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William Morris Davis

William Morris Davis was an American geographer, geologist and meteorologist called the "father of American geography". He was born into a prominent Quaker family in Philadelphia, son of Edward M. Davis and Maria Mott Davis. Davis studied geology and geography at Harvard's Lawrence Scientific School and joined the Harvard sponsored geographic exploration party to the Colorado territory, led by the inaugural Sturgis-Hooper professor of geology, Josiah Dwight Whitney. Wild stories had circulated since soon after the Louisiana Purchase about Rocky Mountains peaks 18,000 feet or higher; the Harvard expedition set out to investigate, found none, but they did find "14ers". He graduated from Harvard University in 1869 and received a Master of Mining Engineering in the following year. Davis worked for Nathaniel Shaler as a field assistant, was hired to teach at Harvard. Though his legacy lives on in geomorphology, he advanced theories of scientific racism in his writings about physical geography. After his first wife died, Davis married Mary M. Wyman from Cambridge, Massachusetts in 1914, after her death, he married Lucy L. Tennant from Milton, Massachusetts in 1928, who survived him.

He died in Pasadena, shortly before his 84th birthday. His Cambridge home is a National Historic Landmark. Davis worked in Córdoba, Argentina as a meteorologist for three years and after working as an assistant to Nathaniel Shaler, he became an instructor in geology at Harvard, in 1879; the same year he married Ellen B. Warner from Springfield, Massachusetts. While Davis never completed his PhD, he was appointed to his first full professorship in 1890 and remained in academia and teaching throughout his life. Davis was a tenacious, as well as keen observer of nature, a master of logical deduction, a brilliant synthesizer of disparate observations and ideas. From his own field observations and studies made by the original nineteenth-century surveyors of the western United States, he devised his most influential scientific contribution:the "geographical cycle", his theory first defined in his 1889 article, The Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania, a model of how rivers erode uplifted land to base level, was inspired by the work of Erasmus and Charles Darwin and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, it had a strong evolutionary flavor.

His cycle of erosion suggests that rivers have three main stages of development divided into youthful and old-age stages. Each stage has distinct landforms and other properties associated with them, which can occur along the length of a river's upper and lower course. Though the cycle of erosion was a crucial early contribution to the development of geomorphology, many of Davis' theories regarding landscape evolution, sometimes termed'Davisian geomorphology', were criticized by geomorphologists; when Davis retired from Harvard in 1911, the study of landscape evolution was nearly monopolized by his theories. It was characteristic of Davis to react violently and disdainfully to criticism to the German criticism in the 1920s headed by Walther Penck. Since that time, with a less dogmatic approach and greater knowledge, some authors note that Penck's and Davis' ideas have become more compatible and complementary since the advent of modern tectonic theory, they claim that Davis' ideas are more applicable near active margins where tectonics are "cataclysmic", Penck's ideas fit better in models of passive margins and continental platforms.

He was a founder of the Association of American Geographers in 1904, involved with the National Geographic Society in its early years, writing a number of articles for the magazine. Davis retired from Harvard in 1911, he served as president of the Geological Society of America in 1911. He was awarded the Patron's Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1919, his textbook, Elemental Physical Geography, includes a chapter entitled "Geographical Aid in Human Progress", in which Davis details how the physical geography of landscapes influences "the progress of man from the savage toward the civilized state". Davis concludes that "the leading nations of race are the most advanced peoples in the world" and "few nations among races have made important advances towards civilization." This textbook chapter exemplifies how Davis promulgated theories of scientific racism, was influenced by mentor and colleague Nathaniel Shaler, who published similar views on the subject. Davis borrowed from Darwinian biological concepts and applied these to physical landscapes and climates in a type of Social Darwinistic thought termed "environmental determinism".

His work influenced geographer and writer Elsworth Huntington, a student of Davis at Harvard, who attempted to explain differences in human culture by climate and geography, for example comparing communities of British descent in Canada and the Bahamas and suggesting that Anglo Bahamians are slower because of climate and proximity to black people. The valley of Davisdalen in Nathorst Land at Spitsbergen, Svalbard is named after him. Books:Geographical Essays. Articles: "Geographic methods in geologic investigations", National Geographic Magazine 1: pp. 11–26 "The Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania", National Geographic Magazine 1: pp. 183–253 "The geographical cycle", Geographical Journal, vol. 14, pp. 481–504. Accessible from JSTOR "The Physical Geography of the Lands", Popular Science Monthly 2: pp. 157–170 Stages in the fluvial cycle of er

