Deruvian known by several other names including Damian, was a legendary 2nd-century bishop and saint, said to have been sent by the pope to answer King Lucius's request for baptism and conversion to Christianity. Together with his companion St Fagan, he was sometimes reckoned as the apostle of Britain. King Lucius's letter may represent earlier traditions but does not appear in surviving sources before the 6th century; the story became known following its appearance in Geoffrey of Monmouth's pseudohistorical History of the Kings of Britain. This was influential for centuries and its account of SS Fagan and Deruvian was used during the English Reformation to support the claims of both the Catholics and Protestants. Geoffrey's account is now considered wholly implausible, but Christianity was well-established in Roman Britain by the third century; some scholars therefore argue the stories preserve a more modest account of the conversion of a Romano-British chieftain by Roman emissaries by these names.
Mistakenly, Deruvian's story has been given to the obscure St Dyfan thought to have been the namesake of Merthyr Dyfan and Llanddyfnan. His feast day does not appear in any medieval Welsh calendar of the saints and is not presently observed by the Anglican, Catholic, or Orthodox churches in Wales. Deruvian's name is cited as "Duvian" or "Dwywan" and, owing to scribal error appears in modern saints' lists as "Damian". Bishop Ussher lists numerous other variants and misspellings, although Deruvian's identification with St Dyfan, the presumed namesake of Merthyr Dyfan in Wales, seems to have been introduced by the discredited antiquarian Iolo Morganwg and is disregarded; the legendary accounts of King Lucius of Britain's baptism during the late-2nd-century pontificate of Eleutherius are documented at least as far back as the "Felician Catalog", an early 6th-century edition of The Book of Popes which added more details to the terser entries of earlier recensions. In the 8th century, Bede mentioned.
The'third edition' of The Deeds of the Kings of the English composed by William of Malmesbury around 1140 baldly states that "the rust of antiquity may have obliterated their names". The monks' names seem to have first appeared in William's own chronicle of the abbey at Glastonbury composed sometime between 1129 and 1139; this was soon followed by The History of the Kings of Britain, the pseudohistorical work completed by Geoffrey of Monmouth around 1136, which included many more details. Geoffrey claimed his additions derived from a treatise by Gildas on Aurelius Ambrosius but this work has been lost. Around 1203, Gerald of Wales's composed his work On Invectives, which claims to preserve verbatim a letter to Pope Honorius II from the convent of St David's; the letter seems to date from the 1120s. The story was subsequently embellished elsewhere; these accounts provided no earlier authorities for their claims, prior to the collection of the Iolo Manuscripts by Edward Williams. Among other changes, Williams identified William's Deruvian as the St Dyfan who seems to have been an early martyr in southeastern Wales.
Williams's alteration and apparent forging of other works means his accounts and claims are disbelieved. Further, the discrepancy in William of Malmesbury's two accounts of Lucius mentioned above has prompted scholars such as Robinson to believe that the missionaries' appearance in the Glastonbury chronicles were not part of the original work. According to the 12th-century historian, William of Malmesbury, "Deruvian" was sent to Wales as a companion of the missionary "Phagan" in the mid-2nd century by Pope Eleutherius. Shortly after, Geoffrey of Monmouth's pseudohistorical History of the Kings of Britain described "Duvian" as the companion of "Fagan", providing many additional but suspect details. Baring-Gould and Mullins are dismissive of the legends surrounding Lucius but offer that Deruvian and his companion may have been genuine local saints whose names were preserved in the area around Llandaff and then—as else nothing remained known of them—were mixed up with the separate stories surrounding Lucius Bartrum, notes the lack of earlier sources and posits that one must suppose such dedications followed the popularization of Geoffrey's story.
