Ahmet Ertegun (, Turkish spelling: Ahmet Ertegün was a Turkish-American businessman and philanthropist. Ertegun was best known as the co-founder and president of Atlantic Records and for discovering and championing many leading rhythm and blues and rock musicians, he wrote classic blues and pop songs. In addition he served as the chairman of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and museum, located in Cleveland, Ohio. Ertegun has been described as "one of the most significant figures in the modern recording industry." In 2017 he was inducted into Rhythm & Blues Hall of Fame in recognition of his work in the music business. He was a significant figure in fostering ties between the U. S. and Turkey, his birthplace. He served as the chairman of the American Turkish Society for over 20 years until his death, he co-founded the New York Cosmos soccer team of the original North American Soccer League. Ahmet was born in 1923 in Turkey to an aristocratic Turkish family, his mother, Hayrünnisa, was an accomplished musician who played stringed instruments.
She bought the popular records of the day, to which his brother, Nesuhi listened. His older brother Nesuhi introduced him to jazz music, taking him at the age of nine to see the Duke Ellington and Cab Calloway orchestras in London. In 1935, Ahmet and his family moved to Washington, D. C. with his father, Munir Ertegun, appointed as the Ambassador of the Republic of Turkey to the United States. When Ahmet was 14, his mother bought him a record-cutting machine, which he used to compose and add lyrics to instrumental records. Ertegun's love for music pulled him into the heart of Washington, DC's black district where he would see such top acts as Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway, Billie Holiday and Louis Armstrong. Although he attended Landon School, an affluent all-male private school in Bethesda, Ahmet would joke "I got my real education at Howard"—Howard University being a black college. Despite his affluent upbringing, Ertegun began to see a different world from his affluent peers. Ertegun would say: "I began to discover a little bit about the situation of black people in America and experienced immediate empathy with the victims of such senseless discrimination, although Turks were never slaves, they were regarded as enemies within Europe because of their Muslim beliefs."The brothers frequented Milt Gabler's Commodore Music Shop, assembled a large collection of over 15,000 jazz and blues 78s, became acquainted with musicians such as Ellington, Lena Horne and Jelly Roll Morton.
Ahmet and Nesuhi staged concerts by Lester Young, Sidney Bechet and other jazz giants at the Jewish Community Center. In this period of racial segregation, it was the only place that would allow an ethnically mixed audience and mixed band, they traveled to New Orleans and to Harlem to listen to music and develop a keen awareness of developing musical tastes. Ertegun graduated from St. John's College in Annapolis in 1944. In November of the same year, Munir Ertegun died. In 1946 President Harry Truman ordered the battleship USS Missouri to return his body to Turkey as a demonstration of friendship between the US and Turkey; this act served as a show of support to counter the Soviet Union's potential political demands on Turkey. At the time of his father's death, Ahmet was taking graduate courses in Medieval philosophy at Georgetown University. Soon afterward, the family returned to Turkey to stay. Ahmet and Nesuhi stayed in the United States. While Nesuhi moved to Los Angeles, Ahmet stayed in Washington and decided to get into the record business as a temporary measure to help him through college.
In 1946 Ertegun became friends with Herb Abramson, a dental student and A&R man for National Records, they decided to start a new independent record label for gospel, R&B music. Financed by family dentist Dr. Vahdi Sabit, they formed Atlantic Records in September 1947 in New York City; the first recording sessions took place that November. In 1949, after 22 unsuccessful record releases, including the first recordings by Professor Longhair, Atlantic had its first major hit with Stick McGhee's "Drinkin' Wine Spo-Dee-O-Dee"; the company expanded through the 1950s, with Jerry Wexler and Ertegun's brother Nesuhi on board as partners. Hit artists that recorded on Atlantic included Ruth Brown, Big Joe Turner, The Clovers, The Drifters, The Coasters and Ray Charles. Like the Erteguns, many independent record executives were from immigrant backgrounds, including the Bihari and the Chess brothers; the Ertegun brothers brought a jazz sensibility into R&B combining blues and jazz styles from around the country.
