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William Henry Perkin

Sir William Henry Perkin, FRS was a British chemist and entrepreneur best known for his serendipitous discovery of the first synthetic organic dye, made from aniline. Though he failed in trying to synthesise quinine for the treatment of malaria, he became successful in the field of dyes after his first discovery at the age of 18. Perkin set up a factory to produce the dye industrially. Lee Blaszczyk, professor of business history at the University of Leeds, states, "By laying the foundation for the synthetic organic chemicals industry, Perkin helped to revolutionize the world of fashion." William Perkin was born in the East End of London, the youngest of the seven children of George Perkin, a successful carpenter. His mother, was of Scottish descent and moved to East London as a child, he was baptized in the Anglican parish church of St Paul's, connected to such luminaries as James Cook, Jane Randolph Jefferson and John Wesley. At the age of 14, Perkin attended the City of London School, where he was taught by Thomas Hall, who fostered his scientific talent and encouraged him to pursue a career in chemistry.

In 1853, at the age of 15, Perkin entered the Royal College of Chemistry in London, where he began his studies under August Wilhelm von Hofmann. At this time, chemistry was still primitive: although the major elements had been discovered and techniques to analyze the proportions of the elements in many compounds were in place, it was still a difficult proposition to determine the arrangement of the elements in compounds. Hofmann had published a hypothesis on how it might be possible to synthesise quinine, an expensive natural substance much in demand for the treatment of malaria. Having become one of Hofmann's assistants, Perkin embarked on a series of experiments to try to achieve this end. During the Easter vacation in 1856, Perkin performed some further experiments in the crude laboratory in his apartment on the top floor of his home in Cable Street in east London, it was here that he made his great accidental discovery: that aniline could be transformed into a crude mixture which, when extracted with alcohol, produced a substance with an intense purple colour.

Perkin, who had an interest in painting and photography became enthusiastic about this result and carried out further trials with his friend Arthur Church and his brother Thomas. Since these experiments were not part of the work on quinine, assigned to Perkin, the trio carried them out in a hut in Perkin's garden to keep them secret from Hofmann, they satisfied themselves that they might be able to scale up production of the purple substance and commercialise it as a dye, which they called mauveine. Their initial experiments indicated that it dyed silk in a way, stable when washed or exposed to light, they sent some samples to a dye works in Perth and received a promising reply from the general manager of the company, Robert Pullar. Perkin filed for a patent in August 1856, when he was still only 18. At the time, all dyes used for colouring cloth were natural substances, many of which were expensive and labour-intensive to extract—and many lacked stability, or fastness; the colour purple, a mark of aristocracy and prestige since ancient times, was expensive and difficult to produce, as the dye used, known as Tyrian purple, was made from the glandular mucus of certain molluscs.

Its extraction was variable and complicated, so Perkin and his brother realised that they had discovered a possible substitute whose production could be commercially successful. Perkin could not have chosen a better time or place for his discovery: England was the cradle of the Industrial Revolution driven by advances in the production of textiles. Having invented the dye, Perkin was still faced with the problems of raising the capital for producing it, manufacturing it cheaply, adapting it for use in dyeing cotton, gaining acceptance for it among commercial dyers, creating public demand for it, he was active in all of these areas: he persuaded his father to put up the capital, his brothers to partner with him to build a factory. Public demand was increased when a similar colour was adopted by Queen Victoria in Britain and by Empress Eugénie, wife of Napoleon III, in France, when the crinoline or hooped-skirt, whose manufacture used a large quantity of cloth, became fashionable. Everything fell into place: with hard work and lucky timing, Perkin became rich.