Following the Iolo Manuscripts, St Deruvian is now conflated with the supposed St Dyfan martyred at Merthyr Dyfan, although Baring-Gould notes that his name in the earliest known sources could never have been understood or developed as Dyfan at any time. The church at Merthyr Dyfan seems to have been dedicated to St Teilo since its foundation, but is now dedicated jointly to SS Dyfan and Teilo; as late as 2010, the local parish continued to claim to be the oldest Christian settlement in Wales on the basis of the legends about King Lucius. There is a church at Llandyfan outside Ammanford in Wales, although there is no large community there, it was notable for its importance in the early Welsh Nonc
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Bede known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, Bede the Venerable, was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria of the Angles. Born on lands belonging to the Monkwearmouth monastery in present-day Sunderland, Bede was sent there at the age of seven and joined Abbot Ceolfrith at the Jarrow monastery, both of whom survived a plague that struck in 686, an outbreak that killed a majority of the population there. While he spent most of his life in the monastery, Bede travelled to several abbeys and monasteries across the British Isles visiting the archbishop of York and King Ceolwulf of Northumbria, he is well known as an author and scholar, his most famous work, Ecclesiastical History of the English People, gained him the title "The Father of English History". His ecumenical writings were extensive and included a number of Biblical commentaries and other theological works of exegetical erudition. Another important area of study for Bede was the academic discipline of computus, otherwise known to his contemporaries as the science of calculating calendar dates.
One of the more important dates Bede tried to compute was Easter, an effort, mired with controversy. He helped establish the practice of dating forward from the birth of Christ, a practice which became commonplace in medieval Europe. Bede was one of the greatest teachers and writers of the Early Middle Ages and is considered by many historians to be the single most important scholar of antiquity for the period between the death of Pope Gregory I in 604 and the coronation of Charlemagne in 800. In 1899, Pope Leo XIII declared him a Doctor of the Church, he is the only native of Great Britain to achieve this designation. Bede was moreover a skilled linguist and translator, his work made the Latin and Greek writings of the early Church Fathers much more accessible to his fellow Anglo-Saxons, which contributed to English Christianity. Bede's monastery had access to an impressive library which included works by Eusebius and many others. Everything, known of Bede's life is contained in the last chapter of his Ecclesiastical History of the English People, a history of the church in England.
It was completed in about 731, Bede implies that he was in his fifty-ninth year, which would give a birth date in 672 or 673. A minor source of information is the letter by his disciple Cuthbert. Bede, in the Historia, gives his birthplace as "on the lands of this monastery", he is referring to the twinned monasteries of Monkwearmouth and Jarrow, in modern-day Wearside and Tyneside respectively. Bede says nothing of his origins, but his connections with men of noble ancestry suggest that his own family was well-to-do. Bede's first abbot was Benedict Biscop, the names "Biscop" and "Beda" both appear in a king list of the kings of Lindsey from around 800, further suggesting that Bede came from a noble family. Bede's name reflects West Saxon Bīeda, it is an Anglo-Saxon short name formed on the root of bēodan "to bid, command". The name occurs in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, s.a. 501, as Bieda, one of the sons of the Saxon founder of Portsmouth. The Liber Vitae of Durham Cathedral names two priests with this name, one of whom is Bede himself.
Some manuscripts of the Life of Cuthbert, one of Bede's works, mention that Cuthbert's own priest was named Bede. At the age of seven, Bede was sent, as a puer oblatus, to the monastery of Monkwearmouth by his family to be educated by Benedict Biscop and by Ceolfrith. Bede does not say whether it was intended at that point that he would be a monk, it was common in Ireland at this time for young boys those of noble birth, to be fostered out as an oblate. Monkwearmouth's sister monastery at Jarrow was founded by Ceolfrith in 682, Bede transferred to Jarrow with Ceolfrith that year; the dedication stone for the church has survived to the present day. In 686, plague broke out at Jarrow; the Life of Ceolfrith, written in about 710, records that only two surviving monks were capable of singing the full offices. The two managed to do the entire service of the liturgy; the young boy was certainly Bede, who would have been about 14. When Bede was about 17 years old, Adomnán, the abbot of Iona Abbey, visited Monkwearmouth and Jarrow.
Bede would have met the abbot during this visit, it may be that Adomnan sparked Bede's interest in the Easter dating controversy. In about 692, in Bede's nineteenth year, Bede was ordained a deacon by his diocesan bishop, bishop of Hexham; the canonical age for the ordination of a deacon was 25.