Atlantic helped challenge the primacy of the major labels of the time by discovering and nurturing new talent. It became the premier rhythm and blues label in a few years and, with the help of innovative engineer/producer Tom Dowd, set new standards in producing high-quality recordings. Atlantic was among the first labels to record in stereo, in 1957 was the first record company to utilize an 8-track tape machine. Ertegun himself wrote a number of classic blues songs, including "Chains of Love" and "Sweet Sixteen", under the pseudonym "A. Nugetre"; the songs were given expression first by Big Joe Turner and continued in B. B. King's repertoire. "Chains of Love" was a popular hit for Pat Boone. He wrote the Ray Charles hit "Mess Around", with lyrics that drew on "Pinetop's Boogie Woogie", he was listed as "Nuggy" in the credits before changing to "A. Nugetre". Ertegun was part of the shouting choral group on Turner's "Shake and Roll", along with Wexler and songwriter
United States Army Air Corps
For the current active service branch, see United States Air Force The United States Army Air Corps was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America between 1926 and 1941. After World War I, as early aviation became an important part of modern warfare, a philosophical rift developed between more traditional ground-based army personnel and those who felt that aircraft were being underutilized and that air operations were being stifled for political reasons unrelated to their effectiveness; the USAAC was renamed from the earlier United States Army Air Service on 2 July 1926, was part of the larger United States Army. The Air Corps became the United States Army Air Forces on 20 June 1941, giving it greater autonomy from the Army's middle-level command structure. During World War II, although not an administrative echelon, the Air Corps remained as one of the combat arms of the Army until 1947, when it was abolished by legislation establishing the Department of the Air Force; the Air Corps was renamed by the United States Congress as a compromise between the advocates of a separate air arm and those of the traditionalist Army high command who viewed the aviation arm as an auxiliary branch to support the ground forces.
Although its members worked to promote the concept of air power and an autonomous air force in the years between the world wars, its primary purpose by Army policy remained support of ground forces rather than independent operations. On 1 March 1935, still struggling with the issue of a separate air arm, the Army activated the General Headquarters Air Force for centralized control of aviation combat units within the continental United States, separate from but coordinate with the Air Corps; the separation of the Air Corps from control of its combat units caused problems of unity of command that became more acute as the Air Corps enlarged in preparation for World War II. This was resolved by the creation of the Army Air Forces, making both organizations subordinate to the new higher echelon. On June 20, 1941, the Army Air Corps' existence as the primary air arm of the U. S. Army changed to that of being the training and logistics elements of the then-new United States Army Air Forces, which embraced the formerly-named General Headquarters Air Force under the new Air Force Combat Command organization for front-line combat operations.
The Air Corps ceased to have an administrative structure after 9 March 1942, but as "the permanent statutory organization of the air arm, the principal component of the Army Air Forces," the overwhelming majority of personnel assigned to the AAF were members of the Air Corps. The U. S. Army Air Service had a turbulent history. Created during World War I by executive order of 28th President Woodrow Wilson after American entrance in April 1917 as the increasing use of airplanes and the military uses of aviation were apparent as the war continued to its climax, the U. S. Army Air Service gained permanent legislative authority in 1920 as a combatant arm of the line of the United States Army. There followed a six-year struggle between adherents of airpower and the supporters of the traditional military services about the value of an independent Air Force, intensified by struggles for funds caused by skimpy budgets, as much an impetus for independence as any other factor; the Lassiter Board, a group of General Staff officers, recommended in 1923 that the Air Service be augmented by an offensive force of bombardment and pursuit units under the command of Army general headquarters in time of war, many of its recommendations became Army regulations.
The War Department desired to implement the Lassiter Board's recommendations, but the administration of President Calvin Coolidge chose instead to economize by radically cutting military budgets the Army's. The Lampert Committee of the House of Representatives in December 1925 proposed a unified air force independent of the Army and Navy, plus a department of defense to coordinate the three armed services; however another board, headed by Dwight Morrow, was appointed in September 1925 by Coolidge ostensibly to study the "best means of developing and applying aircraft in national defense" but in actuality to minimize the political impact of the pending court-martial of Billy Mitchell. It declared that no threat of air attack was to exist to the United States, rejected the idea of a department of defense and a separate department of air, recommended minor reforms that included renaming the Air Service to allow it "more prestige."In early 1926 the Military Affairs Committee of the Congress rejected all bills set forth before it on both sides of the issue.
