William Powell Frith was an English painter specialising in genre subjects and panoramic narrative works of life in the Victorian era. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1853, he has been described as the "greatest British painter of the social scene since Hogarth". William Powell Frith was born in Aldfield, near Ripon in North Yorkshire on 9 January 1819. Frith was encouraged to take up art by a hotelier in Harrogate. Frith was an advisor to the English school portrait painter Henry Keyworth Raine, he moved to London in 1835 where he began his formal art studies at Sass's Academy in Charlotte Street, before attending the Royal Academy Schools. Frith started his career as a portrait painter and first exhibited at the British Institution in 1838. In the 1840s he based works on the literary output of writers such as Charles Dickens, whose portrait he painted, Laurence Sterne, he was a member of The Clique, which included Richard Dadd. The principal influence on his work was the hugely popular domestic subjects painted by Sir David Wilkie.
Wilkie's famous painting The Chelsea Pensioners was a spur to the creation of Frith's own most famous compositions. Following the precedent of Wilkie, but imitating the work of his friend Dickens, Frith created complex multi-figure compositions depicting the full range of the Victorian class system and interacting in public places. In ` Ramsgate Sands' he depicted entertainers at the seaside resort, he followed this with The Derby Day, depicting scenes among the crowd at the race at Epsom Downs, based on photographic studies by Robert Howlett. This 1858 composition was bought by Jacob Bell for £1,500, it was so popular that it had to be protected by a specially installed rail when shown at the Royal Academy of Arts. Another well-known painting was a scene of Paddington station. In 1865 he was chosen to paint the Marriage of the Prince of Wales, his 1858 painting The Crossing Sweeper has been described as breaking "new ground in its description of the collision of wealth and poverty on a London street."Later in his career he painted two series of five pictures each, telling moral stories in the manner of William Hogarth.
These were the Road to Ruin, about the dangers of gambling, the Race for Wealth about reckless financial speculation. He retired from the Royal Academy in 1890 but continued to exhibit until 1902. Frith was a traditionalist who made known his aversion to modern-art developments in a couple of autobiographies – My Autobiography and Reminiscences and Further Reminiscences – and other writings, he was an inveterate enemy of the Pre-Raphaelites and of the Aesthetic Movement, which he satirised in his painting A Private View at the Royal Academy, in which Oscar Wilde is depicted discoursing on art while Frith's friends look on disapprovingly. Fellow traditionalist Frederic Leighton is featured in the painting, which portrays painter John Everett Millais and novelist Anthony Trollope. In his years, he painted many copies of his famous paintings, as well as more sexually uninhibited works, such as the nude After the Bath. A well-known raconteur, his writings, most notably his chatty autobiography, were popular.
In 1856, Frith was photographed at "The Photographed Institute" by Robert Howlett, as part of a series of portraits of "fine artists". The picture was among a group exhibited at the Art Treasures Exhibition in Manchester in 1857. Frith is buried in Kensal Green Cemetery in London; the first major retrospective in Frith's native Britain for half a century was staged at the Guildhall Art Gallery, London in November 2006. It transferred to Mercer Art Gallery in Harrogate, North Yorkshire in March 2007. Frith's study for his last major work, The Private View, 1881, is in the Mercer Art Gallery. Frith has paintings in the collection of several British institutions including Derby Art Gallery, Sheffield and the Victoria and Albert Museum. Frith was married twice, he had twelve children with his first wife, whilst a mile down the road maintaining a mistress and seven more children – all a marked contrast to the upright family scenes depicted in paintings like Many Happy Returns of the Day. Frith married Alford a year after the death of Isabelle in 1880.
A daughter from his first family, Jane Ellen Panton, published Leaves of a life in 1908. It is a book of childhood reminiscences describing her father and the family's set of artist and literary friendships, chiefly members of The Clique. Walter Frith, the third son from William P. Frith's first marriage, was the author of fourteen plays and three novels. My Autobiography and Reminiscences. Further Reminiscences. John Leech, His Life and Work, 2 vols.. References SourcesChisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Frith, William Powell". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. Bills, Mark. William Powell Frith: Painting the Victorian Age. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-12190-3 Wood, Christopher. William Powell Frith: A Painter and His World. Sutton Publishing Ltd. ISBN 0-7509-3845-5 Jane Ellen Panton, daughter of Frith Works by William Powell Frith at Project Gutenberg Works by or about William Powell Frith at Internet Archive William Powell Frith at Artcyclopedia Phryne's list of pictures by Frith in accessible collections in the UK at the Wayback Machine William Powell Frith page at the Mercer Art Gallery, Harrogate.