Roger of Salisbury
Roger of Salisbury known as Roger le Poer, was a Norman medieval bishop of Salisbury and the seventh Lord Chancellor and Lord Keeper of England. Roger was priest of a small chapel near Caen in Normandy, he was called "Roger, priest of the church of Avranches", in his notification of election to the bishopric. The future King Henry I, who happened to hear mass there one day, was impressed by the speed with which Roger read the service and enrolled him in his own service. Roger, though uneducated, showed great talent for business. On coming to the throne, Henry immediately made him Chancellor in 1101, he held that office until late 1102. On 29 September 1102 Roger received the bishopric of Salisbury at Old Sarum Cathedral, but he was not consecrated until 11 August 1107 owing to the dispute between Henry and Archbishop Anselm, he was consecrated at Canterbury. During the Investitures controversy, he skillfully managed to keep the favour of both the king and Anselm. Roger devoted himself to administrative business, remodelled it completely.
He created the exchequer system, managed by him and his family for more than a century, he used his position to heap up power and riches. He became the first man in England after the King, was in office, if not in title, justiciar, he was never called Justiciar during Henry's reign. Roger ruled England while Henry was in Normandy, succeeded in obtaining the see of Canterbury for his nominee, William de Corbeil. Duke Robert seems to have been put into his custody after Tinchebrai. Though Roger had sworn allegiance to Matilda, he disliked the Angevin connection, went over to Stephen, carrying with him the royal treasure and administrative system upon Stephen's accession in 1135. Stephen placed great reliance on him, on his nephews, the bishops of Ely and Lincoln, on his son Roger le Poer, treasurer; the king declared that if Roger demanded half of the kingdom he should have it, but chafed against the overwhelming influence of the official clique whom Roger represented. Roger had built Devizes Castle, described by Henry of Huntingdon as "the most splendid castle in Europe".
He and his nephews seem to have secured a number of castles outside their own dioceses, the old bishop behaved as if he were an equal of the King. At a council held in June 1139, Stephen found a pretext for demanding a surrender of their castles, on their refusal they were arrested. After a short struggle all Roger's great castles were sequestrated. However, Henry of Winchester demanded the restoration of the bishop; the king was considered to have committed an unpardonable crime in offering violence to members of the church, in defiance of the scriptural command, "Touch not mine anointed". Stephen took up a defiant attitude, the question remained unsettled; this quarrel with the church, which preceded the landing of the Empress, had a serious effect on Stephen's fortunes. The moment that the fortune of war turned against him, the clergy acknowledged Matilda. Bishop Roger, did not live to see the resolution of these troubles, he was a great bureaucrat, a builder whose taste was in advance of his age.
However, his contemporaries were justified in regarding him as the type of the bishop immersed in worldly affairs, avaricious, unfettered by any high standard of personal morality. Roger had a nephew Alexander, who became bishop of Lincoln in 1123. Other nephews included Adelelm, archdeacon of Dorset and dean of the diocese of Lincoln, Nigel of Ely, bishop of Ely. Roger's son Roger le Poer was Lord Chancellor for King Stephen. Greenway, Diana E, ed.. "Bishops". Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae 1066-1300: Volume 4, Salisbury. London: Institute of Historical Research. Pp. 1–7. Fryde, E. B.. Handbook of British Chronology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-56350-X. Green, Judith A.. The Aristocracy of Norman England. Cambridge University Press. P. 189. ISBN 978-0-521-33509-6. Williams, Ann; the English and the Norman Conquest. Ipswich: Boydell Press. ISBN 0-85115-708-4; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Roger, bishop of Salisbury". Encyclopædia Britannica.
23. Cambridge University Press. P. 454. Hollister, C. W.. Mayr-Harting, Henry and R. I. Moore, ed. Henry I and the Invisible Transformation of Medieval England. Studies in Medieval History Presented to R. H. C. Davis. London: Hambledon Press. Pp. 119–131. ISBN 0-907628-68-0. Mooers, Stephanie L.. "Familial Clout and Financial Gain in Henry I's Later Reign". Albion; the North American Conference on British Studies. 14: 268–291. Doi:10.2307/4048517. JSTOR 4048517.<ref> Kemp, B. R. "Salisbury, Roger of, administrator and bishop of Salisbury". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 1 October 2018
Malmesbury is a town and civil parish in Wiltshire, England. As a market town it became prominent in the Middle Ages as a centre for learning focused on and around Malmesbury Abbey, the bulk of which forms a rare survival of the dissolution of the monasteries. Once the site of an Iron Age fort, in the Anglo-Saxon period it became the site of a monastery famed for its learning and one of Alfred the Great's fortified burhs for defence against the Vikings. Æthelstan, the first king of England, was buried in Malmesbury Abbey when he died in 939. The hilltop contains several freshwater springs, it was the site of an Iron Age fort, in the Anglo-Saxon period it had a monastery famed as a centre of learning. The town is listed in the Burghal Hidage as one of Alfred the Great's defended burhs assessed at 1200 hides, its Iron Age defences helping to provide protection against Viking attack; the town was described in Domesday Book as a borough. Alfred's grandson, Æthelstan, the first king of England, was buried in Malmesbury Abbey in 939.