After the discovery of mauveine, many new aniline dyes appeared, factories producing them were constructed across Europe. This discovery was the subject of a question on the 2012 season of the BBC quiz show Eggheads; the Travel Channel featured the Perkin discovery on the 24 January 2013 show of Mysteries at the Museum. William Perkin continued active research in organic chemistry for the rest of his life: he discovered and marketed other synthetic dyes, including Britannia Violet and Perkin's Green. Local lore has it that the colour of the nearby Grand Union Canal changed from week to week depending on the activity at Perkin's Greenford dyeworks. In 1869, Perkin found a me

Saamana

Saamana is a Marathi-language newspaper published in Maharashtra, India. The paper was launched on 23 January 1988 by Bal Thackeray, the founder of the Shiv Sena, a far-right political party in Maharashtra. A Hindi version of the paper, Dopahar Ka Saamana popularly known as Hindi Saamana, was launched on 23 February 1993. Firstpost attributes the founding of Saamana to Thackeray's dissatisfaction about the amount of press he and his party received in other news outlets, it has been described it as a mouthpiece of the Shiv Sena, providing a link to Thackeray that did not exist previously. Firstpost reports that while other newspapers allowed bias to creep into their news coverage, Saamana provided unbiased news coverage of government policy and civic matters, it was only news about the Shiv Sena, biased. According to the Hindustan Times, Saamana played a "significant role during the 1992-93 riots", Thackeray was "not beyond publishing lies and exaggerating the extent of the violence indulged in by the opposing groups and inciting Shiv Sainiks to do their worst."Bal Thackeray edited both newspapers until his death on 17 November 2012.

To honour him, Thackeray's son Uddhav Thackeray named him as the "founder-editor". Till 27th November 2019 the chief editor of both newspapers was Uddhav Thackeray, but as he was elected as Chief Minister designate he resigned for his position. Now the executive editor of marathi newspaper is Sanjay Raut and the resident editor of the Hindi newspaper is Anil Tiwari. List of Marathi-language newspapers List of newspapers in India Saamana e-Paper At the launch of Saamana

Drenaje profundo

Drenaje Profundo is a primetime television series produced by TV Azteca. It stars Rodrigo Murray, Juan Pablo Medina and Elizabeth Cervantes; the series began in October 2010. After an accident in the Mexico City subway system, the detective Ulises Elizalde is sent to investigate. Ulises follows after a man who punches him on the subway tracks and he accidentally falls into the sewers. Underground he is rescued by Yamel a young woman who's hiding an enormous secret. It's revealed that Yamel, the other people living in the sewer drain have been injected with an eternal youth serum, developed by a scientist named Igor, under the orders of Milosz, an evil scientist from the late sixties. That's the reason why Yamel, who in actuality is 65 years old, has the appearance of a 25-year-old woman. Guatemala Azteca Guatemala USA Azteca America Malaysia Astro Bella

Melaleuca sculponeata

Melaleuca sculponeata is a plant in the myrtle family, is endemic to the south-west of Western Australia. It is white heads of flowers. Melaleuca sculponeata is a shrub growing to about 0.5 m tall with branches and leaves that are glabrous when mature. Its leaves are arranged in alternating pairs, each pair at right angles to the ones above and below so that the leaves form four rows along the stems; each leaf is 1.3–3.2 mm long and 0.8–1.2 mm wide, narrow oblong in shape and fleshy with the lower part of the leaf touching the stem. The leaf is concave on the upper surface, convex on the lower surface where 6 to 8 oil glands are visible but not prominent; the flowers arranged in heads on the sides of the branches. Each head contains 4 to 12 individual flowers; the stamens are arranged in five bundles around the flowers and there are 8 to 12 stamens per bundle. The main flowering period is in October and is followed by fruit which are woody capsules 2–2.5 mm long, 3–4 mm in diameter forming clusters on the old wood.

