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William Carstares

William Carstares, was a minister of the Church of Scotland, active in Whig politics. Carstares was born at Cathcart, near Glasgow, the son of the Rev. John Carstares, a Covenanter, he was educated at the University of Edinburgh, at the University of Utrecht. In the Netherlands he had an introduction to Gaspar Fagel. Through Fagel he met the Prince of Orange, the future King William III of Great Britain, began to take an active part in politics. During the Third Anglo-Dutch War, Carstares acted as an intelligence agent for the Prince of Orange, making journeys to England as "William Williams", he corresponded with Pierre du Moulin. He was suspected by the English, arrested by warrant in September 1674 on English soil. Carstares was committed to the Tower of London, he was believed to be concerned with Sir James Stewart in the authorship of a pamphlet An Account of Scotland's Grievances by reason of the D. of Lauderdale's Ministrie, humbly tendered to his Sacred Majesty. John Maitland, 1st Duke of Lauderdale himself got Carstares to admit he had been involved in printing the pamphlet.

Lauderdale used the threat of the torture of the boot, which could be employed in Scotland. In August 1679 he was released, one of the government sops to Scottish opinion after the Battle of Bothwell Bridge, he cannot therefore have been the William Carstares, the chief prosecution witness at the trial of William Staley in November 1678, although that Carstares was a Scotsman, like his namesake is said to have acted as an intelligence agent. After this, Carstares visited Ireland, joined nonconformist circles in London, in 1681 became pastor to a congregation at Theobalds, near Cheshunt in Hertfordshire; the aftermath of the Exclusion Crisis saw. Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll in the Netherlands was in touch with Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury. Carstares provided liaison, while his brother-in-law William Dunlop was able to use his colonial project in the Province of Carolina as cover for Shaftesbury's preparations for rebellion. During 1682 Carstares was in the Netherlands.

He was implicated in the Rye House Plot, arrested in July 1683 at Tenterden, using an assumed name. He denied knowing any of the plot, he was again threatened with torture in this time by Sir George Mackenzie. Once more he was transferred to Edinburgh. In July 1684 the Privy Council of Scotland tortured William Spence, Argyll's agent, Carstares was implicated. Carstares himself, who had seen poor health in his detention, was tortured in September, with the thumbikins, the boot, clumsily applied; the next day John Drummond, Secretary of State in Scotland, made a deal with Carstares that his answers would not be used in court, had a doctor see him. Carstares replied to the questions of the Council, he signed a statement, managing to conceal the covert links to Dutch supporters, the government published it. That month he was moved to Stirling Castle. In the trial of Baillie of Jerviswood, Mackenzie as Lord Advocate found a way to use the statement by Carstares to secure a conviction. Carstares was freed, went to London, to The Hague shortly before the Monmouth Rebellion, as an adviser to the Prince of Orange.

Carstares was court chaplain to William as Prince of Orange, at the time of the Williamite Revolution sailed with the Prince to Torbay. He continued as royal chaplain for Scotland, he was the confidential adviser of the king with regard to Scottish affairs. He advocated that a Presbyterian polity should replace the Scottish bishops, the immediate events of the Williamite conflicts bore out his opinion in practical terms, his subsequent influence on matters concerning the Kirk, as a courtier, earned him the nickname "Cardinal Carstares". He manipulated the Parliament of Scotland, helped by being able to read James Johnston's mail, he was Queenberry's man at court in 1700. On the accession of Queen Anne, Carstares retained his post as royal chaplain, but resided in Edinburgh, having been elected principal of the University of Edinburgh in 1703, he was a reforming administrator, introducing the Dutch professorial system of teaching He was minister of Greyfriars Kirk, afterwards of St Giles'. He was four times chosen Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, in 1705, 1708, 1711 and 1715.

