Willows called sallows and osiers, form the genus Salix, around 400 species of deciduous trees and shrubs, found on moist soils in cold and temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Most species are known as willow, but some narrow-leaved shrub species are called osier, some broader-leaved species are referred to as sallow; some willows are creeping shrubs. Willows all have abundant watery bark sap, charged with salicylic acid, soft pliant, tough wood, slender branches, large, fibrous stoloniferous roots; the roots are remarkable for their toughness and tenacity to live, roots sprout from aerial parts of the plant. The leaves are elongated, but may be round to oval with serrated edges. Most species are deciduous. All the buds are lateral; the buds are covered by a single scale. The bud scale is fused into a cap-like shape, but in some species it wraps around and the edges overlap; the leaves are simple, feather-veined, linear-lanceolate. They are serrate, rounded at base, acute or acuminate; the leaf petioles are short, the stipules very conspicuous, resembling tiny, round leaves, sometimes remaining for half the summer.

On some species, they are small and caducous. In color, the leaves show a great variety of greens. Willows are among the earliest woody plants to leaf out in spring and the last to drop their leaves in autumn. Leafout may occur as early as February depending on the climate and is stimulated by air temperature. If daytime highs reach 55 °F for a few consecutive days, a willow will attempt to put out leaves and flowers. Leaf drop in autumn occurs when day length shortens to ten hours and 25 minutes, which varies by latitude. Willows are dioecious, with male and female flowers appearing as catkins on separate plants; the staminate flowers are without either calyx with corolla. This scale is square and hairy; the anthers are orange or purple after the flower opens. The filaments are threadlike pale brown, bald; the pistillate flowers are without calyx or corolla, consist of a single ovary accompanied by a small, flat nectar gland and inserted on the base of a scale, borne on the rachis of a catkin. The ovary is one-celled, the style two-lobed, the ovules numerous.

All willows take root readily from cuttings or where broken branches lie on the ground. The few exceptions include the goat peachleaf willow. One famous example of such growth from cuttings involves the poet Alexander Pope, who begged a twig from a parcel tied with twigs sent from Spain to Lady Suffolk; this twig was planted and thrived, legend has it that all of England's weeping willows are descended from this first one. Willows are planted on the borders of streams so their interlacing roots may protect the bank against the action of the water; the roots are much larger than the stem which grows from them. Willows have a wide natural distribution from the tropics to the arctic zones and are extensively cultivated around the world. Willows are cross-compatible, numerous hybrids occur, both and in cultivation. A well-known ornamental example is the weeping willow, a hybrid of Peking willow from China and white willow from Europe; the hybrid cultivar'Boydii' has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Numerous cultivars of Salix L. have been named over the centuries. New selections of cultivars with superior technical and ornamental characteristics have been chosen deliberately and applied to various purposes. Most Salix has become an important source for bioenergy production and for various ecosystem services; the first edition of the Checklist for Cultivars of Salix L. was compiled in 2015, which includes 854 cultivar epithets with accompanying information. The International Poplar Commission of the FAO UN holds the International Cultivar Registration Authority for the genus Salix; the ICRA for Salix produces and maintains The International Register of Cultivars of Salix L.. Willows are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, such as the mourning cloak butterfly. Ants, such as wood ants, are common on willows inhabited by aphids, coming to collect aphid honeydew, as sometimes do wasps. A small number of willow species were planted in Australia, notably as erosion-control measures along watercourses.

They are now regarded as invasive weeds which occupy extensive areas across southern Australia and are considered'Weeds of National Significance'. Many catchment management authoritie

Eulithidium thalassicola

Eulithidium thalassicola, common name the turtle grass pheasant shell, is a species of sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusk in the family Phasianellidae. The height of the shell varies between 7.1 mm. This species occurs in the Gulf of the Caribbean Sea and the Lesser Antilles. D'Orbigny, A. 1842. Mollusques. Histoire Physique, Politique et Naturelle de l'île de Cuba 2: 1-112, pls. 10-21?. Arthus Bertrand: Paris. Robertson, R. 1958. The family Phasianellidae in the Western Atlantic. Johnsonia 3: 245-283. Turgeon, D. D. et al. 1998. Common and scientific names of aquatic invertebrates of the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society Special Publication 26 page: 59 Rosenberg, G. F. Moretzsohn, E. F. García. 2009. Gastropoda of the Gulf of Mexico, Pp. 579–699 in Felder, D. L. and D. K. Camp, Gulf of Mexico–Origins and Biota. Biodiversity. Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas. "Eulithidium thalassicola". Retrieved 16 January 2019

The Wizard of Oz (1982 film)

The Wizard of Oz is a 1982 anime feature film directed by Fumihiko Takayama, from a screenplay by Yoshimitsu Banno and Akira Miyazaki, based on the 1900 children's novel by L. Frank Baum, produced by Yoshimitsu Banno and Katsumi Ueno for Toho Co. Ltd; the film was shown at the Cannes Film Festival, but did not have a regular run in U. S. theatres. In the 1980s, a re-edited version of the film was released in Czechoslovakia; the film was dubbed into the Slovak language except for the songs, which were performed by Japanese singers. Some other foreign dubs, such as the Italian and Greek versions, had this premise edit as well; the film is known for staying close to the novel, its primary elimination being the journey to Glinda, only now less of a deus ex machina than in the MGM version. Borrowed from that version are the red "magic shoes" rather than the silver shoes of Baum's text; some familiarity with the books is clear, as the houses are the same two-chimneyed domes found in the artwork of John R. Neill, who never illustrated the first Oz book.

It is one of the rare films to depict the various forms the Wizard appears to each of the travelers, such as the Beautiful-Winged Lady, the Terrible Beast and the Ball of Fire. Unlike most Japanese animated movies, it was first released in the United States; the English version of this film, edited by Johann Lowenberg and produced and directed by John Danylkiw, appeared on television in the United States in 1982. Alan L. Gleitsman was the executive producer of Alan Enterprises, which did the English dub for the North American release. New Hope Entertainment was involved in producing the English-dubbed version, it was distributed in English-speaking countries and territories, including the United States and Canada, by Alan Enterprises. Paramount Home Video released the English dubbed version on VHS, Laserdisc, CED in the 1980s and on VHS in 1991. Although this movie is in no way related to the 1986 anime television series produced by Panmedia outside of having the same source material, the fact that the movie was released in Japan in the same year that the TV series was first broadcast sometimes leads to the two works being confused.

But despite that however, some information say that this film was originally released in Japan in 1982 and in North America on, in 1983 for television, considering that the Japanese dialogue was recorded first, but might have been either released on that same year, or delayed until 1986. The music was written by Yuichiro Oda; the Lyrics were written by Keisuke Yamakawa. "Someone is waiting for me"? "What is 1+1?" The English dubbed version featured new different lyrics by Allen Byrns. "It's Strictly Up to You" "I Dream of Home" "A Wizard of a Day" The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, a 1986 Japanese anime adaptation of Oz The Wizard of Oz adaptations — other adaptations of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz The Wizard of Oz on IMDb Ozu No Mahôtsukai at The Big Cartoon DataBase Review at Anime News Network, June 17 2003