Oberlin College is a private liberal arts college in Oberlin, Ohio. Founded as the Oberlin Collegiate Institute in 1833 by John Jay Shipherd and Philo Stewart, it is the oldest coeducational liberal arts college in the United States and the second oldest continuously operating coeducational institute of higher learning in the world; the Oberlin Conservatory of Music is the oldest continuously operating conservatory in the United States. In 1835 Oberlin became one of the first colleges in the United States to admit African Americans, in 1837 the first to admit women; the College of Arts & Sciences offers more than 50 majors and concentrations. Oberlin is a member of the Great Lakes Colleges Association and the Five Colleges of Ohio consortium. Since its founding, Oberlin has graduated 16 Rhodes Scholars, 20 Truman Scholars, 3 Nobel laureates, 7 MacArthur fellows. Both the college and the town of Oberlin were founded in northern Ohio in 1833 by a pair of Presbyterian ministers, John Jay Shipherd and Philo Stewart.
The College was built on 500 acres of land donated by the previous owners, Titus Street, founder of Streetsboro and Samuel Hughes, who lived in Connecticut. Shipherd and Stewert named their project after Jean-Frédéric Oberlin, an Alsatian minister whom they both admired; the ministers' vision was for both school. Oberlin's founders bragged that "Oberlin is peculiar in that, good," and the college has long been associated with progressive causes. Asa Mahan accepted the position as first President of the Oberlin Collegiate Institute in 1835 serving as the chair of intellectual and moral philosophy and a professor of theology. Mahan's liberal views towards abolitionism and anti-slavery influenced the philosophy of the newly founded college; the college had some difficult beginnings, Rev. John Keep and William Dawes were sent to England to raise funds for the college in 1839–40. A nondenominational seminary, Oberlin's Graduate School of Theology, was established alongside the college in 1833. In 1965, the board of trustees voted to discontinue graduate instruction in theology at Oberlin, in September 1966, six faculty members and 22 students merged with the Divinity School of Vanderbilt University.
Oberlin's role as an educator of African-American students prior to the Civil War and thereafter is significant. In 1844, Oberlin College graduated its first black student, George Boyer Vashon, who became one of the founding professors at Howard University and the first black lawyer admitted to the Bar in New York State; the African Americans of Oberlin and those attending Oberlin College "have experienced intense challenges and immense accomplishments since their joint founding in 1833. Its African American and other students of color have used education and activism to influence the college, the town, beyond, their efforts have helped Oberlin remain committed to its values of freedom, social justice, service." The College's approach to African Americans was by no means perfect. Although intensely anti-slavery, including admitting black students from its founding, the school began segregating its black students by the 1880s with the fading of evangelical idealism. Nonetheless, Oberlin graduates accounted for a significant percentage of African-American college graduates by the end of the 19th century.
The college was listed as a National Historic Landmark on December 21, 1965, for its significance in admitting African Americans and women. Oberlin is the oldest coeducational institution in the United States, having admitted four women in 1837; these four women, who were the first to enter as full students, were Mary Kellogg, Mary Caroline Rudd, Mary Hosford, Elizabeth Prall. All but Kellogg graduated. Mary Jane Patterson graduated in 1862 as the first black woman to earn a B. A. degree. Soon women were integrated into the college, comprised from a third to half of the student body; the religious founders evangelical theologian Charles Grandison Finney, saw women as inherently morally superior to men. Oberlin stopped operating for seven months 1839 and 1840 due to lack of funds, making it the second oldest continuously operating coeducational liberal arts. Mahan, in conflict with faculty, resigned his position as president in 1850. In his place, famed abolitionist and preacher Charles Grandison Finney was made president, serving until 1866.