Melaleuca sculponeata was first formally described in 1992 by Bryan Barlow in Nuytsia as a new species. The specific epithet is from the Latin sculponea meaning "wooden shoe" referring to the leaves, when removed from the stem, appearing like clogs. Melaleuca sculponeata occurs in two small, isolated populations in the Fitzgerald River and the Lake King districts in the Esperance Plains and Mallee biogeographic regions; the plants grow in sand on sandplains. Melaleuca sculpeonata is listed as "Priority Three" by the Government of Western Australia Department of Parks and Wildlife meaning that it is known from only a few locations and is not in imminent danger

Helen McShane

Helen McShane is a British infectious disease physician and a professor of vaccinology, in the Jenner Institute at the University of Oxford, where she has led their tuberculosis vaccine research group since 2001. Helen McShane first studied at the University of London, where she obtained an intercalated BSc degree in psychology in 1988 and a degree in medicine in 1991, she began a PhD at the University of Oxford in 1997 before receiving a Wellcome Trust Science Fellowship and starting her own tuberculosis vaccine research group there. After receiving her degree in medicine from the University of London, her first hospital jobs were in Brighton. Whilst working with patients with HIV she became interested in infectious diseases, which prompted her to move to Oxford and become a registrar for infectious diseases, she became a clinical consultant in 2003. She is genito-urinary medicine at the Oxford University Hospitals. Since 2002, the Tuberculosis Vaccine Initiative Advisory Committee, of which Helen McShane is the chair, has conducted clinical trials of a number of candidate vaccines developed at the Jenner Institute, including MVA85A and ChAdOx1 85A in the UK, The Gambia, South Africa and Uganda.

MVA85A is the first TB vaccine candidate in this cohort to be tested for efficacy in humans. The committee is currently investigating whether delivering a TB vaccine via the aerosol route is a more effective method of vaccination. Helen McShane has published over 100 peer-reviewed publications. In 2019, Helen McShane amongst other Oxford professors was named a National Institute of Health Research Senior Investigator, in recognition of her "outstanding contribution to clinical and applied health and social care research"

Metabolic control analysis

Metabolic control analysis is a mathematical framework for describing metabolic and genetic pathways. MCA quantifies how variables, such as fluxes and species concentrations, depend on network parameters. In particular it is able to describe how network dependent properties, called control coefficients, depend on local properties called elasticities. MCA was developed to describe the control in metabolic pathways but was subsequently extended to describe signaling and genetic networks. MCA has sometimes been referred to as Metabolic Control Theory but this terminology was rather opposed by Henrik Kacser, one of the founders. More recent work has shown that MCA can be mapped directly on to classical control theory and are as such equivalent. Biochemical systems theory is a similar formalism, though with a rather different objectives. Both are evolutions of an earlier theoretical analysis by Joseph Higgins. A control coefficient measures the relative steady state change in a system variable, e.g. pathway flux or metabolite concentration, in response to a relative change in a parameter, e.g. enzyme activity or the steady-state rate of step i.

The two main control coefficients are the concentration control coefficients. Flux control coefficients are defined by: C v i J = / = d ln ⁡ J d ln ⁡ v i and concentration control coefficients by: C v i S = / = d ln ⁡ S d ln ⁡ v i The flux control summation theorem was discovered independently by the Kacser/Burns group and the Heinrich/Rapoport group in the early 1970s and late 1960s; the flux control summation theorem implies that metabolic fluxes are systemic properties and that their control is shared by all reactions in the system. When a single reaction changes its control of the flux this is compensated by changes in the control of the same flux by all other reactions. ∑ i C v i J = 1 ∑ i C v i S = 0 The elasticity coefficient measures the local response of an enzyme or other chemical reaction to changes in its environment. Such changes include factors such as products or effector concentrations. For further information please refer to the dedicated page at Elasticity Coefficients; the connectivity theorems are specific relationships between elasticities and control coefficients.

They are useful because they highlight the close relationship between the kinetic properties of individual reactions and the system properties of a pathway. Two basic sets of theorems exists, another for concentrations; the concentration connectivity theorems are divided again depending on whether the system species S n is different from the local species S m. ∑ i C i J ε S i = 0 ∑ i C i S n ε S m i = 0 n ≠ m ∑ i C i S n ε S m i = − 1 n = m It is possible to combine the summation with the connectivity theorems to obtain closed expressions that relate the control coefficients to the elasticity coefficients. For example, consider the simplest non-trivial pathway: X o → S → X 1 We assume that X o and X 1 are fixed boundary species so that the pathway can reach a steady state. Let the first step have a rate v 1 an