William S. Burroughs

William Seward Burroughs II was an American writer and visual artist. Burroughs was a primary figure of the Beat Generation and a major postmodernist author whose influence is considered to have affected a range of popular culture as well as literature. Burroughs wrote eighteen novels and novellas, six collections of short stories and four collections of essays. Five books have been published of his interviews and correspondences, he collaborated on projects and recordings with numerous performers and musicians and made many appearances in films. He was briefly known by the pen name William Lee. Burroughs created and exhibited thousands of paintings and other visual artworks, including his celebrated'Gunshot Paintings', he was born into a wealthy family in St. Louis, grandson of the inventor and founder of the Burroughs Corporation, William Seward Burroughs I, nephew of public relations manager Ivy Lee. Burroughs began writing essays and journals in early adolescence but did not begin publicizing his writing until his thirties.

He left home in 1932 to attend Harvard University, studied English, anthropology as a postgraduate, attended medical school in Vienna. In 1942 Burroughs enlisted in the U. S. Army to serve during World War II, but was turned down by the Office of Strategic Services and Navy, after which he picked up the drug addiction that affected him for the rest of his life, while working a variety of jobs. In 1943, while living in New York City, he befriended Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac, out of their mutual influence grew the foundation of the Beat Generation, a defining influence on the 1960s counterculture. Much of Burroughs' work is semiautobiographical drawn from his experiences as a heroin addict, as he lived throughout Mexico City, London and the Tangier International Zone near Morocco, as well as from his travels in the South American Amazon, his work features frequent mystical, occult or otherwise magical themes – a constant preoccupation for Burroughs, both in fiction and in real life. Burroughs killed his second wife, Joan Vollmer, in 1951 in Mexico City.

Burroughs claimed that he shot Vollmer while drunkenly attempting a "William Tell" stunt. He told investigators a different story: that he had been showing his pistol to friends, when it fell and hit the table, firing the bullet that killed Vollmer. After Burroughs returned to the United States, he was convicted of manslaughter in absentia, received a two-year suspended sentence. Burroughs found success with his confessional first novel, but he is best known for his third novel Naked Lunch, a controversial work, the subject of a court case after it was challenged as being in violation of the U. S. sodomy laws. With Brion Gysin, he popularized the literary cut-up technique in works such as The Nova Trilogy. In 1983, Burroughs was elected to the American Academy and Institute of Arts and Letters, in 1984 he was awarded the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres by France. Jack Kerouac called Burroughs the "greatest satirical writer since Jonathan Swift", a reputation he owes to his "lifelong subversion" of the moral and economic systems of modern American society, articulated in darkly humorous sardonicism.

J. G. Ballard considered Burroughs to be "the most important writer to emerge since the Second World War", while Norman Mailer declared him "the only American writer who may be conceivably possessed by genius". Burroughs created visual art throughout his lifetime, but never exhibited it until 1987, after the death of his friend and collaborator Brion Gysin. For the next and last 10 years of his life, he presented his paintings and drawings at museums and galleries worldwide. Burroughs had one child, William S. Burroughs Jr. with his second wife Joan Vollmer. William Burroughs died at his home in Lawrence, after suffering a heart attack in 1997. Burroughs was born in 1914, the younger of two sons born to Mortimer Perry Burroughs and Laura Hammon Lee, his was a prominent family of English ancestry in St. Louis, Missouri, his grandfather, William Seward Burroughs I, founded the Burroughs Adding Machine company, which evolved into the Burroughs Corporation. Burroughs' mother was the daughter of a minister whose family claimed to be related to Robert E. Lee.

His maternal uncle, Ivy Lee, was an advertising pioneer employed as a publicist for the Rockefellers. His father ran an antique and gift shop, Cobblestone Gardens in St. Louis, it was during his childhood that Burroughs' developed a lifelong interest in magic and the occult – topics which would find their way into his work across the years. Burroughs described how he saw an apparition of a green reindeer in the woods as a child, which he identified as a totem animal, as well as a vision of ghostly grey figures at play in his bedroom; as a boy, Burroughs lived on Pershing Avenue in St. Louis' Central West End, he attended John Burroughs School in St. Louis where his first published essay, "Personal Magnetism" – which revolved around telepathic mind-control – was printed in the John Burroughs Review in 1929, he attended the Los Alamos Ranch School in New Mexico, stressful for him. The school was a boarding school for the wealthy, "where the spindly sons of the rich could be transformed into manly specimens".