Under Finney's leadership, Oberlin's faculty and students increased their activity in the abolitionist movement. They participated together with people of the town in biracial efforts to help fugitive slaves on the Underground Railroad, as well as to resist the Fugitive Slave Act. One historian called Oberlin "the town that started the Civil War" due to its reputation as a hotbed of abolitionism. In 1858, both students and faculty were involved in the controversial Oberlin-Wellington Rescue of a fugitive slave, which received national press coverage. Two participants in this raid, Lewis Sheridan Leary and John Anthony Copeland, along with another Oberlin resident, Shields Green participated in John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry; this heritage was commemorated on campus by the 1977 installation of sculptor Cameron Armstrong's "Underground Railroad Monument" and monuments to the Oberlin-Wellington Rescue and the Harper's Ferry Rai
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state
The Centennial International Exhibition of 1876, the first official World's Fair in the United States, was held in Philadelphia, from May 10 to November 10, 1876, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia. Named the International Exhibition of Arts and Products of the Soil and Mine, it was held in Fairmount Park along the Schuylkill River on fairgrounds designed by Herman J. Schwarzmann. Nearly 10 million visitors attended thirty-seven countries participated in it; the Great Central Fair, Pennsylvania held in 1864, one of the many sanitary fairs held during the Civil War, anticipated the combination of public and commercial efforts that were necessary for the Centennial. The Great Central Fair, held on Logan Square, had a similar gothic appearance, the waving flags, the huge central hall, the "curiosities" and relics and industrial exhibits, a visit from the President and his family, provided a creative and communal means for ordinary citizens to promote the welfare of Union soldiers and dedicate themselves to the survival of the nation.
They made Philadelphia a vital center in the Union war effort. The idea of the Centennial Exposition is credited to John L. Campbell, a professor of mathematics, natural philosophy and astronomy at Wabash College, Indiana. In December 1866, Campbell suggested to Philadelphia Mayor Morton McMichael that the United States Centennial be celebrated with an exposition in Philadelphia. Detractors said the project would not be able to find funding, other nations might not attend, U. S. exhibitions might compare poorly to foreign exhibits. The Franklin Institute became an early supporter of the exposition and asked the Philadelphia City Council for use of Fairmount Park. With reference to the numerous events of national importance that were held in the past and related to the City of Philadelphia, the City Council resolved in January 1870, to hold the Centennial Exposition in the city in 1876; the Philadelphia City Council and the Pennsylvania General Assembly created a committee to study the project and seek support of the U.
S. Congress. Congressman William D. Kelley spoke for the city and state and Daniel Johnson Morrell introduced a bill to create a United States Centennial Commission; the bill, which passed on March 3, 1871, provided that the U. S. government would not be liable for any expenses. The United States Centennial Commission organized on March 3, 1872, with Joseph R. Hawley of Connecticut as president; the Centennial Commission's commissioners included one representative from each state and territory in the United States. On June 1, 1872, Congress created a Centennial Board of Finance to help raise money; the board's president was John Welsh, brother of philanthropist William Welsh, who had raised funds for The Great Sanitary Fair in 1864. The board was authorized to sell up to $10 million in stock via $10 shares; the board sold $1,784,320 worth of shares by February 22, 1873. Philadelphia contributed $1.5 million and Pennsylvania gave $1 million. On February 11, 1876, Congress appropriated $1.5 million in a loan.
The board thought it was a subsidy, but after the Centennial ended, the federal government sued for the money back, the United States Supreme Court forced repayment. John Welsh enlisted help from the women of Philadelphia who had helped him in The Great Sanitary Fair. A Women's Centennial Executive Committee was formed with Elizabeth Duane Gillespie, a descendant of Benjamin Franklin, as president. In its first few months, the group raised $40,000; when the group learned the planning commission was not doing much to display the work of women, the group raised $30,000 for a women's exhibition building. In 1873, the Centennial Commission named Alfred T. Goshorn as the director general of the Exposition; the Fairmount Park Commission set aside 450 acres of West Fairmount Park for the exposition, dedicated on July 4, 1873, by Secretary of the Navy George M. Robeson; the Commission decided to classify the exhibits into seven departments: agriculture, art and science, machinery and mining and metallurgy.
Newspaper publisher John W. Forney agreed to head and pay for a Philadelphia commission sent to Europe to invite nations to exhibit at the exposition. Despite fears of a European boycott and high American tariffs making foreign goods not worthwhile, no European country declined the invitation. To accommodate out-of-town visitors, temporary hotels were constructed near the Centennial's grounds. A Centennial Lodging-House Agency made a list of rooms in hotels, boarding houses and private homes and sold tickets for the available rooms in cities promoting the Centennial or on trains heading for Philadelphia. Philadelphia streetcars increased service and the Pennsylvania Railroad ran special trains from Philadelphia's Market Street, New York City and Pittsburgh; the Philadelphia and Reading Railroad ran special trains from the Center City part of Philadelphia. A small hospital was built on the Exposition's grounds by the Centennial's Medical Bureau, but despite a heat wave during the summer, no mass deaths or epidemics occurred.