They fashioned a compromise in which the findings of the Morrow Board were enacted as law, while providing the air arm a "five-year plan" for expansion and development. Maj. Gen. Mason Patrick, the Chief of Air Service, had proposed that it be made a semi-independent service within the War Department along the lines of the Marine Corps within the Navy Department, but this was rejected; the legislation changed the name of the Air Service to the Air Corps, "thereby strengthening the conception of military aviation as an offensive, striking arm rather than an auxiliary service." The Air Corps Act became law on 2 July 1926. In accordance with the Morrow Board's recommendations, the act created an additional Assistant Secretary of War to "help foster military aeronautics", established an air section in each division of the General Staff for a period of three years. Two additional brigadier generals would serve as assistant chiefs of the A
Nesuhi Ertegun was a Turkish-American record producer and executive of Atlantic Records and WEA International. Born in Constantinople in the Ottoman Empire and his family, including his younger brother Ahmet, moved to Washington, D. C. in 1935 with their father Munir Ertegun, appointed the Turkish Ambassador to the United States that year. From an early age, Nesuhi's primary musical interest was jazz, he had attended concerts in Europe. While living at the Turkish Embassy in Washington, D. C. he promoted jazz concerts during 1941-44. When his father died in 1944, the rest of his family returned to Turkey, Nesuhi moved to California, where he married Jazz Man Record Shop owner Marili Morden and helped run the shop as well as establishing the Crescent Records label. After purchasing Jazz Man Records, he discontinued Crescent and issued traditional jazz recordings on Jazz Man until 1952. At Jazz Man, Nesuhi produced classic Kid Ory revival recordings in 1944 and 1945, plus other recordings by Pete Daily and Turk Murphy.
Although his main interest was New Orleans jazz, which he wrote about while serving as the editor of Record Changer magazine, Ertegun was open to more modern styles. He sold the Jazz Man label in 1952 to Lester Koenig and went to work for Koenig at Good Time Jazz Records. While there, on Koenig's recommendation, he was engaged to teach the first history of jazz course for academic credit at a major US university at UCLA. In 1955, he was preparing to work for Imperial Records to develop their jazz record line and develop a catalog of LPs. However, Ahmet Ertegun and Jerry Wexler persuaded him instead to join their company, Atlantic Records, where he was made a partner, he became vice-president in charge of the jazz and LP department at Atlantic, building up the label's extensive catalog of jazz LPs. He was responsible for investing in the album market, improving the quality of recordings and sleeve formats; as a producer at Atlantic he worked with John Coltrane, Charles Mingus, Ornette Coleman, whom Lester Koenig had recorded at Contemporary, the Modern Jazz Quartet and many others.
Nesuhi became involved with the label's rhythm & blues and rock-and-roll roster, first recruiting songwriters and producers Leiber and Stoller, with whom he had worked in California, producing several hit records for Ray Charles, Chris Connor, the Drifters, Bobby Darin and Roberta Flack. In 1971, Nesuhi founded WEA International, now Warner Music Group. While at WEA International, Nesuhi demonstrated tremendous independence and character going against the wishes of his US counterparts. In the 1980s, Nesuhi released the single "Girls, Girls" by unknown Latin-American rockers Renegade, demanding a domestic release of their debut album Rock N' Roll Crazy!. The domestic label had demanded the band members change their names to "less ethnic" sounding names. Nesuhi was incensed by the demand, set out to introduce the record and the act internationally with the band's given names, he remained head of the Warner Records International Division until he retired in 1987. With Ahmet, he co-founded the New York Cosmos soccer team of the North American Soccer League.