Until 1934 the west end of the town was administered as the separate parish of Westport St Mary The Abbey was founded in 675 by Maildubh, Mailduf or Maelduib, an Irishman. After the death of Maidulph around 700, Aldhelm became the first abbot and built the first church organ in England, described as a "mighty instrument with innumerable tones, blown with bellows, enclosed in a gilded case." Having founded other churches in the area, including at Bradford on Avon, he died in 709 and was canonised. Its architecture is listed in the highest category and it is a Scheduled Ancient Monument. Across the River Avon's Sherston branch via the footpath by 18 Gloucester Street is a depression Daniels Well and a farm beyond it is named after this; this derives from a monk called Daniel named after earlier Daniel of Winchester. This former bishop, on losing his sight, lived at the abbey until death in 745AD and was educated there; the monk is said to have submerged himself in the cold water every day for decades to quell fiery passions.
The Abbey was the site of an early attempt at human flight, when noted by historian William of Malmesbury in 1010, the monk Eilmer of Malmesbury flew a primitive hang glider from a tower. Eilmer flew over 180 metres before landing, thus by the time of the Norman invasion in 1066, Malmesbury was one of the most significant towns in England. It is listed first in the Wiltshire section of Domesday Book. King Henry I's chancellor, Roger of Salisbury, seized the monastery under his bishopric in 1118, held it for 20 years. Renowned as a great builder, he rebuilt the wooden town walls wholly in stone rather than wood, constructing Malmesbury Castle at the same time. By the Middle Ages, the north of the town was developed as a religious centre, resulting in the construction of the third Abbey on the site, the 12th century Malmesbury Abbey, which had a spire 7 metres taller than the 123 metres one of Salisbury Cathedral. In 1220 this resulted in the construction of the Abbey guest house, now The Old Bell hotel which claims to be the oldest hotel in England.
The Abbey's spire collapsed in either early 16th century. Under his English Reformation, King Henry VIII, sold the substantial land, but retaining a minor choice portion, to a local clothier William Stumpe; the extant part of the Abbey is now the parish church, with the remains containing a parvise which still holds some fine examples of books from the former Abbey library. Malmesbury natives can be nicknamed Jackdaws, originating from the avian colony of these that inhabit the Abbey walls and roof; the community was the ancient frontier of two kingdoms, with Tetbury 5 miles to the north in Mercia while Malmesbury was in the West Saxon Kingdom, resulting in centuries of animosity between the two towns. The location and defensive position of Malmesbury on the latterly important Oxford to Bristol route made it a strategic military point. During the 12th century civil war between Stephen of England and his cousin the Empress Matilda, the succession agreement between Stephen and Henry of Anjou was reached after their armies faced each other across the impassable River Avon at Malmesbury in the winter of 1153, with Stephen losing by refusing battle.
During the Civil War the town changed hands seven times, with the south face of Malmesbury Abbey still today bearing pock-marks from cannon and gunshot. In 1646 Parliament ordered; as peace came to inland England, the need to defend the developing coastal port towns became more important, without its Abbey, lost its importance. As developing transport and trade routes passed it by, it regressed to a regional market town. At the Battle of Brunanburh in 937, King Athelstan of Wessex defeated an army of northern English and Scots and made a claim to become the first'King of All England'. Helped by many men from Malmesbury, in gratitude he gave the townsfolk their freedom, along with 600 hides of land to the south of the town; the status of freemen of Malmesbury remains to this day. It is however, that the title of freeman, or commoner, was given to tradesmen and craftsmen coming into the town during the early Middle Ages, so the claim of direct lineage from the men who fought with King Athelstan to the present day commoners is unlikely, though possible.
