Tilden-Kern Scholarship Program is a full-tuition scholarship awarded each year to twenty students committed to public service. NYU Law offers several fellowships to students admitted to the LLM Program; the Hauser Global Scholarship admits eight to ten top LLM students from all over the world. The scholarship includes full tuition waiver and reasonable accommodation costs. In addition, it offers the Hugo Grotius as well as Vanderbilt scholarships for International law studies and other branches of law respectively.
The school has a law and business program in which eight student-leaders in law and business are awarded fellowships in the Mitchell Jacobson Leadership Program. In addition, the NYU Center for Law and Organization administers the Lawrence Lederman Fellowship to facilitate the study of Law & Economics the program provides a $5,000 scholarship to selected students to work with NYU Law faculty and participate in a series of collaborative workshops designed to help students write a substantial research paper. NYU Law hosts the original chapter of the Unemployment Action Center. LL. M is an abbreviation for Master of Laws, an advanced academic degree, pursued by those holding a professional law degree. In general, there are two types of LL. M. Programs in the United States; the majority are programs designed to expose foreign legal graduates to the American Common Law. Other programs involve post doctoral study of a specialized area of the law such as Admiralty, Tax Law and Financial Law, Elder Law, Aeronautical Law or International Law.
NYU Law School's LL. M. in Taxation and in International Taxation programs have been ranked #1 by the U. S. News & World Report magazine since they started ranking specialty law school programs in 1992. Joshua D. Blank is the faculty director of the program. Tax LL. M. Students are permitted to enroll in a general course of study or specialize in specific areas such as business taxation or estate planning. Many of the program's professors are practitioners in their respective fields. NYU has implemented a jointly granted NYU/Osgoode LLB/LLM program in which graduates are granted the LLB as well as an LLM from NYU in only 3 and a half years instead of the required four. More the NYU School of Law has entered into similar dual degree agreements with the National University of Singapore Faculty of Law and the University of Melbourne Law School. Oxford University has a program of academic exchanges with New York University School of Law involving faculty members and research students working in areas of shared interest.
NYU Law offers a dual-degree program with Harvard's John F. Kennedy School of Government. Students may earn a JD/MPA or a JD/MPP. NYU Law offers a dual-degree program with Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs. Students may earn a JD/MPA. There is a limited amount of cross-registration permitted with Columbia Law School; each year, a limited number of students are permitted to take classes at each other's schools. Columbia Law and NYU Law play a basketball game every spring, the Deans' Cup, to raise money for their public interest and community service organizations. Graduates of the law school obtain employment in elite public and private-sector positions. NYU Law ranks 2nd among all law schools in terms of the number of alumni working in the nation's top 50 law firms, 6th in Supreme Court clerkship placement. According to New York University School of Law's 2013 ABA-required disclosures, 93.7% of the Class of 2013 obtained full-time, long-term, JD-required employment nine months after graduation.
More than 7,000 applicants compete for 450 seats at the law school. The latest edition of University of Chicago Professor Brian Leiter's ranking of the top law schools by student quality places NYU Law 4th out of the 144 accredited schools in the United States. Admission to the New York University School of Law is competitive; the 25th and 75th LSAT percentiles for the 2018 entering class were 167 and 172, respectively
First Transcontinental Railroad
The First Transcontinental Railroad was a 1,912-mile continuous railroad line constructed between 1863 and 1869 that connected the existing eastern U. S. rail network at Omaha, Nebraska/Council Bluffs, Iowa with the Pacific coast at the Oakland Long Wharf on San Francisco Bay. The rail line was built by three private companies over public lands provided by extensive US land grants. Construction was financed by both state and US government subsidy bonds as well as by company issued mortgage bonds; the Western Pacific Railroad Company built 132 mi of track from Oakland/Alameda to Sacramento, California. The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California constructed 690 mi eastward from Sacramento to Promontory Summit, Utah Territory; the Union Pacific built 1,085 mi from the road's eastern terminus at Council Bluffs near Omaha, Nebraska westward to Promontory Summit. The railroad opened for through traffic on May 10, 1869 when CPRR President Leland Stanford ceremonially drove the gold "Last Spike" with a silver hammer at Promontory Summit.