They were instrumental in bringing in soccer legends like Giorgio Chinaglia, Pelé, Carlos Alberto and Franz Beckenbauer to the club. Ertegun died on July 15, 1989, at the age of 71, from complications of cancer surgery at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York City. Nesuhi Ertegun was inducted posthumously into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in 1991, he was posthumously awarded the Grammy Trustees Award for lifetime achievements in 1995. For his contributions to the sport of soccer, he and Ahmet were inducted into the National Soccer Hall of Fame in 2003; the Nesuhi Ertegun Jazz Hall of Fame at Jazz at Lincoln Center was dedicated to him in 2004. Nesuhi was an avid collector of Surrealist art, his collection was exhibited at the Guggenheim in New York in 1999 in "Surrealism: Two Private Eyes, the Nesuhi Ertegun and Daniel Filipacchi Collections"—an event described by The New York Times as "a gourmet banquet", large enough to "pack the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum from ceiling to lobby with a powerful exhibition".
Turkish diaspora Sources The New York Times review of the exhibit "Surrealism: Two Private Eyes, the Nesuhi Ertegun and Daniel Filipacchi Collections."
Benjamin David Goodman was an American jazz clarinetist and bandleader known as the "King of Swing". In the mid-1930s, Goodman led one of the most popular musical groups in the United States, his concert at Carnegie Hall in New York City on January 16, 1938 is described by critic Bruce Eder as "the single most important jazz or popular music concert in history: jazz's'coming out' party to the world of'respectable' music."Goodman's bands started the careers of many jazz musicians. During an era of racial segregation, he led one of the first integrated jazz groups, he performed nearly to the end of his life. Goodman was the ninth of twelve children born to poor Jewish emigrants from the Russian Empire, his father, David Goodman, came to America in 1892 from Warsaw in partitioned Poland and became a tailor. His mother, Dora Grisinsky, came from Kovno, they met in Baltimore and moved to Chicago before Goodman's birth. With little income and a large family, they moved to the Maxwell Street neighborhood, an overcrowded slum near railroad yards and factories, populated by German, Italian, Polish and Jewish immigrants.
Money was a constant problem. On Sundays, his father took the children to free band concerts in Douglas Park, the first time Goodman experienced live professional performances. To give his children some skills and an appreciation for music, his father enrolled ten-year-old Goodman and two of his brothers in music lessons at the Kehelah Jacob Synagogue. During the next year Goodman joined the boys club band at Hull House, where he received lessons from director James Sylvester. By joining the band, he was entitled to spend two weeks at a summer camp near Chicago, it was the only time. He received two years of instruction from classically trained clarinetist Franz Schoepp; when he was 17, his father was killed by a passing car after stepping off a streetcar. His father's death was "the saddest thing that happened in our family", Goodman said, he attended Lewis Institute in 1924 as a high-school sophomore and played clarinet in a dance hall band. His early influences were New Orleans jazz clarinetists who worked in Chicago, such as Jimmie Noone, Johnny Dodds, Leon Roppolo.
He learned becoming a strong player at an early age, soon playing in bands. He made his professional debut in 1921 at the Central Park Theater on the West Side of Chicago, he entered Harrison Technical High School in Chicago in 1922. At fourteen he became a member of the musicians' union and worked in a band featuring Bix Beiderbecke. Two years he joined the Ben Pollack Orchestra and made his first recordings in 1926. Goodman moved to New York City and became a session musician for radio, Broadway musicals, in studios. In addition to clarinet, he sometimes played alto baritone saxophone. In a Victor recording session on March 21, 1928, he played alongside Glenn Miller, Tommy Dorsey, Joe Venuti in the All-Star Orchestra directed by Nathaniel Shilkret, he played with the bands of Red Nichols, Ben Selvin, Ted Lewis, Isham Jones and recorded for Brunswick under the name Benny Goodman's Boys, a band that featured Glenn Miller. In 1928, Goodman and Miller wrote "Room 1411", released as a Brunswick 78.
