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William Camden

William Camden was an English antiquarian, historian and herald, best known as author of Britannia, the first chorographical survey of the islands of Great Britain and Ireland, the Annales, the first detailed historical account of the reign of Elizabeth I of England. Camden was born in London, his father Sampson Camden was a member of The Worshipful Company of Painter-Stainers. He attended Christ's Hospital and St Paul's School, in 1566 entered Oxford. At Christ Church, he became acquainted with Philip Sidney, who encouraged Camden's antiquarian interests, he returned to London in 1571 without a degree. In 1575, he became Usher of Westminster School, a position that gave him the freedom to travel and pursue his antiquarian researches during school vacations. In 1577, with the encouragement of Abraham Ortelius, Camden began his great work Britannia, a topographical and historical survey of all of Great Britain and Ireland, his stated intention was to "restore antiquity to Britaine, Britain to his antiquity".

The first edition, written in Latin, was published in 1586. It proved popular, ran through five further editions, of 1587, 1590, 1594, 1600 and 1607, each enlarged from its predecessor in both textual content and illustrations; the 1607 edition included for the first time a full set of English county maps, based on the surveys of Christopher Saxton and John Norden, engraved by William Kip and William Hole. The first English language edition, translated by Philemon Holland, appeared in 1610, again with some additional content supplied by Camden. Britannia is a county-by-county description of Great Ireland, it is a work of chorography: a study that relates landscape, geography and history. Rather than write a history, Camden wanted to describe in detail the Great Britain of the present, to show how the traces of the past could be discerned in the existing landscape. By this method, he produced the first coherent picture of Roman Britain, he continued to revise and expand Britannia throughout his life.

He drew on the published and unpublished work of John Leland and William Lambarde, among others, received the assistance of a large network of correspondents with similar interests. He travelled throughout Great Britain to view documents and artefacts for himself: he is known to have visited East Anglia in 1578, Yorkshire and Lancashire in 1582, Devon in 1589, Wales in 1590, Salisbury and Oxford in 1596, Carlisle and Hadrian's Wall in 1599, his fieldwork and firsthand research set new standards for the time. He learned Welsh and Old English for the task: his tutor in Old English was Laurence Nowell. In 1593 Camden became headmaster of Westminster School, he left when he was appointed Clarenceux King of Arms. By this time because of the Britannia's reputation, he was a well-known and revered figure, the appointment was meant to free him from the labour of teaching and to facilitate his research; the College of Arms at that time was not only a centre of genealogical and heraldic study, but a centre of antiquarian study.

The appointment, roused the jealousy of Ralph Brooke, York Herald, who, in retaliation, published an attack on Britannia, charging Camden with inaccuracy and plagiarism. Camden defended himself against the charges in subsequent editions of the work. Britannia was recognised as an important work of Renaissance scholarship, not only in England, but across the European "Republic of Letters". Camden considered having the 1586 Britannia printed in the Low Countries, although that did not happen, the third edition of 1590, in addition to its London printing, was published the same year in Frankfurt, reprinted there in 1616. In 1612 parts were condemned by the Spanish Inquisition. An abridgement was published in Amsterdam in 1617 and reprinted in 1639. In 1597, William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley suggested that Camden write a history of Queen Elizabeth's reign; the degree of Burghley's subsequent influence on the work is unclear: Camden only mentions John Fortescue of Salden, Elizabeth's last Chancellor of the Exchequer, Henry Cuffe, Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex's secretary, as sources.

Camden began his work in 1607. The first part of the Annales rerum Anglicarum et Hibernicarum regnante Elizabetha, ad annum salutis M. D. LXXXIX, covering the reign up to 1588, appeared in 1615; the second part was completed in 1617, but was not published until 1625, 1627, following Camden's death. The first translation into English of books 1 -- 3 appeared in 1625, done by Abraham Darcy. Book 4 was translated into English by Thomas Browne, canon of Windsor, in 1629; the Annales were not written in a continuous narrative, but in the style of earlier annals, giving the events of each year in a separate entry. Sometimes criticised as being too favourably disposed towards Elizabeth and James I, the Annales are one of the great works of English historiography and had a great impact on the image of the Elizabethan age. Hugh Trevor-Roper said about them: "It is thanks to Camden that we ascribe to Queen Elizabeth a consistent policy of via media rather than an inconsequent series of unresolved conflicts and paralysed indecisions."