He took an important part in promoting the Union, was consulted by Harley and other leading Englishmen concerning it. During Anne's reign, the chief object of his policy was to frustrate the measures which were planned by Lord Oxford to strengthen the Episcopalian Jacobites a bill for extending the privileges of the Episcopalians and the bill for replacing in the hands of the old patrons the right of patronage, which by the Revolution Settlement had been vested in the elders and the Protestant heritors. On the accession of George I, Carstares was appointed, with five others, to welcome the new dynasty in the name of the Church of Scotland, he was received graciously, the office of royal chaplain was again conferred upon him. A few months after he was struck with apoplexy, died on 28 December 1715, he is buried at Edinburgh. The grave lies amongst the large monuments on the outer walls of the original churchyard, tow


Voiron is a commune in the ninth district of the Isère department in southeastern France. It is the capital of the canton of Voiron and has been part of the Grenoble-Alpes Métropole since 2010. Voiron is located 25 km northwest of 85 km southeast of Lyon, its 20,000 inhabitants are the Voironnais. Voiron, along with Chambéry and Grenoble, is a gateway city of the Chartreuse Mountains in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region. Voiron had been a part of the County of Savoy in the Middle Ages. In the Treaty of Paris the count exchanged Voiron and the rest of the region between the rivers Rhône and Isère for Faucigny and Gex from France. In 1700, the capital of the Chartreuse massif and its surrounding area had about 1,200 inhabitants and more than a hundred of them worked in the processing of hemp. Since the beginning of the century, production had been organized around the Voironnaise factory and canvases were marked to certify their origin; the city acquired a great reputation thanks to its paintings resulting from a secular know-how.

The privileges granted by Louis XII disappeared during the French Revolution. However, the production of canvas continued, their reputation allowed Voiron to maintain this activity under the First Empire due in large part to purchases by the army; the nineteenth century saw the decline of the era of canvas in Voiron because of the scarcity of linen and cotton, because of the disappearance of the sailing navy, a large consumer of canvasses. Voiron came to be known for its fine silks, sought after by European royalties. Voiron benefited from a female workforce, housed at the factory and poorly paid. Voiron gained religious influence marked by the 1876 erection of the Saint-Bruno church of neo-Gothic style by a first magistrate. A statue representing the Virgin Mary and the infant Jesus, a tribute to Notre-Dame-de-France Puy-en-Velay, was erected; the company Skis Rossignol was founded in 1907 by Abel Rossignol. Entire families of Voiron, along with Italian immigrants who arrived en masse at the beginning of the century, worked in these factories.

On the eve of the First World War, the silk-weaving business used. At the same time, the rise of paper mills on the banks of the Morge, the river crossing the small town, attracted workers to the city; the company Radiall was founded as well and the population of Voiron grew past 15,000. Voiron remains a significant administrative center of the department of Isère. Voiron has sought to keep its independence from the Grenoble conurbation. Voiron survived a difficult conversion after the departure of companies Rossignol and Johnson & Johnson. Pays Voironnais is working to attract new jobs aimed at limiting the dormitory phenomenon affecting the suburbs of Voiron. However, because of the urban sprawl between Voreppe and Voiron, this town has been considered by the National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies as belonging to the Grenoble-Alpes Métropole since 2010; the city is located 25 km northwest of 85 km southeast of Lyon. Voiron is on the Morge; the church of St Bruno was built between 1864 and 1873 at the expense of the monks of the Grande Chartreuse.

Voiron was the starting-point of the steam tramways to Saint-Laurent-du-Pont, 12 miles, to Charavines, over 10 miles. The distillery Chartreuse Cellars is a popular tourist destination, it is the longest liqueur cellar in the world. The cellar is open year-round with English guided tours available during June and August. Voiron is a manufacturing town, it contains numerous factories. Companies include: Rossignol, Radiall Connections, Antésite, Chartreuse liquor cellars, Bonnat Chocolatier, Allaman. Secondary Lycée Édouard Herriot Lycée Ferdinand Buisson Lycée agricole La Martelière Guillaume Dode de la Brunerie – marshal of France, born in Saint-Geoire-en-Valdaine, castle of La Brunerie in Voiron. Dantès Dailiang a.k.a. Christophe Hisquin – singer-songwriter born in Voiron. Christophe Bouchut – French race driver who won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1993. Melina Robert-Michon – French athlete, specializing in discus, born in Voiron. Voiron is twinned with: Bassano del Grappa, Italy Droitwich Spa, United Kingdom Herford, Germany Šibenik, Croatia SO Voiron – rugby union team INSEE statistics Official site