The coast-to-coast railroad connection revolutionized the settlement and economy of the American West. It brought the western states and territories into alignment with the northern Union states and made transporting passengers and goods coast-to-coast quicker and less expensive. Paddle steamers linked Sacramento to the cities and their harbor facilities in the San Francisco Bay until 1869, when the CPRR completed and opened the Western Pacific grade to Alameda and Oakland; the first transcontinental rail passengers arrived at the Pacific Railroad's original western terminus at the Alameda Mole on September 6, 1869 where they transferred to the steamer Alameda for transport across the Bay to San Francisco. The road's rail terminus was moved two months to the Oakland Long Wharf about a mile to the north. Service between San Francisco and Oakland Pier continued to be provided by ferry; the CPRR purchased 53 miles of UPRR-built grade from Promontory Summit to Ogden, Utah Territory, which became the interchange point between trains of the two roads.
The transcontinental line was popularly known as the Overland Route after the principal passenger rail service that operated over the length of the line until 1962. Building a railroad line that connected the United States coast-to-coast was advocated in 1832 when Dr. Hartwell Carver published an article in the New York Courier & Enquirer advocating building a transcontinental railroad from Lake Michigan to Oregon. In 1847 he submitted to the U. S. Congress a "Proposal for a Charter to Build a Railroad from Lake Michigan to the Pacific Ocean", seeking a congressional charter to support his idea. Congress agreed to support the idea. Under the direction of the Department of War, the Pacific Railroad Surveys were conducted from 1853 through 1855; these included an extensive series of expeditions of the American West seeking possible routes. A report on the explorations described alternative routes and included an immense amount of information about the American West, covering at least 400,000 sq mi.
It included the region's natural history and illustrations of reptiles, amphibians and mammals. The report failed however to include detailed topographic maps of potential routes needed to estimate the feasibility and select the best route; the survey was detailed enough to determine that the best southern route lay south of the Gila River boundary with Mexico in vacant desert, through the future territories of Arizona and New Mexico. This in part motivated the United States to complete the Gadsden Purchase. In 1856 the Select Committee on the Pacific Railroad and Telegraph of the US House of Representatives published a report recommending support for a proposed Pacific railroad bill: The necessity that now exists for constructing lines of railroad and telegraphic communication between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of this continent is no longer a question for argument. In order to maintain our present position on the Pacific, we must have some more speedy and direct means of intercourse than is at present afforded by the route through the possessions of a foreign power.
The U. S. Congress was divided on where the eastern terminus of the railroad should be—in a southern or northern city. Three routes were considered: A northern route along the Missouri River through present-day northern Montana to Oregon Territory; this was considered impractical due to extensive winter snows. A central route following the Platte River in Nebraska through to the South Pass in Wyoming, following most of the Oregon Trail. Snow on this route remained a concern. A southern route across Texas, New Mexico Territory, the Sonora desert, connecting to Los Angeles, California. Surveyors found during an 1848 survey that the best route lay south of the border between the United States and Mexico; this was resolved by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. Once the central route was chosen, it was obvious that the western terminus should be Sacramento, but there was considerable difference of opinion about the eastern terminus. Three locations along 250 miles of Missouri River were considered: St. Joseph, accessed via the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad.
Kansas City, Kansas / Leavenworth, Kansas accessed via the Leavenworth and Western Railroad, controlled by Thomas Ewing Jr. and by John C. Fremont. Council Bluffs, Iowa / Omaha, accessed via an extension of Union Pacific financier Thomas C. Durant's proposed Mississippi and
Highbridge is a residential neighborhood geographically located in the central-west section of the Bronx, New York City. Its boundaries, starting from the north and moving clockwise are the Cross-Bronx Expressway to the north, Grand Concourse to the east, East 161st Street to the south, the Harlem River to the west. Ogden Avenue is the primary thoroughfare through Highbridge; the neighborhood is part of Bronx Community Board 4, its ZIP Code is 10452. The local subway is the IND Concourse Line, operating along the Grand Concourse, the IRT Jerome Avenue Line, operating along Jerome Avenue; the area is patrolled by the New York City Police Department's 44th Precinct. NYCHA property in the area is patrolled by P. S. A. 7 at 737 Melrose Avenue in the Melrose section of the Bronx. At the time of European settlement, the southern Bronx was inhabited by the Siwanoy, a tribe of the Wappinger Confederacy, they called the hill, now Highbridge "Nuasin," or "the land between," for its location between the Harlem River and an estuary that flowed in the area of modern-day Jerome Avenue.