Camden's Remaines of a Greater Worke, Concerning Britaine was a collection of themed historical essays, conceiv

Spectral radius

In mathematics, the spectral radius of a square matrix or a bounded linear operator is the largest absolute value of its eigenvalues. It is sometimes denoted by ρ. Let λ1... λn be the eigenvalues of a matrix A ∈ Cn×n. Its spectral radius ρ is defined as: ρ = max; the condition number of A can be expressed using the spectral radius as ρ ρ. The spectral radius is a sort of infimum of all norms of a matrix. On the one hand, ρ ⩽ ‖ A ‖ for every natural matrix norm ‖ ⋅ ‖, on the other hand, Gelfand's formula states that ρ = lim k → ∞ ‖ A k ‖ 1 / k. However, the spectral radius does not satisfy ‖ A v ‖ ⩽ ρ ‖ v ‖ for arbitrary vectors v ∈ C n. To see why, let r > 1 be arbitrary and consider the matrix C r =. The characteristic polynomial of C r is λ 2 − 1, hence its eigenvalues are ± 1, thus ρ = 1; however C r e 1 = r e 2, so ‖ C r e 1 ‖ = r > 1 = ρ ‖ e 1 ‖ for ‖ ⋅ ‖ being any ℓ p norm on C n. What still allows ‖ C r k ‖ 1 / k → 1 as k → ∞ is that C r 2 = I, making ‖ C r k ‖ 1 / k ⩽ ‖ C r ‖ 1 / k = r 1 / k → 1 as k → ∞.

‖ A v ‖ ⩽ ρ ‖ v ‖ for all v ∈ C n does hold when A is a Hermitian matrix and ‖ ⋅ ‖ is the Euclidean norm. The spectral radius of a finite graph is defined to be the spectral radius of its adjacency matrix; this definition extends to the case of infinite graphs with bounded degrees of vertices. In this case, for the graph G define: ℓ 2 =. Let γ be the adjacency operator of G: { γ: ℓ 2

Aqua Something You Know Whatever

Aqua Something You Know Whatever is the alternative title given to the ninth season of the animated television series Aqua Teen Hunger Force. The ninth season aired in the United States on Cartoon Network's late night programming block, Adult Swim; this season premiered on June 24, 2012, with "Big Bro" and ended with "Totem Pole" on August 26, 2012, with a total of ten episodes. The show is about the surreal adventures and antics of three anthropomorphic fast food items: Master Shake and Meatwad, who live together as roommates and interact with their human next-door neighbor, Carl Brutananadilewski in a suburban neighborhood Seattle, New Jersey, a fictional location, identical to their other previous homes seen in past seasons. In May 2015, this season became available on Hulu Plus. Episodes in this season were directed by Dave Willis and Matt Maiellaro; every episode in this season features a special guest appearance, which continues a practice used in past seasons. This season has been released including on demand streaming.

Every episode in this season was written and directed by series creators Dave Willis and Matt Maiellaro, who have both written and directed every episode of the series. All episodes aired in the United States on Cartoon Network's late night programming block, Adult Swim; the theme music for this season was written and performed by Mariachi El Bronx and Schoolly D. In season nine the main cast consisted of Dana Snyder who provided the voice of Master Shake, Carey Means who provided the voice of Frylock, series co-creator Dave Willis who provided the voice of both Meatwad and Carl Brutananadilewski. Recurring cast member George Lowe returned for a prominent role in "Rocket Horse & Jet Chicken", where he voiced Jet Chicken. Season nine features several guest appearances. Insult comic Lisa Lampanelli voiced Carl's girlfriend Darlene in "Big Bro". Mastodon band members Brann Dailor, Brent Hinds, Troy Sanders all voiced three rock devils Uno and Boggle, while Queens of the Stone Age's Josh Homme provided a guest voice of a giant octopus in "Shirt Herpes".

Steve Schirripa provided the voice of Terry's partner in "Bookie". Brett Gelman voiced Rocket Horse in "Rocket Horse & Jet Chicken". Comedian Kyle Kinane voiced a doctor in "Rocket Horse & Jet Chicken" and returned to voice Dr. Balthazar in "Buddy Nugget". Williams Street executive producer Walter Newman voiced himself in "Rocket Horse & Jet Chicken". Kurt Metzger has an uncredited role as a Flavor Flav impersonator in "Buddy Nugget". In "Zucotti Manicotti", Michael Jai White had an uncredited role as Zucotti Manicotti, Crimson Tightwad was voiced by celebrity chef Kevin Gillespie, while The Boondocks veteran Carl Jones provided the voice of the real Zucotti. German metal band Wolfchant guest-starred as the infamous rock band Totem Pole in the season finale of the same name; the entire ninth season was released in HD and SD on iTunes, the Xbox Live Marketplace, Amazon Video. Alternative titles for Aqua Teen Hunger Force List of Aqua Teen Hunger Force episodes Aqua Teen Hunger Force Official website Aqua Teen Hunger Force at Adult Swim Aqua Teen Hunger Force season 9 at the Internet Movie Database