He reached the charts for the first time when he recorded "He's Not Worth Your Tears" with a vocal by Scrappy Lambert for Melotone. After signing with Columbia in 1934, he had top ten hits with "Ain't Cha Glad?" and "I Ain't Lazy, I'm Just Dreamin'" sung by Jack Teagarden, "Ol' Pappy" sung by Mildred Bailey, "Riffin' the Scotch" sung by Billie Holiday. An invitation to play at the Billy Rose Music Hall led to his creation of an orchestra for the four-month engagement; the orchestra recorded "Moonglow", which became a number one hit and was followed by the Top Ten hits "Take My Word" and "Bugle Call Rag". NBC hired for Goodman for the radio program Let's Dance. John Hammond asked Fletcher Henderson if he wanted to write arrangements for Goodman, Henderson agreed. During the Depression, Henderson disbanded his orchestra. Goodman hired Henderson's band members to teach his musicians. Goodman's band was one of three to perform on Let's Dance, playing arrangements by Henderson along with hits such as "Get Happy" and "Limehouse Blues" by Spud Murphy.
Goodman's portion of the program was broadcast too late at night to attract a large audience on the east coast. He and his band remained on Let's Dance until May of that year when a strike by employees of the series' sponsor, forced the cancellation of the radio show. An engagement was booked at Manhattan's Roosevelt Grill filling in for Guy Lombardo, but the audience expected "sweet" music and Goodman's band was unsuccessful. Goodman spent six months performing on Let's Dance, during that time he recorded six more Top Ten hits for Columbia. On July 31, 1935, "King Porter Stomp" was released with "Sometimes I'm Happy" on the B-side, both arranged by Henderson and recorded on July 1. In Pittsburgh at the Stanley Theater some members of the audience danced in the aisles, but these arrangements had little impact on the tour until August 19 at McFadden's Ballroom in Oakland, California. Goodman and his band, which included Bunny Berrigan, drummer Gene Krupa, singer Helen Ward were met by a large crowd of young dancers who cheered the music they had heard on Let's Dance.
Herb Caen wrote, "from the first note, the place was in an uproar." One night at Pismo Beach, the show was a flop, the band thought the overwhelming reception in Oakland had been a fluke. The next night, August 21, 1935, at the Palomar Ballroom in Los A
Bennett Lester Carter was an American jazz saxophonist, trumpeter, composer and bandleader. With Johnny Hodges, he was a pioneer on the alto saxophone. From the beginning of his career in the 1920s he was a popular arranger, having written charts for Fletcher Henderson's big band that shaped the swing style, he had an unusually long career. During the 1980s and'90s, he was nominated for eight Grammy Awards, which included receiving a Lifetime Achievement Award. Born in New York City in 1907, he was given piano lessons by his mother and others in the neighborhood, he played trumpet and experimented with C-melody saxophone before settling on alto saxophone. In the 1920s, he performed with June Clark, Billy Paige, Earl Hines toured as a member of the Wilberforce Collegians led by Horace Henderson, he appeared on record for the first time in 1927 as a member of the Paradise Ten led by Charlie Johnson. He returned to the Collegians and became their bandleader through 1929, including a performance at the Savoy Ballroom in New York City.
In his early 20s, Carter worked as arranger for Fletcher Henderson after that position was vacated by Don Redman. He had no formal education in arranging, so he learned by trial and error, getting on his knees and looking at the existing charts, "writing the lead trumpet first and the lead saxophone first—which, of course, is the hard way, it was quite some time that I did that before I knew what a score was."He left Henderson to take Redman's former job as leader of McKinney's Cotton Pickers in Detroit. In 1932 he formed a band in New York City that included Chu Berry, Sid Catlett, Cozy Cole, Bill Coleman, Ben Webster, Dicky Wells, Teddy Wilson. Carter's arrangements were complex. Among the most significant were "Keep a Song in Your Soul", written for Henderson in 1930, "Lonesome Nights" and "Symphony in Riffs" from 1933, both of which show Carter's writing for saxophones. By the early 1930s, Carter and Johnny Hodges were considered the leading alto saxophonists. Carter became a leading trumpet soloist, having rediscovered the instrument.