Kathy High

Kathryn High is an American interdisciplinary artist and scholar known for her work in BioArt, video art and performance art. Kathy High graduated with a BA from Colgate University in 1976 and an MAH from the Center for Media Studies at University at Buffalo in 1981 where she studied with media pioneers Tony Conrad, Hollis Frampton, Steina Vasulka. In the 1980s, High initiated the video exhibition program at Hallwalls Contemporary Art Center in Buffalo, NY and was a founding member of The Standby Program in New York City. In 1991, she founded FELIX: A Journal of Media Arts and Communication produced in conjunction with The Standby Program, she is co-editor of The Emergence of Video Processing Tools: Television Becoming Unglued, with Sherry Miller Hocking and Mona Jimenez. She has been a professor of video and new media at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York since 2002. Since the early 1980s, High has been creating and exhibiting art in the form of videos, photographs and installations.

High's work intersects art and science and addresses topics including gender and technology and animal sentience. Her work has appeared in the Guggenheim Museum, Catalyst Arts, MASS MoCA, the Museum of Modern Art among others and she has received grants from the National Endowment for the Arts, Rockefeller Foundation, New York State Council on the Arts. High's video works are distributed through Video Data Bank and her films I Need Your Full Cooperation/Underexposed and Underexposed are distributed by Women Make Movies. Animal Attraction - a video documentary about telepathic communication with animals. Animal Attraction was first exhibited at the Guggenheim Museum in New York City, was additionally featured on PBS and WNET in New York City. Death Down Under - a video documentary, co-directed by Cynthia White, focuses on care for the dead, green burials, the ecology of death. Blood Wars - an interdisciplinary art and science project. Blood Wars, is an ongoing experiment that pits human white blood cell samples against one another in a series of tournament-style battles.

The project was funded by a 2010 fellowship from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation with additional support from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Embracing Animal - a performance involving live rats, commissioned for the exhibition Becoming Animal at MASS MoCA. For this project, High purchased two rats for use in a series of biological experiments involving the artist's DNA and homeopathic medicine. Official Website Video Data Bank distributor for several of High's video works Women Make Movies distributor for several of High's films FELIX: A Journal of Media Arts and Communication media arts journal founded and edited by High

Stick Sports

Stick Sports is a mobile games developer and an Adobe Flash sports gaming website. Their first game, Stick Cricket, was developed by Cann Creative, a company from Sydney, Australia. Cann Creative partnered with Advergamer, a company from London, England to further develop Stick Cricket into an internet phenomenon; the principles of these two companies formed Stick Sports in July 2006 to expand their stable of free online sports games. Stick Sports games run from any web browser which has the Adobe Flash player plug-in and Internet access. Stick Cricket Stick Tennis Stick Cricket Premier League Stick Soccer Stick Cricket 2 Stick Tennis Tour Stick Soccer 2 Stick Cricket Super League Stick Cricket LIVE Stick Sports have released the following games: Stick Cricket Stick Tennis Stick Football Stick Baseball Stick Racing Stick Aussie Rules Stick Cricket is a game where the player tries to score as many runs as possible in two, ten or twenty overs; the most notable game mode is "World Domination" in which the player has to defeat 18 of the world best cricket teams namely Bermuda, Kenya, Scotland, UAE, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, West Indies, New Zealand, Sri Lanka, South Africa, Australia.

"Academy" allows the player to practice batting against different bowlers with different bowling styles. "World T2" allows the player to win the world cup as their own country, each game in this tournament lasts 2 overs. "Stick Cricket Multiplayer" allows the player to play online against people from all over the world, another feature allows for the first time during the game history to bowl. Many thousands of people from around the world have played and play Stick Cricket and it remains the most popular of the Stick Sports. Stick Sports established two versions to correspond with the 2010-11 Ashes series - "Ashes Fan Challenge" - where a player plays as your favourite country from Australia and England, if you win, a point goes to the country you were playing as, but if you don't, the opposition gets one point which will be added to their total; the country with the most points wins the match. This takes out over the Ashes series, T20 games and ODI matches - and "Ashes Dominator" - where you are able to choose a country to try to achieve challenges that take out from as far back as 1974 to the final test in Sydney of the Ashes.

Stick Baseball has several game modes. "Training" replicates Spring Training. The player can have batting practice as well as play out a scenario in which the player is a slugger trying to get on a team. "All Star Slug" is like "All Star Slog" in Stick Cricket. The player can use teams from the 2006 World Baseball Classic, it is a harder match and scores will be saved in the high scores section. 1, 3, 6 or 9 innings matches can be played against the All Stars. "Home Run Derby" is a home run hitting game. The player controls a Major League Baseball club in an effort to win the Stick Sports World Club Championship each week, it has a high score chart listing in the Hall of Fame for the Biggest Hitters. A registered player has a record of their most home runs and longest streak in the My Stats section of site. In "World Domination" mode, the player must beat all 30 of the teams in Major League Baseball; the teams are ordered by the 2006 draft order. After each stage the player receives a password to continue at a time.