The neighborhood takes its name from the High Bridge built in 1848 by Irish immigrants to carry Croton Aqueduct water across the Harlem River. In the mid-late 19th century, the area was developed as a suburban retreat for the elite, who built large homes overlooking the Harlem River; the names of these families and their estates are still reflected in the names of Highbridge's north-south avenues: Ogden Avenue and Boscobel Place for William B. Ogden, Merriam Avenue for Francis W. Merriam, Anderson Avenue and Woodycrest Avenue for the Anderson family, Shakespeare Avenue for the Shakespeare Garden on the Marcher family estate. Around the turn of the 20th Century, many of these estates were subdivided for urban development, however a few older houses still remain. In the early 20th Century, the neighborhood was served by the Anderson–Jerome Avenues station, which connected the New York City Subway's Ninth Avenue elevated Line with the IRT Jerome Avenue Line. In the late 1960s, the residents of Highbridge were predominantly of Irish and Eastern European Jewish descent.
They have since been replaced by large numbers of African Americans. As of 2017, the neighborhood is undergoing gentrification. Prior to the 1960s, Highbridge was a predominantly Irish American neighborhood. Today the vast majority of residents in the area are of Dominican, Puerto Rican and African American descent. 40% of families live below the federal poverty line. Based on data from the 2010 United States Census, the population of Highbridge was 37,727, an increase of 3,883 from the 33,844 counted in 2000. Covering an area of 373.14 acres, the neighborhood had a population density of 101.1 inhabitants per acre. In 2010, the racial makeup of the neighborhood was 32.9% African American, 1.2% White, 0.2% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 0.3% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 64.3% of the population. The entirety of Community District 4, which comprises Highbridge and Concourse, had 155,835 inhabitants as of NYC Health's 2018 Community Health Profile, with an average life expectancy of 78.6 years.
This is lower than the median life expectancy of 81.2 for all New York City neighborhoods. Most inhabitants are youth and middle-aged adults: 27% are between the ages of between 0–17, 29% between 25–44, 23% between 45–64; the ratio of college-aged and elderly residents was lower, at 11% and 10% respectively. As of 2017, the median household income in Community District 4 was $30,900. In 2018, an estimated 32% of Highbridge and Concourse residents lived in poverty, compared to 25% in all of the Bronx and 20% in all of New York City. One in eight residents were unemployed, compared to 9 % in New York City. Rent burden, or the percentage of residents who have difficulty paying their rent, is 61% in Highbridge and Concourse, compared to the boroughwide and citywide rates of 58% and 51% respectively. Based on this calculation, as of 2018, Highbridge and Concourse are considered low-income relative to the rest of the city and not gentrifying. However, as of 2017, rents in Highbridge have risen more than any other neighborhood in New York City, at a rate of 22%.
Highbridge is dominated by townhouses and 5 and 6-story apartment buildings, including numerous Art Deco landmarks built by the developer Bernard J. Noonan and the architects Horace Ginsberg and Marvin Fine. Many older detached mansions still remain on Ogden Avenue; the total land area is one square mile. The terrain is elevated and hilly. Stair streets connect areas located at different elevations; the Woodycrest Children's Home on Woodycrest Avenue was built as an orphanage by the American Female Guardian Society and Home for the Friendless to rescue from degradation and moral, the children of want and sorrow. This grand Beaux Arts building was designed by the architect of Carnegie Hall. Opening in 1902, it housed 120 children in five dormitories, contained a chapel, a kindergarten, a hospital, a dining room and a quarantine ward for new arrivals; the building is now managed by the Bronx-Lebanon Hospital Center as the Highbridge-Woodycrest center, providing long-term geriatric and AIDS care.
The Art Deco style Park Plaza Apartments on Jerome Avenue, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The Art Deco style Noonan Plaza Apartments on West 168th Street; the Richardsonian Romanesque style Union Reformed Church of Highbridge on Ogden Avenue, with stained glass by Tiffany and Company. The Polychrome Gothic style Public School 91, now PS1
Chicago Board of Trade
The Chicago Board of Trade, established on April 3, 1848, is one of the world's oldest futures and options exchanges. More than 50 different options and futures contracts are traded by over 3,600 CBOT members through open outcry and electronic trading. Volumes at the exchange in 2003 were a record breaking 454 million contracts. On July 12, 2007, the CBOT merged with the Chicago Mercantile Exchange to form the CME Group. CBOT and three other exchanges now operate as designated contract markets of the CME Group; the concerns of U. S. merchants to ensure that there were buyers and sellers for commodities have resulted in forward contracts to sell and buy commodities. Still, credit risk remained a serious problem; the CBOT took shape to provide a centralized location, where buyers and sellers can meet to negotiate and formalize forward contracts. In 1864, the CBOT listed the first standardized "exchange traded" forward contracts, which were called futures contracts. In 1919, the Chicago Butter and Egg Board, a spin-off of the CBOT, was reorganized to enable member traders to allow future trading, its name was changed to Chicago Mercantile Exchange.