Philadelphia passed an ordinance that authorized Mayor William S. Stokley to appoint five hundred men as centennial guards for the exposition. Among soldiers and local men hired by the city was Frank Geyer, best known for investigating one of America's first serial killers, H. H. Holmes. Centennial guards policed exhibits, kept the peace, reunited lost children, received and when possible, returned lost items, the most unusual of which were front hair pieces and false te
The Underground Railroad was a network of secret routes and safe houses established in the United States during the early to mid-19th century, used by African-American slaves to escape into free states and Nova Scotia with the aid of abolitionists and allies who were sympathetic to their cause. The term is applied to the abolitionists, both black and white and enslaved, who aided the fugitives. Various other routes led to Mexico or overseas. An earlier escape route running south toward Florida a Spanish possession, existed from the late 17th century until Florida became a United States territory in 1821. However, the network now known as the Underground Railroad was formed in the late 1700s, it ran north to the free states and Canada, reached its height between 1850 and 1860. One estimate suggests that by 1850, 100,000 slaves had escaped via the "Railroad". British North America, where slavery was prohibited, was a popular destination, as its long border gave many points of access. Most former slaves settled in Ontario.
More than 30,000 people were said to have escaped there via the network during its 20-year peak period, although U. S. Census figures account for only 6,000. Numerous fugitives' stories are documented in the 1872 book The Underground Railroad Records by William Still, an abolitionist who headed the Philadelphia Vigilance Committee. At its peak, nearly 1,000 slaves per year escaped from slave-holding states using the Underground Railroad – more than 5,000 court cases for escaped slaves were recorded – many fewer than the natural increase of the enslaved population; the resulting economic impact was minuscule, but the psychological influence on slave holders was immense. Under the original Fugitive Slave Act of 1793, officials from free states were required to assist slaveholders or their agents who recaptured runaway slaves, but and governments of many free states ignored the law, the Underground Railroad thrived. With heavy lobbying by southern politicians, the Compromise of 1850 was passed by Congress after the Mexican–American War.
It stipulated a more stringent Fugitive Slave Law. Because the law required sparse documentation to claim a person was a fugitive, slave catchers kidnapped free blacks children, sold them into slavery. Southern politicians exaggerated the number of escaped slaves and blamed these escapes on Northerners interfering with Southern property rights; the law deprived suspected slaves of the right to defend themselves in court, making it difficult to prove free status. In a de facto bribe, judges were paid a higher fee for a decision that confirmed a suspect as a slave than for one ruling that the suspect was free. Many Northerners who might have ignored slave issues in the South were confronted by local challenges that bound them to support slavery; this was a primary grievance cited by the Union during the American Civil War, the perception that Northern States ignored the fugitive slave law was a major justification for secession. The escape network was not underground nor a railroad, it was figuratively "underground" in the sense of being an underground resistance.
It was known as a "railroad" by way of the use of rail terminology in the code. The Underground Railroad consisted of meeting points, secret routes and safe houses, personal assistance provided by abolitionist sympathizers. Participants organized in small, independent groups. Escaped slaves would move north along the route from one way station to the next. "Conductors" on the railroad came from various backgrounds and included free-born blacks, white abolitionists, former slaves, Native Americans. Church clergy and congregations played a role the Religious Society of Friends, Congregationalists and Reformed Presbyterians, as well as certain sects of mainstream denominations such as branches of the Methodist church and American Baptists. Without the presence and support of free black residents, there would have been no chance for fugitive slaves to pass into freedom unmolested. To reduce the risk of infiltration, many people associated with the Underground Railroad knew only their part of the operation and not of the whole scheme.
"Conductors" transported the fugitives from station to station. A conductor sometimes pretended to be a slave. Once a part of a plantation, the conductor would direct the runaways to the North. Slaves traveled at about 10 -- 20 miles to each station, they rested, a message was sent to the next station to let the station master know the runaways were on their way. They would stop at the so-called "stations" or "depots" during the rest; the stations were located in barns, under church floors, or in hiding places in caves and hollowed-out riverbanks. The resting spots where the runaways could sleep and eat were given the code names "stations" and "depots", which were held by "station masters". "Stockholders" gave money or supplies for assistance. Using biblical references, fugitives referred to Canada as the "Promised Land" or "Heaven" and the Ohio River as the "River Jordan", which marked the boundary between slave states and free states. Although the fugitives sometimes traveled on boat or train, they traveled
Eastern Shore of Maryland
The Eastern Shore of Maryland is a part of the U. S. state of Maryland that lies predominantly on the east side of the Chesapeake Bay and consists of nine counties. As of the 2010 census, its population was 449,226, with just under 8 percent of Marylanders living in the region; the term "Eastern Shore" distinguishes a territorial part of the State of Maryland from the Western Shore of Maryland, land west of the Chesapeake Bay. The Eastern Shore consists of nine Maryland counties on the Chesapeake Bay's eastern side—or eastern side of the Susquehanna River, with Delaware to the east and north, the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Virginia's own Eastern Shore on the south. Maryland's and Virginia's Eastern Shore and all of Delaware form the Delmarva Peninsula; the counties comprising the Eastern Shore are Caroline, Dorchester, Queen Anne's, Talbot and Worcester counties. To the south, the Calvert-Scarborough Line separates Maryland from Virginia. A modern Worcester County highway map shows this location.
