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William Whiston

William Whiston was an English theologian and mathematician, a leading figure in the popularisation of the ideas of Isaac Newton. He is now best known for helping to instigate the Longitude Act in 1714 and his important translations of the Antiquities of the Jews and other works by Josephus, he wrote A New Theory of the Earth. Whiston succeeded his mentor Newton as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. In 1710 he lost the professorship and was expelled from the university as a result of his unorthodox religious views; because Whiston recognized the Bible as a book of spiritual truth, he rejected the notion of eternal torment in hellfire. He viewed it as cruel, as well as an insult to God. What pitted him against church authorities was his denial of the Trinity after extensive research convinced him of the pagan origin of the Trinity doctrine. Whiston was born to Josiah Whiston and Katherine Rosse at Norton-juxta-Twycross, in Leicestershire, where his father was rector.

He was educated for his health, so that he could act as amanuensis to his blind father. He studied at Tamworth. After his father's death, he entered Clare College, Cambridge as a sizar on 30 June 1686, he applied himself to mathematical study, was awarded the degree of Bachelor of Arts, AM, was elected Fellow in 1691 and probationary senior Fellow in 1693. William Lloyd ordained Whiston at Lichfield in 1693. In 1694, claiming ill health, he resigned his tutorship at Clare to Richard Laughton, chaplain to John Moore, the bishop of Norwich, swapped positions with him, he now divided his time between Norwich and London. In 1698 Moore gave him the living of Lowestoft. In 1699 he left to marry. In 1701 Whiston resigned his living to become Isaac Newton's substitute, giving the Lucasian lectures at Cambridge, he succeeded Newton as Lucasian professor in 1702. There followed a period of joint research with Roger Cotes, appointed with Whiston's patronage to the Plumian professorship in 1706. Students at the Cotes–Whiston experimental philosophy course included Stephen Hales, William Stukeley, Joseph Wasse.

In 1707 Whiston was Boyle lecturer. The "Newtonian" line came to include, with Bentley and Whiston in particular, a defence of natural law by returning to the definition of Augustine of Hippo of a miracle, rather than the prevailing concept of a divine intervention against nature, which went back to Anselm; this move was intended to undermine arguments of sceptics. The Boyle lectures dwelt on the connections between biblical prophecies, dramatic physical events such as floods and eclipses, their explanations in terms of science. On the other hand, Whiston was alive to possible connections of prophecy with current affairs: the War of the Spanish Succession, the Jacobite rebellions. Whiston supported a qualified biblical literalism: the literal meaning should be the default, unless there was a good reason to think otherwise; this view again went back to Augustine. Newton's attitude to the cosmogony of Thomas Burnet reflected on the language of the Genesis creation narrative. Moses as author of Genesis was not writing as a natural philosopher, nor as a law-giver, but for a particular audience.

The new cosmogonies of Burnet and John Woodward were all criticised for their disregard of the biblical account, by John Arbuthnot, John Edwards and William Nicolson in particular. The title for Whiston's Boyle lectures was The Accomplishment of Scripture Prophecies. Rejecting typological interpretation of biblical prophecy, he argued that the meaning of a prophecy must be unique, his views were challenged by Anthony Collins. There was a more immediate attack by Nicholas Clagett in 1710. One reason prophecy was topical. Whiston had started writing on the millenarianism, integral to the Newtonian theology, wanted to distance his views from theirs, in particular from those of John Lacy. Meeting the French prophets in 1713, Whiston developed the view that the charismatic gift of revelation could be demonic possession, it is no longer assumed that Whiston's Memoirs are trustworthy on the matter of his personal relations with Newton. One view is that the relationship was never close, Bentley being more involved in Whiston's appointment to the Lucasian chair.

This work proclaimed the millennium for the year 1716. Whiston's 1707 edition of Newton's Arithmetica Universalis did nothing to improve matters. Newton himself was if covertly involved in the 1722 edition, nominally due to John Machin, making many changes. In 1708–9 Whiston was engaging Thomas Tenison and John Sharp as archbishops in debates on the Trinity. There is evidence from Hopton Haynes that Newton reacted by pulling back from publication on the issue. Whiston was never a Fellow of the Royal Society. In conversation with Edmond Halley he blamed his reputation as a "heretick". Though, he claimed

Down to the Dirt

Down to the Dirt is a 2008 film based upon Newfoundland author Joel Thomas Hynes' first novel of the same name. The movie has been shot in Newfoundland; the film won two awards at the Atlantic Film Festival, one for the best feature film and other for the best screenplay. Keith Kavanagh is a rowdy hooligan known for his hard drinking throughout the Southern shore, he has a shattered relationship with his father. But when he meets Natasha, his life changes. Both fall in love, but soon Natasha leaves Keith, fed up of his ways. Keith realizes that he himself is responsible for all his failures in life and thus embarks on a mission to find Natasha, where he not only finds her, but himself and realizes he needs to make a change for the better. Mongrel Media provided Canadian distribution for the film. Running time is 115–116 minutes; the public debut was at the Toronto International Film Festival on 9 September 2008. Toronto Star film critic Patricia Hluchy panned the film, noting it attempted "few too many narrative strands and characters" and critical of its length, though crediting its "raw energy".

Sun Media's Liz Braun had a more favourable assessment describing the production as "uneven" yet possessing "a strange appeal, like some kind of Newfie version of a Charles Bukowski story". On review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes the film has an approval rating of 50% based on reviews from 6 critics, with an average 5.4/10 rating. Film classification boards in Ontario and Quebec issued content advisories regarding the production's strong language and violence. Down to the Dirt received two awards at the Atlantic Film Festival. Justin Simms won the Atlantic Canadian Award for the best feature film Justin Simms and Sherry White won the Atlantic Canadian Award for the best original screenplay Official website Down to the Dirt on IMDb

Jumper (dress)

A jumper or jumper dress, pinafore dress or informally pinafore or pinny is a sleeveless, collarless dress intended to be worn over a blouse, shirt, T-shirt or sweater. Hemlines can be of different lengths and the type of collar and whether or not there is pleating are variables in the design. In British English, the term jumper describes. In more formal British usage, a distinction is made between a pinafore dress and a pinafore; the latter, though a related garment, is worn as an apron. In American English, pinafore always refers to an apron. A sundress, like a jumper, is collarless; the apron dress may be viewed as a special case of the jumper. If the design of the dress is directly inspired by an apron, the garment is described as an apron dress. Jumpers for fall were described in The Fort Wayne Sentinel in 1906; the dresses were "imported from Paris" and featured "original lines."Jumpers in the United States were part of the sportswear collections of Jean Patou, Coco Chanel and Paul Poiret.

Suzanne Lenglen wore Patou's jumper design in the 1920s. The dresses, worn over blouses, became popular during the decade of the 1920s. Jumpers were worn in the summer and made out of various types of fabrics. Jumpers were touted as a "sports fashion" in 1930 by the Pittsburgh Press; the dresses were praised for allowing women to create color combinations through the choice of blouse worn underneath. Jumpers were again popularized in 1953. Jumpers, now considered a "classic" look, were considered "suitable to all ages." Gymslip – a British pinafore worn as athletic wear or school uniform Kirtle – a medieval garment of similar function Romper suit Sarafan – a Russian jumper women wear when in tall grass or more farming Picken, Mary Brooks. The Fashion Dictionary: Fabric and Dress as Expressed in the Language of Fashion. New York: Funk & Wagnalls Company. 1907 Jumper dress description and drawing