Stick Aussie Rules was released in August 2012, to coincide with the 2012 AFL finals series The aim for the player is to score as many goals in the match from different distances starting at the 18 metre line working up to 30 metres etc. The record thus far is 122 points

Abadi Bano Begum

Abadi Bano Begum was a prominent voice in the Indian independence movement. She was known as Bi Amman. Begum was one of the first Muslim women to take part in politics and was part of the movement to free India from the British Raj. Born in 1850 in Uttar Pradesh, she married a senior official in the Rampur State; the couple had five sons. After her husband's death at a young age, the responsibility to look after her children fell on her. Though she had limited resources, Bano Begum pawned her personal jewelry to educate her children. Bano Begum did not have any formal education but still sent her children to an English-medium school in the town of Bareilly, Uttar Pradesh, her sons, Maulana Mohammad Ali Jouhar and Maulana Shaukat Ali went on to become leading figures of the Khilafat Movement and the Indian independence movement. They played an important role during the non-cooperation movement against the British Raj. Bano Begum was part of the Khilafat committee. In 1917, she joined the agitation to release her two sons from prison.

Mahatma Gandhi encouraged her to speak, as she could get the support of women in the freedom movement. In 1917, during the sessions of the All India Muslim League, she gave a most touching and forceful speech which left a lasting impression on the Muslims of British India, she traveled extensively throughout India to galvanize support for the Khilafat movement. Bano Begum played an important part in fundraising for the Khilafat movement and the Indian independence movement. She, along with Begum Hasrat Mohani, the wife of Maulana Hasrat Mohani, Basanti Devi, Sarala Devi Chaudhurani, Sarojini Naidu addressed women-only gatherings and exhorted women to donate to the Tilak Swaraj Fund, set up by Bal Gangadhar Tilak for the Indian freedom movement, she was active in the freedom movement until her death in 1924. Abadi Bano Begum died on 13 November 1924 at age 73. On 14 August 1990, Pakistan Post Office issued a commemorative postage stamp in her honor in its'Pioneers of Freedom' series

We Can Work It Out

"We Can Work It Out" is a song by the English rock band the Beatles, written by Paul McCartney and John Lennon. It was first issued as a double A-side single with "Day Tripper" in December 1965; the release marked the first time in Britain that both tracks on an artist's single were promoted as joint A-sides. The song was recorded during the sessions for the band's Rubber Soul album; the single was number 1 in Britain, Australia and Ireland. "We Can Work It Out" is a comparatively rare example of a Lennon–McCartney collaboration from this period in the Beatles' career, in that it recalls the level of collaboration the two songwriters had shared when writing the group's hit singles of 1963. This song, "A Day in the Life", "Baby, You're a Rich Man" and "I've Got a Feeling", are among the notable exceptions. McCartney wrote the words and music to the verses and the chorus, with lyrics that "might have been personal" a reference to his relationship with Jane Asher. McCartney took the song to Lennon: I took it to John to finish it off, we wrote the middle together.

Which is nice:'Life is short. There's no time for fussing and fighting, my friend.' It was George Harrison's idea to put the middle into 3/4 time, like a German waltz. That came on the session, it was one of the cases of the arrangement being done on the session. With its intimations of mortality, Lennon's contribution to the twelve-bar bridge contrasts with what Lennon saw as McCartney's cajoling optimism, a contrast seen in other collaborations by the pair, such as "Getting Better" and "I've Got a Feeling"; as Lennon told Playboy in 1980: In We Can Work It Out, Paul did the first half, I did the middle eight. But you've got Paul writing,'We can work it out / We can work it out' – real optimistic, y'know, me, impatient:'Life is short, there's no time / For fussing and fighting, my friend.' In author Ian MacDonald's view, some critics have overemphasised the extent of McCartney's optimism in the song and neglect the toughness in passages written by McCartney, such as "Do I have to keep on talking until I can't go on?"