Since at least the 17th century, the right has been only handed down from father to son or son-in-law. There is a maximum of 280 commoners; the organisation is said to be the'most exclusive club' in the world, as to enter it one has to be born to a freeman or marry the daughter of one
Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press is the largest university press in the world, the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press, they are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century; the Press is located on opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho. The Oxford University Press Museum is located on Oxford. Visits are led by a member of the archive staff. Displays include a 19th-century printing press, the OUP buildings, the printing and history of the Oxford Almanack, Alice in Wonderland and the Oxford English Dictionary; the university became involved in the print trade around 1480, grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, scholarly works. OUP took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work.
As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, journals, the World's Classics series, a range of English language teaching texts. Moves into international markets led to OUP opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York City in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and harsh trading conditions, the Press's printing house at Oxford was closed in 1989, its former paper mill at Wolvercote was demolished in 2004. By contracting out its printing and binding operations, the modern OUP publishes some 6,000 new titles around the world each year; the first printer associated with Oxford University was Theoderic Rood. A business associate of William Caxton, Rood seems to have brought his own wooden printing press to Oxford from Cologne as a speculative venture, to have worked in the city between around 1480 and 1483; the first book printed in Oxford, in 1478, an edition of Rufinus's Expositio in symbolum apostolorum, was printed by another, printer.
Famously, this was mis-dated in Roman numerals as "1468", thus pre-dating Caxton. Rood's printing included John Ankywyll's Compendium totius grammaticae, which set new standards for teaching of Latin grammar. After Rood, printing connected with the university remained sporadic for over half a century. Records or surviving work are few, Oxford did not put its printing on a firm footing until the 1580s. In response to constraints on printing outside London imposed by the Crown and the Stationers' Company, Oxford petitioned Elizabeth I of England for the formal right to operate a press at the university; the chancellor, Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, pleaded Oxford's case. Some royal assent was obtained, since the printer Joseph Barnes began work, a decree of Star Chamber noted the legal existence of a press at "the universitie of Oxforde" in 1586. Oxford's chancellor, Archbishop William Laud, consolidated the legal status of the university's printing in the 1630s. Laud envisaged a unified press of world repute.
Oxford would establish it on university property, govern its operations, employ its staff, determine its printed work, benefit from its proceeds. To that end, he petitioned Charles I for rights that would enable Oxford to compete with the Stationers' Company and the King's Printer, obtained a succession of royal grants to aid it; these were brought together in Oxford's "Great Charter" in 1636, which gave the university the right to print "all manner of books". Laud obtained the "privilege" from the Crown of printing the King James or Authorized Version of Scripture at Oxford; this "privilege" created substantial returns in the next 250 years, although it was held in abeyance. The Stationers' Company was alarmed by the threat to its trade and lost little time in establishing a "Covenant of Forbearance" with Oxford. Under this, the Stationers paid an annual rent for the university not to exercise its full printing rights – money Oxford used to purchase new printing equipment for smaller purposes.
Laud made progress with internal organization of the Press. Besides establishing the system of Delegates, he created the wide-ranging supervisory post of "Architypographus": an academic who would have responsibility for every function of the business, from print shop management to proofreading; the post was more an ideal than a workable reality, but it survived in the loosely structured Press until the 18th century. In practice, Oxford's Warehouse-Keeper dealt with sales and the hiring and firing of print shop staff. Laud's plans, hit terrible obstacles, both personal and political. Falling foul of political intrigue, he was executed in 1645, by which time the English Civil War had broken out. Oxford became a Royalist stronghold during the conflict, many printers in the city concentrated on producing political pamphlets or sermons; some outstanding mathematical and Orientalist works emerged at this time—notably, texts edited by Edward Pococke, the Regius Professor of Hebrew—but no university press on Laud's model was possible before the Restoration of the Monarchy in 1660.