Burroughs kept journals documenting an erotic attachment to another boy. According to his own account, he destroyed these ashamed of their content, he kept his sexual orientation concealed from his family well into adulthood, due to the co

Poodle Springs

Poodle Springs is the eighth Philip Marlowe novel. It was started in 1958 by Raymond Chandler, who left it unfinished at his death in 1959; the four chapters he had completed, which bore the working title The Poodle Springs Story, were subsequently published in Raymond Chandler Speaking, a collection of excerpts from letters and unpublished writings. In 1988, on the occasion of the centenary of Chandler's birth, the crime writer Robert B. Parker was asked by the estate of Raymond Chandler to complete the novel. Marlowe has married the rich daughter of local tycoon Harlan Potter. Linda and Marlowe first met in The Long Goodbye and their romance is resumed at the end of Playback. Marlowe resists financial dependence on his willing wife and, after the couple relocate to a grand mansion in Poodle Springs, opens a detective agency in the resort. Tension between them rises when, as a result, Marlowe absents himself from the cocktail parties and other social events organised by Linda’s set. Marlowe’s first case comes when he is forced by hoodlums to visit a local criminal named Lipschultz, who operates an illegal gambling house in Riverside, just outside the jurisdiction of Poodle Spings.

He has taken an IOU for $100,000 from one of his customers, a Poodle Springs photographer called Les Valentine. Lipshultz's boss, an unrevealed local tycoon, has found out that the sum is missing from the books and has issued a 30-day ultimatum to retrieve the money. Asked to find Valentine, Marlowe accepts on condition; when Marlowe questions Valentine's wife, Muffy Blackstone, a spoiled socialite and acquaintance of his own wife, she tells him that Valentine is out on a photo shoot. Instead he discovers that Valentine is an alias for a sleazy individual living in Los Angeles with a second wife; when Marlowe calls on Lipshultz again, he finds him killed in his casino office and assists Valentine to escape after he is suspected, not just for this crime but for an earlier slaying in his own office. The melodramatic pay-off exposes the corruption of the Southern Californian rich and confirms Marlowe in his decision to return to Los Angeles, his marriage is wrecked. Chandler's first four chapters of the story are used unabridged in this edition.

These opening chapters describe the Marlowes' arrival in Poodle Springs fresh from their honeymoon, the large bungalow they live in and Marlowe's insistence on independence, they introduce the principal characters and several supporting characters. Parker wrote the other chapters. In 1991 Parker followed this novel with a new novel featuring Marlowe, Perchance to Dream, a sequel to Chandler's The Big Sleep; the novel was adapted for a film of the same title by the premium cable channel HBO in 1998, starring James Caan as Marlowe. An adaptation for BBC Radio 4 was broadcast in October 2011. Wild, Peter. Paradise of Desire: Eleven Palm Springs Novels. Tucson, AZ: Estate of Peter Wild. P. 281. OCLC 748584112


Lemi is a municipality of Finland. It is located in the South Karelia region; the municipality has a population of 3,044 and covers an area of 262.48 square kilometres of which 44.71 km2 is water. The population density is 13.98 inhabitants per square kilometre. The municipality is unilingually Finnish; the Finnish thrash metal band Stam1na is from Lemi. In 2018 Lemi won the title heavy metal capital of the world, determined by number of bands per capita. Lemi had 13 regognised bands but due to Lemi only having just 3,076 inhabitants won with ratio of 422.6 bands per 100,000 inhabitants. The municipal center of Lemi is Juvola; the other villages are Ahtiala, Heikkilä, Hyvärilä, Iitiä, Juvola, Kuukanniemi, Keskisenpää, Kurkela, Kärmeniemi, Lavola, Metsola, Mikonharju, Nuppola, Parkkola, Pöllölä, Ruomi, Sorvarila, Suoniala, Sutela, Tevaniemi, Tuomelanpelto, kuuluu myös Iitiään, Urola, Vainikkala, Välikangas and Värtölä. The schools are in Kuukanniemi. There are about 750 inhabitants in the villages it affects.

Lemi has been founded in 1688 as an independent Evangelic-Lutheran parish. Due to the secularisation of the local governments according to the decree of 1865, the secular local government was separated from the clerical in 1867 as the municipality of Lemi; some fighting took place in the cemetery of Lemi during the civil war in 1918. After the winter war as the military hardware had to be displaced from the territories to be given to the Soviet Union on the bases of the Moscow Armistice, naval artillery was brought to Lemi to create part of the Salpa Line. From the Käkisalmi region the Vahtiniemi battery was transferred to Kärmeniemi consisting two Canet 152/45-C naval guns. On 11 July 1941, they were taken to Antamoinen to be tested on 22 July. Four days they were transported by train from Lappeenranta again near Käkisalmi to Vahtiniemi to become operational 9 September 1941. After the Continuation War the 32nd heavy battery brought only one of the two Canet 152/45-C's it had as the other was to repaired.

By the end of November 1944 the 32nd heavy battery was dissolved and the guns were sent to Parola. After the war there has not been naval guns in Lemi, but the remaining positions can be seen both in Kärmeniemi and Juvola. Elias Muukka, painter Mirja Hietamies, Olympic champion cross-country skier Stam1na, trashmetal band Media related to Lemi at Wikimedia Commons Municipality of Lemi – Official website – travel information