He recorded extensively on trumpet in the 1930s. Carter's short-lived Orchestra played the Harlem Club in New York but only recorded a handful of records for Columbia, OKeh and Vocalion; the OKeh sides were issued under the name The Chocolate Dandies. In 1933 Carter participated in sessions with British band leader Spike Hughes, who went to New York City to organize recordings with prominent African American musicians; these 14 sides plus four by Carter's big band, titled at the time Spike Hughes and His Negro Orchestra, were only issued in England. The musicians were from Carter's band and included Red Allen, Dicky Wells, Wayman Carver, Coleman Hawkins, J. C. Higginbotham, Chu Berry. Carter spent two years as arranger for the BBC Big Band. In England and Scandinavia he recorded with local musicians, he took his band to the Netherlands. In these settings Carter played trumpet, piano and tenor saxophone, provided occasional vocals. In 1938 he returned to America, he found regular work leading his band at the Savoy Ballroom in Harlem through 1941.
The band included Shad Collins, Sidney De Paris, Vic Dickenson, Freddie Webster. After this engagement he led a seven-piece band which included Eddie Barefield, Kenny Clarke, Dizzy Gillespie. In the middle 1940s, he made Los Angeles his home, forming another big band, which at times included J. J. Johnson, Max Roach, Miles Davis, but these would be his last big bands. With the exception of occasional concerts, performing with Jazz at the Philharmonic, recording, he ceased working as a touring big band bandleader. Los Angeles provided him many opportunities for studio work, these dominated his time during the decades, he wrote music and arrangements for television and films, such as Stormy Weather in 1943. During the 1950s and'60s, he wrote arrangements for vocalists such as Louis Armstrong, Ray Charles, Ella Fitzgerald, Peggy Lee, Sarah Vaughan. On something of a comeback in the 1970s, Carter returned to playing saxophone again and toured the Middle East courtesy of the U. S. State Department, he began making annual visits to Japan.
In 1969, Carter was persuaded to spend a weekend at Princeton University by Morroe Berger, a sociology professor at Princeton who wrote about jazz. This led to a new outlet for Carter's talent: teaching. For the next nine years he visited Princeton five times, most of them brief stays except for one in 1973 when he spent a semester there as a visiting professor. In 1974 Princeton gave him an honorary doctorate, he conducted teaching at workshops and seminars at several other universities and was a visiting lecturer at Harvard for a week in 1987. Morroe Berger wrote Benny Carter – A Life in American Music, a two-volume work about Carter's career. Time had little effect on Carter's abilities. During the 1980s he wrote the long composition Central City Sketches, performed at Cooper Union by the American Jazz Orchestra. Another long composition, Glasgow Suite, was performed in Scotland. Lincoln Center commission him to write "Good Vibes" in 1990; the National Endowment for the Arts gave him a grant that led Tales of the Rising Sun Suite and Harlem Renaissance Suite.
This music was performed in 1992. Carter had an unusually long career, he was the only musician to have recorded in eight different decades. Another characteristic of his career was its versatility as musician, bandleader and composer, he helped define the sound of alto saxophone, but he performed and recorded on soprano saxophone, tenor saxophone, trombone and piano. He helped establish a foundation for a
Stanley Newcomb Kenton was an American popular music and jazz artist. As a pianist, composer and band leader he led an innovative and influential jazz orchestra for four decades. Though Kenton had several pop hits from the early 1940s into the 1960s, his music was always forward looking. Kenton was a pioneer in the field of jazz education, creating the Stan Kenton Jazz Camp in 1959 at Indiana University. Stan Kenton was born on December 1911, in Wichita, Kansas, his parents and Stella Kenton, had moved the family back to Colorado finally in 1924 to the Greater Los Angeles Area, settling in suburban Bell, California. Kenton attended Bell High School. Kenton started learning piano as a teen from a local organist; when he was around 15 and in high school and arranger Ralph Yaw introduced him to the music of Louis Armstong and Earl Hines. He graduated from high school in 1930. By the age of 16, Kenton was playing a regular solo piano gig at a local hamburger eatery for 50 cents a night plus tips, his first arrangement was written during this time for a local eight-piece band that played in nearby Long Beach.