It was established by the vice-chancellor, John Fell, Dean of Christ Church, Bishop of Oxford, Secretary to the Delegates. Fell regarded Laud as a martyr, was determined to honour his vision of the Press. Using the provisions of the Great Charter, Fell persuaded Oxford to refuse any further payments from the Stationers and drew
The Normans are an ethnic group that arose in Normandy, a northern region of France, from contact between indigenous Franks and Gallo-Romans, Norse Viking settlers. The settlements followed a series of raids on the French coast from Denmark and Iceland, they gained political legitimacy when the Viking leader Rollo agreed to swear fealty to King Charles III of West Francia; the distinct cultural and ethnic identity of the Normans emerged in the first half of the 10th century, it continued to evolve over the succeeding centuries. The Norman dynasty had a major political and military impact on medieval Europe and the Near East; the Normans were famed for their martial spirit and for their Catholic piety, becoming exponents of the Catholic orthodoxy of the Romance community into which they assimilated. They adopted the Gallo-Romance language of the Frankish land they settled, their dialect becoming known as Norman, Normaund or Norman French, an important literary language, still spoken today in parts of Normandy and the nearby Channel Islands.
The Duchy of Normandy, which they formed by treaty with the French crown, was a great fief of medieval France, under Richard I of Normandy was forged into a cohesive and formidable principality in feudal tenure. The Normans are noted both for their culture, such as their unique Romanesque architecture and musical traditions, for their significant military accomplishments and innovations. Norman adventurers played a role in founding the Kingdom of Sicily under Roger II after conquering southern Italy and Malta from the Saracens and Byzantines, during an expedition on behalf of their duke, William the Conqueror, which led to the Norman conquest of England at the historic Battle of Hastings in 1066. In the ninth century, the Normans captured Seville in Southern Spain, Norman and Anglo-Norman forces contributed to the Iberian Reconquista from the early eleventh to the mid-thirteenth centuries. Norman cultural and military influence spread from these new European centres to the Crusader states of the Near East, where their prince Bohemond I founded the Principality of Antioch in the Levant, to Scotland and Wales in Great Britain, to Ireland, to the coasts of north Africa and the Canary Islands.
The legacy of the Normans persists today through the regional languages and dialects of France, England and Sicily, as well as the various cultural and political arrangements they introduced in their conquered territories. The English name "Normans" comes from the French words Normans/Normanz, plural of Normant, modern French normand, itself borrowed from Old Low Franconian Nortmann "Northman" or directly from Old Norse Norðmaðr, Latinized variously as Nortmannus, Normannus, or Nordmannus to mean "Norseman, Viking"; the 11th century Benedictine monk and historian, Goffredo Malaterra, characterised the Normans thus: Specially marked by cunning, despising their own inheritance in the hope of winning a greater, eager after both gain and dominion, given to imitation of all kinds, holding a certain mean between lavishness and greediness, uniting, as they did, these two opposite qualities. Their chief men were specially lavish through their desire of good report, they were, moreover, a race skillful in flattery, given to the study of eloquence, so that the boys were orators, a race altogether unbridled unless held down by the yoke of justice.
They were enduring of toil and cold whenever fortune laid it on them, given to hunting and hawking, delighting in the pleasure of horses, of all the weapons and garb of war. In the course of the 10th century, the destructive incursions of Norse war bands going upstream into the rivers of France penetrated further into interior Europe, evolved into more permanent encampments that included local French women and personal property; the Duchy of Normandy, which began in 911 as a fiefdom, was established by the treaty of Saint-Clair-sur-Epte between King Charles III of West Francia and the famed Viking ruler Rollo known as Gaange Rolf, from Scandinavia, was situated in the former Frankish kingdom of Neustria. The treaty offered Rollo and his men the French coastal lands along the English Channel between the river Epte and the Atlantic Ocean coast in exchange for their protection against further Viking incursions; as well as granting to protect the area of Rouen from Viking invasion, Rollo had to swear not to invade further Frankish lands himself, accept baptism and conversion to the Roman Catholic faith of Christianity becoming Christian and swear fealty to King Charles III.
He became the first Duke of Count of Rouen. The area corresponded to the northern part of present-day Upper Normandy down to the river Seine, but the Duchy would extend west beyond the Seine; the territory was equivalent to the old province of Rouen, reproduced the old Roman Empire's administrative structure of Gallia Lugdunensis II. Before Rollo's arrival, Normandy's populations did not differ from Picardy or the Île-de-France, which were considered "Frankish". Earlier Viking settlers had begun arriving in the 880s, but were divided between colonies in the east around the low Seine valley and in the west in the Cotentin Peninsula, were separated by traditional pagii, where the population remained about the same with no foreign settlers. Rollo's contingents from Scandinavia who raided and settled Normandy and parts of the European Atlantic coast included Danes, Norse–Gaels, Orkney Vikings, p