While comprising different boundaries than in the 17th-18th century, the Eastern Shore's geographic definition was set once everyone agreed on where Watkins Point—on the western side of the peninsula—is and where the Bay's shoreline began. In 1668, Philip obtained Virginia recognition of Maryland's claims to present-day Somerset County, surveying a dividing line between the two colonies with Surveyor General of Virginia, Edmund Scarborough. Meanwhile, he negotiated treaties with Lower Eastern Shore Indian tribes harassing English settlers; these treaties defined standards of conduct for Indian-English relations, establishing an overall peace in the region. The northern limit is harder to locate; some dispute Cecil County as a true Shore territory due to I-95's presence with its surrounding developments, proximity to and influence from nearby urban areas like Philadelphia and Wilmington, a position straddling the Elk River–leaving 50% west of the Shore. Like New Castle County, Cecil County is crossed by the fall line, a geologic division where the rockier highlands of the Piedmont region meet the Atlantic coastal plain, a flat, sandy area that forms the coast.
The coastal plain includes the Delmarva Peninsula and hence the Eastern Shore of Maryland. The geology of Delmarva is an inseparable part of the Eastern Shore, which has few rocky outcrops south of Kent County; the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal crosses from Back Creek on the Elk River to Delaware. While it was a shallow canal with locks after its construction in 1829, it was deepened in the early 20th century to sea level, physically separates the Delmarva Peninsula from the rest of the United States. Maryland south of the canal is considered the Eastern Shore by residents; the term Western Shore is used by Eastern Shore residents to describe all the counties of Maryland west of the Chesapeake Bay, but those of the Baltimore-Washington metropolitan area and Southern Maryland. The north-south section of the Mason–Dixon line forms the border between Maryland and Delaware; the border was marked every mile by a stone, every five miles by a "crownstone". The line is not quite due north and south, but is as straight as survey methods of the 1760s could make it.
It was surveyed as a compromise solution to a century-long wrangle between the Penn and Calvert families of England. If the Chesapeake Bay/Delaware Bay watershed divide had been taken as the borderline, Delaware would be about half its current size. Although this has received less attention than other parts of Eastern Shore culture, commercial east-west ties between Delaware towns and Maryland towns were culturally significant in Colonial and Early American periods despite the border line. Trade with Philadelphia was conducted by overland routes to Delaware towns like Smyrna. Agricultural products and milled grain were taken up the Delaware River by "shallop men" in small vessels called shallops; these cultural connections continue to this day. Ocean City is a modern resort on what was once called the "seaside" or "seaboard side." It is on a long north-south sandspit, a barrier island. William Claiborne was granted land in 1629 and named the land "Kent County". In 1631, he sailed north up the Chesapeake Bay from its south and west side to the area known today as Kent Island.
There he made a fortified settlement, considered to be the first English settlement within the Province of Maryland. Talbot County was formed in 1662. Cecil County was formed in 1674, by proclamation of the Governor, from eastern portions of Baltimore County and the northern portion of Kent County. Wicomico County was formed in 1867, as the 9th and last county, created from Somerset and Worcester counties. 1642 Kent County-In 1642, the governor and council appointed commissioners for the Isle and County of Kent. This act appears to have led to the establishment of Kent County, name after England. 1661 Talbot County- named for Lady Grace Talbot, the wife of Sir Robert Talbot, an Irish statesman, the sister of Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore. 1666 Somerset County-named for Mary, Lady Somerset, the wife of Sir John Somerset and daughter of Thomas Arundell, 1st Baron Arundell of Wardour. 1669 Dorchester County-Named for the Earl of Dorset, a family friend of the Calverts. 1674 Cecil County. 1706 Queen Anne's County- formed from northern parts of Talbot and southern portions of Kent.