In April 1936 Gus Arnheim was reorganizing his band into the style of Benny Goodman's groups and Kenton was to take the piano chair. This is where Kenton would make his first recordings when Arnheim made 14 sides for the Brunswick label in summer of 1937. Once he departed from Gus Arnheim's group, Kenton went back to study with private teachers on both the piano and in composition. In 1938 Kenton would join Vido Musso in a short-lived band but a educational experience for him. From the core of this group come the line up of the first Stan Kenton groups of the 1940s. Kenton would go on to working with the NBC House Band and in various Hollywood studios and clubs. Producer George Avakian took notice of Kenton during this time while he worked as the pianist and Assistant Musical Director at the Earl Carroll Theatre Restaurant in Hollywood. Kenton started to get the idea of running his own band from this experience. In June 1941, Kenton formed his first orchestra. Kenton worked in the early days with his own groups as much more of an arranger than a featured pianist.
Although there were no "name" musicians in his first band, Kenton spent the summer of 1941 playing before an audience at the Rendezvous Ballroom in Balboa Beach, CA. Influenced by Benny Carter and Jimmie Lunceford, the Stan Kenton Orchestra struggled for a time after its initial success, its Decca recordings were not big sellers and a stint as Bob Hope's backup radio band during the 1943–44 season was an unhappy experience. Kenton's first appearance in New York was in February 1942 at the Roseland Ballroom, with the marquee featuring an endorsement by Fred Astaire. By late 1943, with a contract with the newly formed Capitol Records, a popular record in "Eager Beaver", growing recognition, the Stan Kenton Orchestra was catching on, its soloists during the war years included Art Pepper Stan Getz, altoist Boots Mussulli, singer Anita O'Day. By 1945, the band had evolved; the songwriter Joe Greene provided the lyrics for hit songs like "And Her Tears Flowed Like Wine" and "Don't Let the Sun Catch You Cryin'".
Pete Rugolo became the chief arranger, Bob Cooper and Vido Musso offered different tenor styles, June Christy was Kenton's new singer. When composer/arranger Pete Rugolo joined the Stan Kenton Orchestra as staff arranger in late 1945 he brought with him his love of jazz and Bartók. Given free rein by Kenton, Rugolo experimented. Although Kenton himself was trying experimental scores prior to Rugolo's tenure, it was Rugolo who brought extra jazz and classical influences much needed to move the band forward artistically. During his first six months on the staff, Rugolo tried to copy Kenton's sound. By incorporating compositional techniques borrowed from the modern classical music he studied, Rugolo was a key part of one of Kenton's most fertile and creative periods. After a string of arrangements, Rugolo turned out three originals that Kenton featured on the band's first album in 1946:: "Artistry in Percussion", "Safranski" and "Artistry in Bolero". Added to this mix came "Machito", "Rhythm Incorporated", "Monotony" and "Interlude" in early 1947.
These compositions, along with June Christy's voice, came to define the Artistry in Rhythm band. Afro-Cuban writing was added to the Kenton book with compositions like Rugolo's "Machito." The Artistry in Rhythm ensemble was a formative band, with outstanding soloists. By early 1947, the Stan Kenton Orchestra had reached a high point of popular success, they played in the best ballrooms in America and numerous hit records. Dances at the many ballrooms were four hours a night and theater dates involved playing mini concerts between each showing of the movie; this was sometimes six a day, stretching from morning to late night. Most d
McGraw-Hill Education is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content and services for pre-K through postgraduate education. The company provides reference and trade publications for the medical and engineering professions. McGraw-Hill Education operates in 28 countries, has more than 5,000 employees globally, offers products and services to over 135 countries in 60+ languages. A division of The McGraw-Hill Companies, now S&P Global, McGraw-Hill Education was divested from McGraw Hill Financial and acquired by Apollo Global Management in March 2013 for $2.4 billion in cash. Based on the growing demand for classroom technology, McGraw-Hill Education has transitioned from a print-based business model to one based on delivering digital content and technology-enabled learning solutions; this shift has accelerated in recent years with an increased focus on developing adaptive learning systems that enable classroom teaching to come closer to a one-to-one student-teacher interaction.