Boutros el-Khoury

Sheikh Boutros el-Khoury was a Lebanese businessman and industrialist. A successful self-made man, Khoury managed to build a large commercial and industrial empire, was one of Lebanon's most well-established businessmen from the 1950s to the 1970s. Khoury was an important figure of the Lebanese ruling elite in the second half of the 20th century, he played a decisive role in the development of economic legislation, used his expertise in the resolution of several major national crises. Khoury was born in 1907 in the village of Karm Sadde, in the Zghorta District, the son of Salim and Myriam el-Khoury, his family hailed from the Lebanese diaspora in the French colonies of West Africa, with some members, including his father, residing in Senegal. Khoury lost his parents at an early age: his father died abroad on the day he was born, while his mother died when he was three years old. Khoury was subsequently raised first by his grandparents and by his paternal aunt, Sayde Khoury, while his father's uncle, Abbas Abboud, who resided in Senegal, supported him financially.

It was Abboud who initiated Khoury to the world of commerce early on in his life. Khoury studied at the Mar Yaacoub school in his home village and graduated from the al-Alam school in the village of Daraya, Zghorta. Khoury pursued a career in business, by the 1960s had become one of the wealthiest men in Lebanon thanks to his investments in various sectors of the economy. Khoury's career began at the age of 20, he started out in the oil business, dividing his time between his home village and Tripoli until, the beginnings of the 1930s, he moved permanently to North Lebanon’s capital, where it was easier for him to run his business and broaden his contacts. He shifted from trade to industry and conducted many successful partnerships with well-established businessmen in various fields, founding companies such as the Stephan and Khoury company, the Kfoury–Khoury company, the "Al Ghazzal Transports" with Ghattas el-Murr, Fadel Al-Ghandour from Tripoli, among others. Over the course of the 1920s, Khoury gained a thorough understanding of financial investment.

In accordance with the traditional role played at that time by the Lebanese diaspora in the country's economy, the young sheikh reinvested the money he received from his family abroad, including his great-uncle Abboud from Senegal, in various local businesses. In this respect, his experience in the hydroelectric company "La Kadisha" highlighted early on his innate talents as a businessman; the company had been founded in 1924 by prominent figures in Bsharri, such as the Keirouz and Geagea families, with the Maronite Archbishop of Tripoli, Anthony Peter Arida playing an important role. Under the French Mandate, the company had obtained the concession to provide electricity from the Kadisha Valley to the rest of North Lebanon. First introduced into the company through his uncle Abbas, Khoury rose through its ranks, in 1929, at the age of 22, was elected to the administrative council. In 1929, La Kadisha merged with the Abu Ali hydroelectric plant, the power concession for, granted to the Stephan brothers.

On 10 August 1930, Khoury was re-elected to the new council. He acquired a majority stake in the company, until on 14 May 1953, he bought the majority of shares owned by the French shareholders of the companies La Pyrénéenne and La Toulousaine, he became president of the company. Khoury's years working in the administration of La Kadisha had a significant impact on his economic and political outlook; the economic thought of Albert Naccache, author of La Kadisha hydroelectric project, was influential. Naccache advocated greater industrial development in Lebanon, contrary to the widespread ideology at the time, influenced by the ideas of Michel Chiha, according to which Lebanon was a "merchant republic" devoid of any raw materials. Naccache called for the establishment of a large network of hydroelectric power plants across the country that would be financed and managed by Lebanese capital and executives; this experience gave Khoury a taste for industrial adventure and contributed to his grander vision for the national economy.

Khoury's interest in agriculture began at an early age, due to his rural upbringing. He started trading in agricultural products, beginning with olive oil, which he sold through North Lebanon before committing to the purchase and resale of flour and wheat to the whole of Lebanon. From the late 1940s onward, he negotiated the cost price per kilogram of both flour and wheat with the Ministry of National Economy, his concern for the agricultural industry and the rural world was evident from the start of his parliamentary career: He was elected as head of the Commission of Agriculture and Food Supply for two consecutive terms in 1946 and 1947, as well as head of the Commission of Public Works in 1947. In the 1950s, Khoury became involved in the fight against the monopolization of staple foods and rising prices and became one of the leading figures in the world of trade, he was consulted by authorities in times of national emergency. During the 1958 Lebanon crisis, he belonged to the group of traders that sounded the alarm about the paralysis of commercial activity in the country, publicly encouraged the unloading of boats in the Port of Beirut to avoid food shortages.

In addition to his involvement in the wheat trade, Khoury revolutionized sugar production in Lebanon. In 1963, in his capacity as representative of sugar refiners, he advised Prime Minister of Lebanon Rashid Karami on the measures to be taken to meet the country's sugar requirements

Kwangwoon University

Kwangwoon University is a comprehensive and private research university in Seoul, South Korea. And there are graduate programs; the foundation is an incorporated educational institution. As of April, 01, 2017 , there are 1292 graduate students. Nearby subway station is Kwangwoon University Station, Seoul Metro Line 1. Kwangwoon University has been recognized for its academic reputation in engineering and IT fields. Kwangwoon University was ranked 56th in Asia in field of Engineering in the 2014 and 2015 by Quacquarelli Symonds and ranked 16th in Korea in field of Science and Engineering in 2015 by Korea Economic Daily Among its alumni are Jongkyun Shin, Jae Ryung Lee and Inbee Park. Kwangwoon started as Chosun Radio Training Center established to promote the advancement of radio technical knowledge and understanding, independent of government and free of Japan, it was renamed in 1940 as the Chosun Institute of Radio Engineering. Started as Dong-guk Electronics College in 1962, the school became Kwangwoon Institute of Technology in 1964 and a four-year granting Kwangwoon University in 1987.

After Hwado Kwangwoon Cho died in 1980, with the effort of Musung Cho and many faculties and students, the school became a comprehensive university in 1987. Since the Kwangwoon University's reputation and fame heightened as the first educational institution to start wireless communication school and the first school to offer electronics classes to college students in Korean history; until 1995, the university was ranked top 10 overall and top 3 in the engineering fields in South Korea. Kwangwoon as a BusinessmanHwado Cho,Kwangwoon was a gifted businessman, he started out as an employee at a Japanese general merchandise store. Gaining experiences from an attorney's office as a translator & administrator, as a taxi driver, at a rice exchange office, as a cotton store owner, when Kwangwoon was only 18 years old he obtained so much wealth that he was well known in the Incheon city as a rich boy. Having lived during the period of Japanese colony, Hwado Cho, Kwangwoon was involved in the Korean independent movement in Shanghai, China during his teen age.

However, the independent movement leader recognized that Cho, Kwangwoon's talent lay in the academia and suggested to him to study abroad to contribute to the Korean education field so that Korea can be independent from the enforcement of Japanese teachings. The boy was sent to Japan to enroll at Waseda University's department of politics & economics, at the time the only private university in Japan. However, after much contemplation, he dropped out from Waseda University in his sophomore year, he first started with obtaining wealth, although he pondered for a moment whether to get into automobile or electronics business, he predicted the lamp reform from increasing electricity usage in the country and decided to get into electronics business. Thereafter, he opened Kwangwoon Electronics Company in Seoul, and from well-known companies such as Matsushita Electric Industrial Company and Toshiba, Kwangwoon received the right to sell their products. Although not well published, Hwado Cho, Kwangwoon brought the incandescent light bulbs to Korea for the first time in Korean history since Thomas Edison invented it in 1879.

Friendship with Konosuke Matsushita & Laying the groundwork for Kwangwoon UniversityKwangwoon Cho in his 20s and until 1934 was running multimillion-dollar businesses and the acquaintance with Konosuke Matsushita was a turning point in his life. Through distributing Matsushita Electric Industrial Company's products to Kwangwoon Electronics Company, Matsushita was so moved by Kwangwoon's diligence that he gave the entire right to sell his products to Kwangwoon and their companionship grew. Besides being a business partner and Kwangwoon's close friendship is betrayed through Matsushita sending 10,000 Yen golden plate to Kwangwoon during Korean War in 1950 as a concern for his safety and for further success in his business. In the 1930s when still Korea under Japanese rule, Konosuke Matsushita asked Kwangwoon to remain as his business partner to further enter the Korean market. In a search for autonomy and to retain his employees, Hwado Cho, Kwangwoon established the wireless-communication school in 1934 to develop Korean-born technicians.

The school became Dong-Guk Electronics College, Kwangwoon Electronics College and Kwangwoon University of today. Birth of Kwangwoon University as a forerunner in Wireless-Communication & Electronics in


ArcInfo is a full-featured geographic information system produced by Esri, is the highest level of licensing in the ArcGIS Desktop product line. It was a command-line based system; the command-line processing abilities are now available through the GUI of the ArcGIS Desktop product. ESRI launched the first version of ARC/INFO - which it claims as "the first modern GIS" - in 1982 on minicomputers; the name refers to its architecture as a geographic information system composed of: geographic input and output tools with a complementary, but separate database The early releases of ARC/INFO comprised a set of FORTRAN programs linked together and accessed through a command-line interface built with the scripting language of the minicomputer. The software was built under a paradigm of tools that could be used together within a command-line interface to perform GIS database development and output functions. ESRI added subsystems for surface processing network analysis, survey data processing; the release of ARC/INFO 4.0 included the advent of an "Arc executive" which processed commands with a new command-interpreter developed in FORTRAN and compiled for each platform, for performance and stability.

The Arc Executive allowed the support of a command language specific to ARC/INFO: the ARC Macro Language. This allows users automate input to the command line, supports simple graphical user interfaces for application-specific tools and applications. AML was based on CPL, the system scripting language of the original ARC/INFO development platform, PRIMOS. AML applications could be written to execute unmodified on all platforms supported by ARC/INFO; as computing shifted towards Unix and Windows, ESRI followed by launching ARC/INFO on both platforms. The development platform for ARC/INFO moved to Sun Solaris at version 5.0, to Windows at version 7.1. ESRI released a subset of ARC/INFO functionality as PC ARC/INFO for MS-DOS in 1987 and a version for Windows using a dBase tables for tabular data and a'Simple Macro Language'. ARC/INFO 6.0 added a major subsystem for raster processing. The underlying raster processing software framework provided the code base for ArcView 3.x Spatial Analyst and ArcGIS Spatial Analyst.

ESRI underwent a major change in its GIS product family when it released ArcGIS 8.0 late in 1999. With this release, ARC/INFO was discontinued and its code base frozen. ArcGIS was a multi-scale architecture, with the Desktop product released at three licensing levels: ArcView; the ArcInfo license is billed by ESRI as "Professional GIS", allowing users the most flexibility and control in "all aspects of data building, modeling and map display". ArcInfo Desktop continued to be shipped with the older command-line software, now named "ArcInfo Workstation"—with access to coverage processing tools provided through the ArcGIS Coverage toolbox. Most ArcInfo Workstation functionality missing from ArcInfo Desktop at the 8.0 release was implemented within the ArcGIS geoprocessing framework, was completed with the release of ArcGIS 10.0 in 2011. ESRI released ArcInfo Workstation 10.0 in late 2010. This final release supported Windows and Solaris 10. In 2012, Esri deprecated the use of the term ArcInfo as a licensing option for ArcGIS.

The most advanced license for ArcGIS Desktop is now known as "ArcGIS Advanced". ArcGIS for Desktop ArcInfo


Smuka is a settlement in the Municipality of Kočevje in southern Slovenia. It was a village inhabited by Gottschee Germans. In 1941 at the beginning of the Second World War its original population was evicted; the area is part of the traditional region of Lower Carniola and is now included in the Southeast Slovenia Statistical Region. A cave known as Štavka or Štibloh is located in the direction of Stari Log; the linguist Fran Ramovš suggested that the Slovene name Smuka refers to'sloping, raised terrain', echoing a similar observation by Hans Tschinkel. The German name Langenthon is derived from the permission given to settle by the langen Thonen. Smuka was a Gottschee German settlement, it was not mentioned in the land registry of 1574 because it was one of the more recent settlements in the Gottschee enclave. It was established in 1614 on the basis of a 1605 deed from Countess Elizabeth von Blagay, when nine farmers from Stari Log were permitted to clear the forest in an area equivalent to the size of three full farms.

In the census of 1770, there were 26 houses in the village. Before the Second World War, the village had 52 houses and a population of 270. At that time, the economy of the village was based on farming and selling firewood and timber. There was an inn in the village; the entire village except for the church was burned by Italian forces on 15 August 1942. After the war, some new houses were built in the village. Crop production was made more difficult by wild animals, dairy production was significant. Much of the population commuted to Kočevje to work; the local church, dedicated to Saint Roch, was a 16th-century building to which a belfry was added in the 19th century. It was damaged by fire during the Second World War, was demolished in 1954; the site is marked by some remnants of the building. The cross was erected in a ceremony on 12 August 2007. Smuka on Geopedia Pre–World War II map of Smuka with oeconyms and family names