Lennon's middle shifts focus from McCartney's concrete reality to a philosophical perspective in B minor, illustrating this with the waltz-like passage suggested by Harrison that leads back to the verse meant to suggest tiresome struggle. Rather than a formal change to 3/4 time, the waltz effect is created through suspensions and triplets within the regular 4/4 rhythm. MacDonald comments on the song: passages are so suited to his Salvation Army harmonium that it's hard to imagine them not being composed on it; the swell-pedal crescendos he adds to the verses are, on the other hand, textural washes added in the studio – the first of their kind on a Beatles record and signposts to the enriched sound-palette of Revolver. The Beatles recorded "We Can Work It Out" at EMI Studios in London on 20 October 1965, during the sessions for their Rubber Soul album. Along with Lennon's "Day Tripper", the song was earmarked for the non-album single that would accompany the release of the new LP; the band taped.

With nearly eleven hours dedicated to the song, however, it was by far their longest expenditure of studio time up to that point. A vocal overdubbing session took place on 29 October. No record exists of the band members' exact contributions to the recording, leading to uncertainty regarding the playing of some of the instruments. Reduced to a single track in the final mix, where it was placed hard left in the stereo image, the group's initial performance consisted of acoustic guitar, bass and drums. While musicologist Walter Everett credits these parts to Lennon, McCartney and Ringo Starr authors Jean-Michel Guesdon and Philippe Margotin suggest that McCartney, as the song's main composer, was the acoustic guitarist and Lennon instead played bass. Two harmonium parts were overdubbed. For the first time for one of their singles, the Beatles filmed promotional clips for "We Can Work It Out" and "Day Tripper". Subsequently, known as the "Intertel Promos", these clips were intended as a way to save the band having to appear in person on popular British television shows such as Ready Steady Go! and Top of the Pops, ensured that the Beatles reached their large international audience.

Filming took place at Twickenham Film Studios in south-west London on 23 November 1965, with Joe McGrath as director. The Beatles made a total of ten black-and-white promos that day, filming clips for the new songs as well as for their previous hit singles "I Feel Fine", "Ticket to Ride" and "Help!" Three of the films were mimed performances of "We Can Work It Out", in all of which Lennon was seated at a harmonium. The most broadcast of the three was a straightforward performance piece with the group wearing black suits. In the description of Rolling Stone journalist Rob Sheffield: "At first, they're playing it all straight in their suits, until John sets out to make Paul crack up on camera, he makes it impossible for anyone else to keep a straight face – by the end, he's playing the organ with his feet." Another clip shows the group wearing the stage suits from their Shea Stadium performance on 15 August. The third clip opens with a still photograph of Lennon with a sunflower in front of his eye.

One of the November 1965 promo films was included in the Beatles' 2015 video compilation 1, the third promo clip was included in the three-disc versions of the compilation, titled 1+. In a discussion about which of the two songs should be the A-side of the new single, Lennon had argued for "Day Tripper", differing with the majority v

Ballistocardiography

The ballistocardiograph is a measure of ballistic forces generated by the heart. The downward movement of blood through the descending aorta produces an upward recoil, moving the body upward with each heartbeat; as different parts of the aorta expand and contract, the body continues to move downward and upward in a repeating pattern. Ballistocardiography is a technique for producing a graphical representation of repetitive motions of the human body arising from the sudden ejection of blood into the great vessels with each heart beat, it is a vital sign in the 1–20 Hz frequency range, caused by the mechanical movement of the heart and can be recorded by noninvasive methods from the surface of the body. It was shown for the first time, after an extensive research work by Dr. Isaac Starr, that the effect of main heart malfunctions can be identified by observing and analyzing the BCG signal. Recent work validates BCG could be monitored using camera in a non-contact manner. One example of the use of a BCG is a ballistocardiographic scale, which measures the recoil of the persons body, on the scale.

A BCG scale is able to show a persons heart rate as well as their weight. The term ballistocardiograph originated from the Roman ballista, derived from the Greek word ballein, a machine for launching missiles, plus the Greek words for heart and writing. Advanced cardiac life support Cardiac arrest Cardiac cycle EKG tech Cardiac monitoring Heart rate monitor Holter monitor SCP-ECG Half a century of contributing to medical care and society James S. Walker, 2002, Prentice Hall, p. 243–244 Measuring the Heart's Kick Simultaneous Monitoring of Ballistocardiogram and Photoplethysmogram Using a Camera Dangdang Shao, "IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering", Volume: 64, Issue: 5, May 2017, p. 1003–1010 David M. Harrison. "The Ballistocardiogram". Archived from the original on 8 February 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-22. Eblen-Zajjur, Antonio. "A Simple Ballistocardiographic System For A Medical Cardiovascular Physiology Course". Advances in Physiology Education. 27: 224–229. Doi:10.1152/advan.00025.2002.

PMID 14627620