Name after Queen Anne o
Frances Ellen Watkins Harper was an African-American abolitionist, poet, public speaker, writer. The topics she wrote and spoke about include: "enslavement and abolitionism, human rights and dignity, women's rights and equality and social justice and mob violence, voting rights, moral character, racial self-help and uplift, multiracial cooperation for common good." She was active in social reform and was a member of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, which advocated the federal government taking a role in progressive reform. She is considered "the mother of African-American journalism."Born free in Baltimore, she had a long and prolific career, publishing her first book of poetry at the age of 20, making her one of the first African-American published writers. At 67, she wrote her praised novel Iola Leroy. In 1850, she became the first woman to teach sewing at the Union Seminary. In 1851, alongside William Still, chairman of the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, she helped escaped slaves along the Underground Railroad on their way to Canada.
She began her career as a public speaker and political activist after joining the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1853. Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects became her biggest commercial success, her short story "Two Offers" was published in the Anglo-African in 1859, making literary history by being the first short story published by a black woman. Harper founded and held high office in several national progressive organizations. In 1883 she became superintendent of the Colored Section of the Philadelphia and Pennsylvania Women's Christian Temperance Union. In 1894 she helped served as its vice president. Harper died aged 85 on February 1911, nine years before women gained the right to vote. Frances Ellen Watkins was born in Baltimore, the only child of free parents, her parents, whose names are not known, died in 1828, making Watkins an orphan when she was three years old. She was raised by her maternal aunt and uncle and Rev. William Watkins, from whom she gets her last name. Scholars debate whether Watkins should be considered a "northerner" or a "southerner."
Some scholars label her as a northerner, due to her middle-class background and freeborn status, such as Hazel Carby, Farah Jasmine Griffin, Dorothy Sterling and Carla Peterson. Others, such as Henry L. Gates Jr. and Sherita L. Johnson argue that she is a "displaced Southerner." Her uncle was the minister at the Sharp Street African Methodist Episcopal Church. She was educated at his Watkins Academy for Negro Youth where he taught; as a civil rights activist and abolitionist, Rev. Watkins was a major influence on her life and work. At 14, Frances found work as a seamstress. During her early twenties, she published poems and articles in the local newspaper and wrote her first volume of poetry, titled Forest Leaves, which up until today has been extant. At 25, the Watkins family fled Baltimore. Frances settled in Ohio before moving to Pennsylvania to work with the Pennsylvania Abolition Society, her writing career started with publishing pieces in antislavery journals in 1839. Her politics and writing, informed each other.
Harper's writing career started long before she was married, 20 years to be exact, so several of her published words are under her maiden name, Watkins. She published her first volume of verse, Forest Leaves, or Autumn Leaves, in 1845 when she was 20 years old. A single copy of this volume, long lost, was rediscovered by scholar Johanna Ortner in Baltimore, of the Maryland Historical Society. Harper's second book, Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects, was popular. Over the next few years, it was reprinted numerous times. In 1859, her story "The Two Offers" was published in Anglo-African Magazine, which made her the first Black woman to publish a short story; that same year Anglo-African Magazine published her essay "Our Greatest Want", in which she linked the oppression of African Americans to the oppression of the Hebrew people in Egypt. Anglo-African Magazine and the weekly Anglo-African newspaper were both Civil War-era periodicals that served as a forum for debate among abolitionists and scholars.
Harper published 80 poems. In her poem "The Slave Mother" she writes: "He is not hers, although she bore / For him a mother's pains. Throughout the two stanzas, Harper demonstrates the restricted relationship between an enslaved mother and her child, while including themes of family, motherhood and slavery, she published Sketches of Southern Life in 1872. It detailed her experience meeting newly freed Black people. In these poems she described the harsh living conditions faced by a black woman during slavery and reconstruction. After the Civil War she continued to fight for the rights of women, African Americans, was involved in many other social causes, she uses the figure of an ex-slave, called Aunt Chloe, as a narrator in several of these. She had three novels serialized in a Christian magazine from 1868 to 1888, but was better known for what was long considered her first novel, Iola Leroy, or Shadows Uplifted, published as a book when she was 67. While using the conventions of the time, she dealt with serious social issues, including education for women, miscegenation, reconstruction and social responsibility.