These systems allow personalized learning by assessing each student's skill level and using data to determine how each can progress through lessons most effectively. McGraw-Hill Education provides digital services to over 11 million users. In 2013, the company acquired the ALEKS Corporation and after acquiring 20 percent equity stake in Area9 ApS went on to acquire the company, its development partner on the LearnSmart Advantage suite. In 2015 MHE opened a new R&D office in Boston's innovation district. In September 2016 the company acquired adaptive learning technology and content provider Redbird Learning; the company offers over 1,500 adaptive products in higher education and digital formats for its major K-12 programs. McGraw-Hill Education traces its history back to 1888 when James H. McGraw, co-founder of the company, purchased the American Journal of Railway Appliances, he continued to add further publications establishing The McGraw Publishing Company in 1899. His co-founder, John A. Hill, had produced several technical and trade publications and in 1902 formed his own business, The Hill Publishing Company.
In 1909 the two men agreed upon an alliance and combined the book departments of their publishing companies into The McGraw-Hill Book Company. John Hill served with James McGraw as Vice-President. 1917 saw the merger of the remaining parts of each business into The McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, Inc. In 1946, McGraw-Hill founded an educational film division, it acquired Contemporary Films in 1972 and CRM in 1975. McGraw-Hill combined its films in the CRM division in 1978. McGraw-Hill sold CRM in 1987. In 1979 McGraw-Hill Publishing Company purchased Byte from its owner/publisher Virginia Williamson who became a vice-president of McGraw-Hill. In 1986, McGraw-Hill bought out competitor The Economy Company the nation's largest publisher of educational material; the buyout made McGraw-Hill the largest educational publisher in the U. S. In 1988, McGraw Hill closed its trade book division. McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, Inc became The McGraw-Hill Companies in 1995, as part of a corporate identity rebranding.
In 2004, The McGraw-Hill Companies sold its children's publishing unit to School Specialty. In 2007, The McGraw-Hill Companies launched GradeGuru.com. This offering gave McGraw-Hill an opportunity to connect directly with the students; the site closed on April 29, 2012. On October 3, 2011, Scripps announced it was purchasing all seven television stations owned by The McGraw-Hill Companies' broadcasting division McGraw-Hill Broadcasting for $212 million; this deal was approved by the FTC on October 31 and the FCC on November 29. The deal was completed on December 30, 2011. On November 26, 2012, The McGraw-Hill Companies announced it was selling its entire education division to Apollo Global Management for $2.5 billion. On March 22, 2013, it announced it had completed the sale and the proceeds were for $2.4 billion in cash. In 2014, McGraw Hill Education India partnered with GreyCampus to promote Online Learning Courses among University Grants Commission- National eligibility Test Aspirants. McGraw Hill Education India is located in Noida area of Delhi/NCR.
The company sells books online at www.mheducation.co.in On June 30, 2015, McGraw-Hill Education announced that Data Recognition Corporation had agreed to acquire "key assets" of the CTB/McGraw-Hill assessment business. On May 11, 2017, McGraw-Hill Education announced the sale of the business holdings of McGraw-Hill Ryerson to Canadian educational publisher, Nelson. Operating segments of McGraw-Hill Education include: McGraw-Hill Education K–12, which develops curriculum solutions and content for early childhood education, K-12 learners, adult education. McGraw-Hill Education Higher Ed, which focuses on post-secondary education. McGraw-Hill Education Professional, focused on post-graduate and professional learners. McGraw-Hill Education International, which focuses on learners and professionals outside of the United States. Other major subsidiaries and investments: ALEKS Area9 Aps Engrade Key CurriculumMcGraw-Hill Education is established in Asia, Canada Europe and Latin America. In 2013, McGraw-Hill Education acquired the entirety of shares in Tata McGraw-Hill Education Private Limited, the company's long-existing joint venture with Tata Group in India.
The company is now known as McGraw Hill Education in India as well. During the course of its history