William Byrd

William Byrd, was an English composer of the Renaissance. He wrote in many of the forms current in England at the time, including various types of sacred and secular polyphony and consort music. Although he produced sacred music for Anglican services, sometime during the 1570s he became a Roman Catholic and wrote Catholic sacred music in his life. Thanks to the research of John Harley, knowledge of Byrd's biography has expanded in recent years. Thomas Byrd, the grandson of Richard Byrd of Ingatestone, Essex moved to London in the 15th century. Thereafter succeeding generations of the family are described as gentlemen. William Byrd was born in London, the son of another Thomas Byrd about whom nothing further is known, his wife, Margery; the specific year of Byrd's birth is uncertain. In his will, dated 15 November 1622, he describes himself as "in the 80th year of age", suggesting a birthdate of 1542 or 1543; however a document dated 2 October 1598 written in his own hand states that he is "58 yeares or ther abouts", indicating an earlier birthdate of 1539 or 1540.

Byrd had two brothers and John, who became London merchants, four sisters, Barbara and Martha. There is no documentary evidence concerning Byrd's early musical training, his two brothers were choristers at St. Paul's Cathedral, Byrd may have been a chorister there as well under Simon Westcote, although it is possible that he was a chorister with the Chapel Royal. A reference in the prefatory material to the Cantiones sacrae published by Byrd and Thomas Tallis in 1575 tends to confirm that Byrd was a pupil of Tallis in the Chapel Royal. According to Anthony Wood, Byrd was "bred up to musick under Tho. Tallis." Moreover, one of Byrd's earliest compositions was a collaboration with two Chapel Royal singing-men, John Sheppard and William Mundy, on a setting for four male voices of the psalm In exitu Israel for the procession to the font in Easter week. It was composed near the end of the reign of Queen Mary Tudor, who revived Sarum liturgical practices. A few other compositions by Byrd probably date from his teenage years.

These include his setting of the Easter responsory Christus resurgens, not published until 1605, but which as part of the Sarum liturgy could have been composed during Mary's reign, as well as Alleluia confitemini which combines two liturgical items for Easter week. Some of the hymns and antiphons for keyboard and for consort may date from this period, though it is possible that the consort pieces may have been composed in Lincoln for the musical training of choirboys. Byrd's first known professional employment was his appointment in 1563 as organist and master of the choristers at Lincoln Cathedral. Residing at what is now 6 Minster Yard Lincoln, he remained in post until 1572, his period at Lincoln was not trouble-free, for on 19 November 1569 the Dean and Chapter cited him for'certain matters alleged against him' as the result of which his salary was suspended. Since Puritanism was influential at Lincoln, it is possible that the allegations were connected with over-elaborate choral polyphony or organ playing.

A second directive, dated 29 November, issued detailed instructions regarding Byrd's use of the organ in the liturgy. On 14 September 1568, Byrd married Julian Birley; the 1560s were important formative years for Byrd the composer. His Short Service, an unpretentious setting of items for the Anglican Matins and Evensong services, which seems to have been designed to comply with the Protestant reformers’ demand for clear words and simple musical textures, may well have been composed during the Lincoln years, it is at any rate clear that Byrd was composing Anglican church music, for when he left Lincoln the Dean and Chapter continued to pay him at a reduced rate on condition that he would send the cathedral his compositions. Byrd had taken serious strides with instrumental music; the seven In Nomine settings for consort, at least one of the consort fantasias and a number of important keyboard works were composed during the Lincoln years. The latter include the Ground in Gamut by his future pupil Thomas Tomkins, the A minor Fantasia, the first of Byrd's great series of keyboard pavanes and galliards, a composition, transcribed by Byrd from an original for five-part consort.

All these show Byrd emerging as a major figure on the Elizabethan musical landscape. Some sets of keyboard variations, such as The Hunt's Up and the imperfectly preserved set on Gypsies’ Round seem to be early works; as we have seen, Byrd had begun setting Latin liturgical texts as a teenager, he seems to have continued to do so at Lincoln. Two exceptional large-scale psalm motets, Ad Dominum cum tribularer and Domine quis habitabit, are Byrd's contribution to a paraliturgicall form cultivated by Robert White and Robert Parsons. De lamentatione, another early work, is a contribution to the Elizabethan practice of setting groups of verses from the Lamentations of Jeremiah, following the format of the Tenebrae lessons sung in the Catholic rite during the last three days of Holy Week. Other contributors in this form include Tallis, White and the elder Ferrabosco, it is that this practice was an expression of Elizabethan Catholic nostalgia, as a number of the texts suggest. Byrd obtained the prestigious post of Gentleman of the Chapel Royal in 1572 following the death of Robert Parsons, a gifted composer who drowned in the Trent near Newark o

Revenue stamps of the United Arab Emirates

The United Arab Emirates known as Trucial States, first issued revenue stamps in 1948 and continues to do so to this day. In addition, the emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai had their own separate revenue issues. Prior to independence, the UAE was known as the Trucial States; until 1947 they were administered as a part of British India, they used Indian revenues. However, following India's independence they were administered by Britain; the first revenue issue was in 1948, it consisted of British King George V or King George VI keytypes appropriated COURT FEE and the value in annas or rupees at the bottom. Similar issues with values in naye paise or paise were printed using keytypes of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth II. However, there are no recorded examples of these, only values from the first issue are known to exist. After independence in 1971, the Trucial States became known as the United Arab Emirates; the first revenues were issued in around 1973 and they showed a dhow, a palm tree, an oil rig and camels, a map and symbols of the newly independent country.

In 1975 a new design portraying the coat of arms was issued, all stamps were in this design. From 1988 onwards, stamps in this design but a different inscription below the coat of arms were issued to pay the medical fee as well; the emirate of Abu Dhabi issued revenues from around 1970 to 1990. The first consisted of an overprint on the contemporary 1 dinar postage stamp in use and this was followed by a set of three values portraying the country's coat of arms in around 1985; the highest value of this set was reissued in new colours with some differences in design in 1990. All of Abu Dhabi's revenue stamps are scarce or rare and are sought after by collectors; the emirate of Dubai issued a single revenue stamp by the Central Immigration Department. The stamp is recorded used from 1972 to 1973. Postage stamps and postal history of Abu Dhabi Postage stamps and postal history of the United Arab Emirates

Elmira Township, Olmsted County, Minnesota

Elmira Township is a township in Olmsted County, United States. The population was 352 at the 2000 census. Elmira Township was organized in 1858, named after Elmira, New York, the native home of a share of the early settlers. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 352 people, 119 households, 98 families residing in the township. The population density was 10.1/mi². There were 123 housing units at an average density of 3.5/mi². The racial makeup of the township was 100.00% White. There were 119 households out of which 42.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.9% were married couples living together, 2.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 17.6% were non-families. 16.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.32. In the township the population was spread out with 30.7% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 28.7% from 25 to 44, 20.7% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 118.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 114.0 males. The median income for a household in the township was $65,156, the median income for a family was $69,375. Males had a median income of $36,250 versus $30,625 for females; the per capita income for the township was $23,243. None of the families and 1.7% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 3.8% of those over 64