The novel follows a woman whose racial identity is ambiguous until it
Lincoln University (Pennsylvania)
Lincoln University is public black university in Oxford, Pennsylvania. Founded as a private university in 1854, it has been a public institution since 1972 and was the United States' first degree-granting HBCU, its main campus is located on 422 acres near the town of Oxford in southern Chester County, Pennsylvania. The university has a second location in Philadelphia. Lincoln University provides undergraduate and graduate coursework to 2,000 students; the University is a member-school of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund. While a majority of Lincoln University students are African Americans, the university has a long history of accepting students of other races and nationalities. Women have received degrees since 1953 and made up 60% of undergraduate enrollment in 2015. In 1854 Rev. John Miller Dickey, a Presbyterian minister, his wife, Sarah Emlen Cresson, a Quaker, founded Ashmun Institute named Lincoln University, in Hinsonville, they named it after a religious leader and social reformer. They founded the school for the education of African Americans, who had few opportunities for higher education.
John Miller Dickey was the first president of the college. He encouraged some of his first students: James Ralston Amos, his brother Thomas Henry Amos, Armistead Hutchinson Miller, to support the establishment of Liberia as a colony for African Americans.. Each of the men became ordained ministers. In 1866, a year after the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, Ashmun Institute was renamed Lincoln University; the college attracted talented students from numerous states during the long decades of legal segregation in the South. As may be seen on the list of notable alumni, many went on to achievements in careers in academia, public service, the arts and many other fields. In 1945 Dr. Horace Mann Bond, an alumnus of Lincoln, was selected as the first African-American president of the university. During his 12-year tenure, he continued to do social science research, helped support the important civil rights case of Brown v. Board of Education, decided in 1954 by the US Supreme Court, he established an important relationship with the collector Albert C.
Barnes, who ensured Lincoln University had a role in the management of his art collection, the Barnes Foundation. From 1854 to 1954, Lincoln University graduates accounted for 20 percent of black physicians and over 10 percent of black lawyers in the United States. In 1972 Lincoln University formally associated with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as a state-related institution. In 2013, the University refined its name and brand as Lincoln University to emphasize its distinction as the nation's first HBCU, as well as to distinguish itself from other universities of the same name in Missouri and New Zealand, as well as Lincoln Memorial in Tennessee. In November 2014, University president Robert R. Jennings resigned under pressure from faculty and alumni after comments relating to issues of sexual assault. Jennings was the subject of a couple of no-confidence votes by faculty and the alumni association in October 2014. On May 11, 2017, the Lincoln University board of trustees announced the appointment of Dr. Brenda A. Allen and vice chancellor for academic affairs at Winston-Salem State University as Lincoln's new president.
A 1981 alumna of Lincoln, Allen's inauguration was announced for October, 2017. According to U. S. News & World Report, Lincoln University ranks number 20th out of 81 in the 2013 magazine's first ranking of undergraduate education at HBCUs, it is ranked as a Tier One school on the list. Lincoln University shares its No. 20th ranking with Alabama A&M University. In 2012 the US News & World Best Colleges Report rated Lincoln as a Tier Two University overall. Lincoln University's International and Study Abroad Program had student participation in Service Learning Projects in the countries of Ecuador, Spain, Costa Rica, France, Zambia, Ghana, Russia, Thailand, the Czech Republic and South Africa The Lincoln-Barnes Visual Arts program is a collaboration between Lincoln University and the Barnes Foundation, it established a Visual Arts program that leads to a Bachelor of Fine Arts, most a Pan-Africana Studies major has been added to the list undergraduate majors available at the institution. Lincoln University offers 23 undergraduate minors.
Lincoln University main campus is 422 acres with 56 buildings totaling over one million gross square feet. There are fifteen residence halls; the dormitories range from small dorms such as Alumni Hall, built in 1870. A $40.5 million, four-story, 150,000-square-foot Science and General Classroom High Technology Building was completed in December 2008. A $26.1 million 60,000-square-foot International Cultural Center began construction on April 10, 2008, was completed in 2010. The $28 million Health and Wellness Center is a 105,000 square feet facility that opened in September 2012; the facility contains basketball courts, locker rooms, track, rock climbing wall, health clinic and healthy eating café. An on-campus football stadium with concession stands, a separate locker room, storage facilities opened in August 2012. A separate practice field with Field Turf II is located near the Health and Wellness Center, where six new lighted tennis courts are located. New baseball and softball fields are adjacent to the foo