The Board's restrictions on trading after hours on any prices other than those at the Board's close gave rise to the 1917 case Chicago Board of Trade v. United States, in which the U. S. Supreme Court held that the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890's language outlawing "every contract... in restraint of trade" was not to be taken but rather should be interpreted under a "rule of reason." On October 19, 2005, the initial public offering of 3,191,489 CBOT shares was priced at $54.00 per share. On its first day of trading the stock closed up +49% at $80.50 on the NYSE. In 2007, the CBOT and the Chicago Mercantile Exchange merged to form the CME Group. Since 1930, the Chicago Board of Trade has been operating out of 141 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, in a building designed by architects Holabird & Root, 605 feet tall, the tallest in Chicago until the Richard J. Daley Center superseded it in 1965; this Art Deco building incorporates sculptural work by Alvin Meyer and is capped by a 31-foot tall statue of the Roman goddess Ceres in reference to the exchange's heritage as a commodity market.
Ceres is claimed to be faceless because its sculptor, John Storrs, believed that the forty-five story building would be sufficiently taller than any other nearby structure and as a result that no one would be able to see the sculpture's face anyway. However, this popular rumor was disproved, with the sculptor intending to give the statue an ethereal and god-like look by being faceless. On May 4, 1977, the Chicago Board of Trade Building was designated a Chicago Landmark; the building is now a National Historic Landmark. Today the Board of Trade Building is joined by numerous skyscrapers in the heart of Chicago's busy Loop commercial neighborhood; the pit is a raised octagonal structure. Operating during regular trading hours, the CBOT trading floor contains many such pits; the steps up on the outside of the octagon and the steps down on the inside give the pit something of the appearance of an amphitheater, allow hundreds of traders to see and hear each other during trading hours. The importance of the pit and pit trading is emphasized by the use of a stylized pit as the logo of the CBOT.
The Pit is the title and subject of a classic novel by Frank Norris. Trades are made in the pits by bidding or offering a price and quantity of contracts, depending on the intention to buy or sell; this is done by using a physical representation of a trader's intentions with his hands. If a trader wants to buy ten contracts at a price of eight, for example, in the pit he would yell "8 for 10", stating price before quantity, turn his palm inward toward his face, putting his index finger to his forehead denoting ten. If the trader wants to sell five contracts at a price of eight, they would yell "5 at 8", stating quantity before price, show one hand with palm facing outward, showing 5 fingers; the combination of hand-signals and vocal representation between the way a trader expresses bids and offers is a protection against misinterpretation by other market participants. For historical purposes, an illustrated project to record the hand signal language used in CBOT's trading pits has been compiled and published.
With the rise of electronic trading the importance of the pit has decreased for many contracts, though the pit remains the best place to get complex option spreads filled. On August 1, 1974, trading at The Chicago Board of Trade was halted after an anonymous caller said a bomb had been placed in the building. On October 22, 1981, trading was halted on the Chicago Board of Trade and the Philadelphia Stock Exchange after anonymous callers said bombs had been placed in those buildings. On August 1, 2006, the CBOT launched side-by-side trading for agricultural futures. Orders can now be traded electronically or placed by pit traders using open outcry, creating a single pool of liquidity. On October 17, 2006, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange announced the purchase of the Chicago Board of Trade for $8 billion in stock, joining the two financial institutions as CME Group, Inc. CBOT uses outsourced technology platforms, but will move to CME's Globex trading system; this will provide much of the merger's anticipated savings.
The merger will strengthen the combined group's position in the global derivatives market. On July 9, 2007 CBOT Shareholders approve merger with the Chicago Mercantile Exchange "creating the largest derivatives market ever." Commodity Exchange Ac
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai