William Ford Gibson is an American-Canadian speculative fiction writer and essayist credited with pioneering the science fiction subgenre known as cyberpunk. Beginning his writing career in the late 1970s, his early works were noir, near-future stories that explored the effects of technology and computer networks on humans—a "combination of lowlife and high tech"—and helped to create an iconography for the information age before the ubiquity of the Internet in the 1990s. Gibson notably coined the term "cyberspace" for "widespread, interconnected digital technology" in his short story "Burning Chrome", popularized the concept in his acclaimed debut novel Neuromancer; these early works of Gibson's have been credited with "renovating" science fiction literature in the 1980s. After expanding on the story in Neuromancer with two more novels, thus completing the dystopic Sprawl trilogy, Gibson collaborated with Bruce Sterling on the alternate history novel The Difference Engine, which became an important work of the science fiction subgenre known as steampunk.
In the 1990s, Gibson composed the Bridge trilogy of novels, which explored the sociological developments of near-future urban environments, postindustrial society, late capitalism. Following the turn of the century and the events of 9/11, Gibson emerged with a string of realist novels—Pattern Recognition, Spook Country, Zero History —set in a contemporary world; these works saw. His most recent novels, The Peripheral and Agency, returned to a more overt engagement with technology and recognizable science fiction themes. In 1999, The Guardian described Gibson as "probably the most important novelist of the past two decades," while the Sydney Morning Herald called him the "noir prophet" of cyberpunk. Throughout his career, Gibson has written more than 20 short stories and 10 critically acclaimed novels, contributed articles to several major publications, collaborated extensively with performance artists and musicians, his work has been cited as influencing a variety of disciplines: academia, film, music and technology.
William Ford Gibson was born in the coastal city of Conway, South Carolina, he spent most of his childhood in Wytheville, Virginia, a small town in the Appalachians where his parents had been born and raised. His family moved during Gibson's youth owing to his father's position as manager of a large construction company. In Norfolk, Gibson attended Pines Elementary School, where the teachers' lack of encouragement for him to read was a cause of dismay for his parents. While Gibson was still a young child, a little over a year into his stay at Pines Elementary, his father choked to death in a restaurant while on a business trip, his mother, unable to tell William the bad news, had someone else inform him of the death. Tom Maddox has commented that Gibson "grew up in an America as disturbing and surreal as anything J. G. Ballard dreamed". A few days after the death of his father and his mother moved back from Norfolk to Wytheville. Gibson described Wytheville as "a place where modernity had arrived to some extent but was distrusted" and credits the beginnings of his relationship with science fiction, his "native literary culture", with the subsequent feeling of abrupt exile.
At the age of 12, Gibson "wanted nothing more than to be a science fiction writer". He spent a few unproductive years at basketball-obsessed George Wythe High School, a time spent in his room listening to records and reading books. At 13, unbeknownst to his mother, he purchased an anthology of Beat generation writing, thereby gaining exposure to the writings of Allen Ginsberg, Jack Kerouac, William S. Burroughs. A shy, ungainly teenager, Gibson grew up in a monoculture he found "highly problematic", consciously rejected religion and took refuge in reading science fiction as well as writers such as Burroughs and Henry Miller. Becoming frustrated with his poor academic performance, Gibson's mother threatened to send him to a boarding school. Unable to afford his preferred choice of Southern California, his "chronically anxious and depressive" mother, who had remained in Wytheville since the death of her husband, sent him to Southern Arizona School for Boys in Tucson, he resented the structure of the private boarding school but was in retrospect grateful for its forcing him to engage socially.
On the SAT exams, he scored 148 out of 150 in the written section but 5 out of 150 in mathematics, to the dismay of his teachers. After his mother's death when he was 18, Gibson left school without graduating and became isolated for a long time, traveling to California and Europe, immersing himself in the counterculture. In 1967, he elected to move to Canada in order "to avoid the Vietnam war draft". At his draft hearing, he informed interviewers that his intention in life was to sample every mind-altering substance in existence. Gibson has observed that he "did not evade the draft, as they never bothered drafting me". In the biographical documentary No Maps for These Territories, Gibson said that his decision was motivated less by conscientious objection than by a desire to "sleep with hippie chicks" and indulge in hashish, he elaborated on the topic in a 2008 interview: When I
The Future of Freedom Conference is considered as the first explicitly libertarian conference series held in the United States. Debuting in 1969, the conference's keynote speaker was Austrian economist Prof. Ludwig von Mises. More than 200 students attended the Ludwig von Mises Conference, held at Long Beach State University, now known as California State University, Long Beach, in May 1969, in response to Young Americans for Freedom's purges of libertarian leaders just before the infamous national YAF St. Louis convention in August 1969. In early March 1969, Dana Rohrabacher and William "Shawn" Steel, co-chairs of California YAF, were removed by National YAF. Many purged leaders, county chairs would organize a new student organization called the California Libertarian Alliance. One of their first endeavors was to hold a gathering of libertarian leaders and economists; the idea to have some type of gathering evolved into a full-fledged conference at a college. The conference was planned and organized under the leadership of Dana Rohrabacher, the main founder and chairman of the Libertarian Caucus of YAF from 1966 to 69.
Dana Rohrabacher, known as the "Johnny Grass-seed" of radical YAFers became a journalist, a speechwriter for President Reagan, a U. S. Congressman in Southern California. Other purged YAF members involved in the 1969 conference included the following: Gene Berkman, draft resister to become owner of Renaissance Books in Riverside, CA. In 1981 Shawn Steel commented about the reasons for the first conference, writing that "Freedom oriented people found themselves abandoned, either purged from the right or the left; because of this political turmoil, we invited decentralists and voluntaryists in one forum to organize and study the philosophy we now call'libertarianism.'"Other speakers at 1969's Ludwig von Mises Conference included the following: R. C. Hoiles, longtime publisher of The Register in Santa Ana, CA. Gary North, a conservative writer for the Christian newsletter Chalcedon Report, was horrified by what he saw at the conference, he accused the participants of "secular libertarianism" which he believed to be suicidal the sinfulness of those who take illegal drugs.
Instead of finding a conference hall full of "studious conservatives affirming faith in God and country," North instead discovered "eccentrics waving the black dollar sign flag" of anarchy. The Ludwig von Mises Conference was sponsored by Long Beach State University YAF, California State University San Fernando Valley YAF, the Action Coalition for Freedom. On February 28 and March 1, 1970, the California Libertarian Alliance hosted the Left-Right Festival of Mind Liberation at the University of Southern California, backed by Riqui and Seymour Leon of Robert LeFevre's relocated Rampart Institute in Santa Ana, California; this conference attempted to patch differences between left and right anti-statist and anti-authoritarian thinkers, but failed to generate "any potential Left-Right coalition in the gestation stage." Rebecca E. Hlatch in A Generation Divided, reported "five hundred delegates met to discuss possibilities for a right-to-left cooperation.” According to Dana Rohrabacher, he had high hopes of “forming a coalition between libertarians on the right and the pro-freedom elements on the left.”The keynote speaker was former president of Students for a Democratic Society and author of Containment and Change, Carl Oglesby.
"Designed to lay the groundwork for a libertarian/New Left anti-war coalition, Oglesby made the case that'the Old Right and the New Left' were'morally and politically' united in their opposition to war, should work together."Other featured speakers included the following: William Allen, University of California Los Angeles economist. Other notable speakers - at general sessions or in workshops included the following: Harvey Hukari, former chair of Stanford University YAF, a founder of the Free Campus Movement.
Hans Pauli was a Swedish Bridgettine monk and an alleged sorcerer, active as a professional exorcist and counter-magician. Pauli had been a monk of the Bridgettine order in the convent of Vadstena Abbey; when the Swedish convents were closed in 1527, the nuns and monks, though formally allowed to stay as long as they did not admit any new members into the order left their old convents the male members of the orders. The male section in the convent of Vadstena was dissolved in 1555; these monks were given a bad reputation because they traveled around people who still believed in old Catholic habits, teaching old Catholic prayers out among the people as spells. King Gustav Vasa complained about these traveling monks. Hans Pauli had left his convent and spent five years in his old home country in Bergslagen, where he made himself a name by healing peoples' sicknesses by spells, he was hired for exorcism and as a counter-magician of curses and black magic. In 1554, he was imprisoned in Hämeenlinna in Finland.
He seem to have been released, however, as he was active as an magician in Sweden sixteen years later. On one famous occasion in 1570, he was hired to lift the curse believed to have been put upon the silver mine in Sala in Berglagen; when the mine dried out temporarily one autumn, the bailiff wrote to the king with the explanation that the draft had been caused by unknown sorcerers, Hans Pauli had been hired to perform white magic to counter the evil magic and lift the curse of the mine. Hans Pauli described his actions and how he was hired himself: "At the time of my residence on the copper mountain I found amongst old books a smaller book whose title was Consecratio majoris salis et aquae contra Daemoniacas infestatones. So it happened, when his Majesty's silver mine was damaged, that the bailiff asked me, if I knew a cure. I soon followed his wish and performed exorcism over everything around the foundries, at once everything was back to normal." Many of the women who were accused of sorcery during the great inspection-journey of the archbishop Abraham Angermannus in 1596–1597 claimed that they had learned their spells and their medical practices from wandering former monks such as Hans Pauli.
Åberg, Alf, Häxorna: de stora trolldomsprocesserna i Sverige 1668-1676, Esselte studium/Akademiförl. Göteborg, 1989 Ankarloo, Satans raseri: en sannfärdig berättelse om det stora häxoväsendet i Sverige och omgivande länder, Stockholm, 2007
MS Oslofjord was a combined ocean liner/cruise ship built in 1949 by Netherlands Dock and Shipbuilding Company in Amsterdam, Netherlands for Norwegian America Line. As built she was 16,844 gross register tons, could carry 620 passengers. In an incident that made international news, in January 1957, while in drydock in Hoboken, New Jersey, USA, the MS Oslofjord tipped over and crashed against another ship. Eight crew members were injured and two were hospitalized. Two-hundred other crew members were trapped inside the ship for more than an hour before being rescued. In 1967–1968 she was chartered to Greek Line and from 1968 onwards to Costa Crociere, who renamed her MS Fulvia in 1969. Following an explosion in the engine room, the Fulvia caught fire near the Canary Isles on 19 July 1970, had to be evacuated, she sank on 20 July 1970. Norway-Heritage: Oslofjord Simplon Postcards: Oslofjord - Fulvia
The Order of the Starry Cross is an imperial Austrian dynastic order for Catholic noble ladies, founded in 1668. The order still exists under the House of Habsburg; the Order was founded in 1668 by Eleonora Gonzaga of Mantua, dowager empress of the Holy Roman Empire. This all-female order was confirmed by Pope Clement IX on 28 June 1668 and was placed under the spiritual management of the Prince-Bishop of Vienna. Only high-born ladies could be invested with the Order, including “princesses and other high nobility.” Once invested, members were to “devote themselves to the service and worship of the Holy Cross, to lead a virtuous life in the exercise of religion and works of charity.” According to legend, the Habsburg dynasty owned a piece of the True Cross on which Jesus was crucified. Though it is impossible to prove its authenticity, the holy relic was set in gold and worn by at least two Holy Roman Emperors, Maximilian II and Ferdinand III. Ferdinand III’s last consort, Empress Eleanora, was given the relic by her stepson, Emperor Leopold I, after Ferdinand’s 1657 death.
In the aftermath of a fire at the Hofburg on 2 February 1668 the relic was discovered in near-perfect condition. The dowager empress founded the Order in celebration that the relic had survived the fire, believing it to be a true miracle. In 1881, the empress accorded multiple noble ladies of the royal Belgian court the Starry Cross, after the engagement of Archduke Rudolf. Members of the Order wore the following insignia: "An oval medallion, with a broad blue enameled border, inclosing a black enameled Eagle with two heads, claws, both of gold, on which lies a Gold Cross, enameled green, bordered with brown wood. Over this, on an intwined wreath in black letters, on a white ground, is the motto of the Order, "Salue et Gloria” – It is worn, pendent to a strip of black riband, on the left breast." Special Class Diamond and Gemstone studded insignia only for the Grand Mistress. 1st Class Ruby Cross with Diamonds around the badge suspended from a Black ribbon. 2nd Class Smaller insignia with Diamonds around the badge suspended from a Black ribbon.
3rd Class Much smaller insignia without brilliants, suspended from a Black ribbon. According to the website of the Archdiocese of Vienna, the order is ruled by: Grand Mistress: Archduchess Gabriela Order Chancellor: Count Norbert von Salburg-Falkenstein Order Secretary: Altgraf Niklas zu Salm-Reifferscheid-Raitz Tagore, Rajah Sir Sourindro Mohun; the Orders of Knighthood and Foreign. Calcutta: The Catholic Orphan Press, 1884
Augirein is a commune in the Ariège department in the Occitanie region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Augirenoises. Augirein is located in the former province of Couserans some 30 km south-east of Saint-Gaudens and 25 km west by south-west of Saint-Girons. Access to the commune is by road D618 from Saint-Lary in the west which passes through the north of the commune and the village and continues east to Orgibet. Just east of the village is the hamlet of Terrefete; the commune is all rugged and forested except for a small area in the north where the village is. The Bouigane river flows through the north of the commune from west to east and continues to join the Lez at Audressein; the Ruisseau de Nede rises south of the commune and flows through the centre from south to north to join the Bouigane on the north-eastern border of the commune. Several tributaries rise in the commune and join the Ruisseau de Nede including the Ruisseau de Couledoux and the Ruisseau des Souls.
List of Successive Mayors. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year; the Church contains a Chalice, registered as a historical object. Communes of the Ariège department Augirein on the old IGN website Augirein on Lion1906 Augirein on Google Maps Augirein on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Auguren on the 1750 Cassini Map Augirein on the INSEE website INSEE