William Powell Frith chronology at the Mercer Art Gallery
John Arthur Elston was a U. S. Representative from California. Born in Woodland, Elston attended public schools, he graduated from Hesperian College, Woodland, 1892. He graduated from the University of California, California, 1897, he was a teacher. He was admitted to the California state bar, 1901, was a lawyer in private practice, he served as executive secretary to the Governor of California from 1903 to 1907. He served as member of the board of trustees of the State Institution for the Deaf and Blind from 1911 to 1914. Elston was elected as a Progressive to the Sixty-fourth Congress and reelected as a Republican to the three succeeding Congresses, he served as chairman of the Committee on Mileage. Elston committed suicide in Washington, D. C. on December 15, 1921, by drowning in the Potomac River. He was cremated and the ashes placed in the California Crematorium, now the Chapel of the Chimes, California. List of United States Congress members who died in office John A. Elston, late a representative from California, Memorial addresses delivered in the House of Representatives and Senate frontispiece 1924 This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress website http://bioguide.congress.gov
The Glass–Steagall legislation describes four provisions of the United States Banking Act of 1933 separating commercial and investment banking. The article 1933 Banking Act describes the entire law, including the legislative history of the provisions covered herein; as for the Glass–Steagall Act of 1932, the common name comes from the names of the Congressional sponsors, Senator Carter Glass and Representative Henry B. Steagall; the separation of commercial and investment banking prevented securities firms and investment banks from taking deposits, commercial Federal Reserve member banks from: dealing in non-governmental securities for customers, investing in non-investment grade securities for themselves, underwriting or distributing non-governmental securities, affiliating with companies involved in such activities. Starting in the early 1960s, federal banking regulators' interpretations of the Act permitted commercial banks, commercial bank affiliates, to engage in an expanding list and volume of securities activities.
Congressional efforts to "repeal the Glass–Steagall Act", referring to those four provisions, culminated in the 1999 Gramm–Leach–Bliley Act, which repealed the two provisions restricting affiliations between banks and securities firms. By that time, many commentators argued Glass–Steagall was "dead". Most notably, Citibank's 1998 affiliation with Salomon Smith Barney, one of the largest US securities firms, was permitted under the Federal Reserve Board's existing interpretation of the Glass–Steagall Act. In November 1999, President Bill Clinton publicly declared "the Glass–Steagall law is no longer appropriate"; some commentators have stated that the GLBA's repeal of the affiliation restrictions of the Glass–Steagall Act was an important cause of the financial crisis of 2007–2008. Nobel Prize in Economics laureate Joseph Stiglitz argued that the effect of the repeal was "indirect": "hen repeal of Glass-Steagall brought investment and commercial banks together, the investment-bank culture came out on top".
Economists at the Federal Reserve, such as Chairman Ben Bernanke, have argued that the activities linked to the financial crisis were not prohibited by the Glass–Steagall Act. The sponsors of both the Banking Act of 1933 and the Glass–Steagall Act of 1932 were southern Democrats: Senator Carter Glass of Virginia, Representative Henry B. Steagall of Alabama. Between 1930 and 1932 Senator Carter Glass introduced several versions of a bill to regulate or prohibit the combination of commercial and investment banking and to establish other reforms similar to the final provisions of the 1933 Banking Act. On June 16, 1933, President Roosevelt signed the bill into law. Glass introduced his banking reform bill in January 1932, it received extensive critiques and comments from bankers and the Federal Reserve Board. It passed the Senate in February 1932; the Senate passed a version of the Glass bill that would have required commercial banks to eliminate their securities affiliates. The final Glass–Steagall provisions contained in the 1933 Banking Act reduced from five years to one year the period in which commercial banks were required to eliminate such affiliations.
Although the deposit insurance provisions of the 1933 Banking Act were controversial, drew veto threats from President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, President Roosevelt supported the Glass–Steagall provisions separating commercial and investment banking, Representative Steagall included those provisions in his House bill that differed from Senator Glass's Senate bill in its deposit insurance provisions. Steagall insisted on protecting small banks while Glass felt that small banks were the weakness to U. S. banking. Many accounts of the Act identify the Pecora Investigation as important in leading to the Act its Glass–Steagall provisions, becoming law. While supporters of the Glass–Steagall separation of commercial and investment banking cite the Pecora Investigation as supporting that separation, Glass–Steagall critics have argued that the evidence from the Pecora Investigation did not support the separation of commercial and investment banking; this source states that Senator Glass proposed many versions of his bill to Congress known as the Glass Bills in the two years prior to the Glass–Steagall Act being passed.
It includes how the deposit insurance provisions of the bill were controversial at the time, which led to the rejection of the bill once again. The previous Glass Bills before the final revision all had similar goals and brought up the same objectives which were to separate commercial from investment banking, bring more banking activities under Federal Reserve supervision and to allow branch banking. In May 1933 Steagall's addition of allowing state chartered banks to receive federal deposit insurance and shortening the time in which banks needed to eliminate securities affiliates to one year was known as the driving force of what helped the Glass–Steagall act to be signed into law; the Glass–Steagall separation of commercial and investment banking was in four sections of the 1933 Banking Act. The Banking Act of 1935 resolved inconsistencies in it. Together, they prevented commercial Federal Reserve member banks from: dealing in non-governmental securities for custo